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How Things Work

by: Ubaldo Jacobson

How Things Work PHYS 1060

Ubaldo Jacobson
GPA 3.93

Gordon Cates Jr

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Gordon Cates Jr
Class Notes
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ubaldo Jacobson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1060 at University of Virginia taught by Gordon Cates Jr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see /class/209750/phys-1060-university-of-virginia in Physics 2 at University of Virginia.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
How Things Wor39k II Lec rur e 34 39 39 b a Ins iruc ror Gordon D Cafes Office Physics 106a Phone 434 924 4792 email cafestirginiaedu Course web site available Through COD and Toolkit or m I I J April 16 2008 AnnouncemenTs Problem Se r 5 is pos red and is due Tuesday April 22 Final exam will be Thursday May ls r from 912AM We will begin covering material from The second sec rion of Chap rer 16 on Friday Office hours on Friday and nex r week de rails To follow Types of humani nduced nucler ThaT produce energy Fission reacTions wiTh uranium or pluTonium Involves nuclei absorbing a neuTron and Subsequenle SpliTTing inTo TWo nuclei while simultaneously releasing one or more neuTronS The only Type of reacTion used for peaceTime applicaTionS Such as The producTion of elecTriciTy The only Type of reacTion used in a weapon by americanS unTil November IST 1952 Fusion reacTions Involves The fusing of Two nuclei Such as deuTerium and TriTium boTh isoTopes of hydrogen inTo a single large nucleus Such aS Helium4 ofTen wiTh The release of a neuTron Used in socalled hydrogen bombs To TremendouSly enhance The yield May in The fuTure provide a plenTiful new source of nuclear energy wiTh poTenTial advanTageS over fission baSed power 05 MeV The Cuulomblc Bavrisr Potential I Imemuclear 0 4He 35 MeV n 141 MeV In a fusion reacTion Two lighT nuclei such as deuTer ium and Tr39iTium are broughT close enough ThaT They fuse To form a heavier nucleus To bring Them so close however you musT overcome sTr ong coulombic repulsion The only way To do This pracTically is To raise The TemperaTur39e of The reacTanTs To around 100000000 Kelvin e7 Fissmn Fusion 0 E o g u a a u 9 a a m E u 2 n a a E g lt Number cl nucleons in nucleus The binding energy per nucleon becomes larger wiTh The size of The nucleus for smaller mass numbers This is because larger nuclei have a smaller surface To volume raTio The sTrong force can affecT more nucleons As The nuclei grow in size you hiT a poinT where The nuclei aT opposiTe sides of The nucleus don39T see each oTher via The sTrong force This and oTher effecTs causes nuclei To be bound less Tigthy Fission and fusion provide reacTions ThaT allow nuclei To reacT and become more sTable A fission bomb was used To produce r39adiaTion The r39adiaTion in Turrn explosively vaporizes The polyeThylene liner39 of The device The explosively expanding liner39 causes The conTainer39 of liquid deuTer39ium To implode As The TemperaTur39e and densiTy become sufficienle high fusion r39eacTions occur39 a fissionbased core in The middle fur39Ther39 enhances The Thermonuclear burn The firsT US Thermonuclear device TesT The Mike ShoT yielded The equivalenT of around 10 MegaTons of TNT roughly 666 Times more yield Than LiTTle Boy and 500 Times higher yield Than FaT Man TH er mohuolea r We dpb j s39 on Fission lrigger Chemical explosive Fllii ll device Beryllium Miriam23 Uranium238 or 235 Lillrirrrn deuleride illslon luel ranlum235 urinlurnZall use Deule umlrlllum Fun 7 Imam 39 MIRV length 51 leel MIRV base diameier ia leel Explos39ivqmw xannlonuionsimm Thermonucleor weapons derive much of Their power not from fission but from fusion reocfions in which for insfonce frifium and deuterium fuse To form helium and liberofe o neufron The de rona rion of Fa r Man over39 Nagasaki Fa Man was defona red over Nagasaki on August 9 1945 ulfima l ely killing roughly 140000 people The reach of various for various yields altitude optimized for 20 psi overpressure Yield W 1kT 125 kT 500 kT 1 MT 10quot MT Optimal I y y 600 ft 1392 ft 4762 ft 6000 ft 12927 ft burst height Diameter of 0136 m 0374 m 1636 m 2159 m 5423 ml Fireball Diameter for 0345 m 0800 m 2736 m 3447 m 7426 ml 20 SI Diameter for 4 psi 0871 m 2022 m 6915 m 8712 ml 18769 W olt W04 olt W13 olt W13 Temperature at edge of fireball at maximum diameter is several thousand degrees C Steel reinforced concrete suffers severe damage around 20 psi max overpressure Wooden framed houses are pretty much destroyed around 4 psi max overpressure Using fission in a conTrolled fashion To produce energy QuesTion In a wors r case scenario can a nuclear power plan r blow up wiTh a similar yield To a nuclear weapon A Yes B No C No bu r i r migh r reach 10 of a nuclear weapon The COPE OT 0 nuclear PZOCTOIquot 39 Enriched uranium pelleTs are loaded inTo fuel rodsquot 39 The fuel rods are surrounded by a moderaTor ThaT slows The neuTrons down aTTer They are emiTTed This greale increases The probabiliTy ThaT They are capTure 39 NeuTron absorbing conTrol rodsquot are inserTed or wiThdrawn To keep The reacTor aT 39 Time scales are much slower 39 Typically as The reacTor becomes hoTTer reacTions become suppressed The core of a research reac l or a North Carolina State The blue light is Cerenkw39 nedieiion ihei nesuiis when peniieies moving quotfasterquot ihen ihe speed of light inevei through ihe weien ihei is being used as u modeneion quotTE i Temperature at edge of fireball at maximum diameter is several thousand degrees c 39 J J r 39mux overpressure Wooden framed houses are pretty much destroyed around 4 psi max overpressure Mike Timmins39 Nuclear Reactor Video Game 5 Z 5 at HUM 11 9211339 a 93Np239 3 1 91 V 7 Pu q 3 1 MosT reacTors use uranium ThaT is enriched aT The several percenT level So if The uranium is enriched To 3 U235 ThaT means ThaT 97 of The uranium is U238 In The normal course of operaTing The reacTor some fracTion of The U238 will capTure neuTrons and become Transformed inTo pluTonium239 If The fuel rods are processedThe Pu239 can be exTracTed and purified and added To new fuel ro s 39 The Technology exisTs To enhance This process in so called breeder reacTors Using breeding in one form or anofher The 99301 uranium Thai is NOT fissionuble can be converfed info PLI239 A quad is a Llrlii of energy equal To 1055 gtlt1O1E J In 2002 The world energy use amounted To abouf 411 Quads The Pros and Cons on nuclear energy Pros No direcT emission of greenhouse gases Depending on The Technology used ie breeding There is anywhere from a very large To a Truly huge amounT of energy available The Technology is quiTe maTure PoTenTial Cons AccidenTs can release large amounTs of radioacTiviTy The wasTe musT be sTored safely ProliferaTion of maTerials ThaT can be used To make nuclear weapons ReacTors could be The TargeTs of TerrorisT aTTacks


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