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## How Things Work

by: Ubaldo Jacobson

13

0

3

# How Things Work PHYS 1050

Ubaldo Jacobson
UVA
GPA 3.93

Staff

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COURSE
PROF.
Staff
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Physics 2

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ubaldo Jacobson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 1050 at University of Virginia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/209764/phys-1050-university-of-virginia in Physics 2 at University of Virginia.

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Date Created: 09/21/15
Important dates I Monday November 29 100pm Term paper topic due optional Monday December 6 100pm Term paper due Wednesday December 15 900am 1200noon Final exam Machines 0 Air conditioners 7 use ordered energy to cause heat to ow against its preferred direction 0 Automobiles 7 use thermal energy to do Work Thermodynamics Study of the rules governing the movement of thermal energy Study of the relationship between thermal energy and mechanical work Study of the relationship between disordered energy and ordered energy 03911 Law 0 Thermal equilibrium If two obj ects are in thermal equilibrium with a third object then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other 1St Law 0 Conservation of energy Change in internal energy Heat in Work out 1St Law 0 Internal energy thermal energy stored potential energy 0 Heat in heat transferred into the obj ect 0 Work out work done by the object on is surroundings Order versus Disorder Ordered energy can easily be converted into thermal disordered energy Converting thermal energy into ordered energy is har Entropy Entropy is a measure of an objecm disor er Includes thermal disorder and structural disorder Disorder of an isolated system never decreases Can move entropy around 2rld Law 0 Disorder Entropy Entropy of a thermally isolated system never decreases 3rd Law 0 Entropy and Temperature An object s entropy approaches zero as is temperature approaches absolute zero Entropy Entropy of a thermally isolated system never decreases secon law Entropy can be redistributed within the system 7 One part of a system can become hotter While another becomes colder Natural heat ow 0 Heat naturally ows from hot to cold 7 Remove heat from hot obj ect entropy decreases 7 Add heat to cold object entropy increases 0 Entropy of combined system doesn t decrease it increases A given quantity of heat is more disordering to a cold object than to ahot object Unnatural heat ow 0 Can heat naturally ow from cold to hot 7 Remove heat from cold object entropy decreases 7 Add heat to hot object entropy increases but by less 0 Energy is conserved but entropy decreases 7 To keep from violating the 2m1 law extm entropy must be added Conversion of ordered energy into disordered ener is required Air conditioner 0 Moves heat against is preferred direction 7 From cold room to hot outside air 0 Uses uid to transfer heat working uid 7 Fluid absorbs heat from cool room air 7 Fluid releases heat to Warm outside air Air conditioner Evaporator inside 7 heat tmnsferred from room to uid 0 Condenser outside 7 heat transferred to outside air from uid 0 Compressor oumide 7 does Work on uid adds entropy Evaporator 0 Long metal pipe 0 Fluid approaches evaporator as a 7 high pressure liquid 7 near room tempemture Fluid passes through a constriction 7 pres sure drops 7 enters evaporator as a loW pressure liquid Evaporator 0 Working uid enters evaporator as a low pressure liquid 7 begins to evaporate 7 breaking bonds takes energy thermal energy 7 uid gets cold 7 heat ows from room into uid 0 Working uid leaves evaporator as a low pressure gas 0 Heat has been removed from the room Compressor Working fluid enters compressor as a low pressure gas Compressor does work on fluid compresses 1t 7 pushes gas inward as the gas moves inward 7 gas heats up first law 7 ordered energy is converted to disordered Fluid leaves compressor as a hot high pressure gas

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