New Course in Environmental Science
New Course in Environmental Science EVSC 2559
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Domingo Cruickshank on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EVSC 2559 at University of Virginia taught by Thomas Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/209784/evsc-2559-university-of-virginia in Environmental Science at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
EVSC 2559 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 14 Herbs and Spices I Herbaceous plant 0 a plant that has leaves and stems that die at the end of the growing season to the soil level A herbaceous plant may be annual biennial or perennial Herb 0 variety of uses the green leafy part of the plant is often used but herbal medicine make use of the roots owers seeds root bark inner bark berries and sometimes the pericarp or other portions Spice 0 no botanical de nition It is loosely applied to an assortment of dried seeds berries bark root fruits or other parts of the plant even leaves in some cases useful for the scents or avors Essential oilsvolatile compounds 0 Scents of aromatic plants 0 Volatile substance that contribute to the essence or aroma of certain species 0 Found in specialized cells glands or vessels that can occur in any or all parts of a plant Secondary plant compounds 0 Compounds that occur in plants but are not critical for the plants basic metabolic function Role of secondary compounds in pollination and herbivore defense 0 Attract pollinators but the function of other essential oils in different plant parts has been debated 0 Others have been associated with plant defense against herbivores either functioning to either deter the consumption Black pepper 0 Most widely used spice today 0 Type of plant climbing vine 0 Type of fruit drupes 0 Origin and environment native to India and the east indies Thrives in hot wet climate 0 Part of plant from which peppercorns are derived fruit drupes Difference between white and black pepper 0 White pepper consist of the seed only with the fruit removed Made from ripe drupes run in water for 12 weeks White pepper is milder and lacks pungency 0 Black pepper is produced from the fermented sun dried unripe drupes picked green and allowed to dry and turn black Nutmeg tree Myristicafragrans 0 Type of plant Tree 0 dioecious male and female trees pistillate female bear the fruit 0 Origin native to spice islands 0 Type of fruit apricot like fruit drupe 0 Part of plant from which nutmeg and mace are derived I Nutmeg Ground endoca1p Clove tree Eugenia caryophyllata 0 Type of plant evergreen tree 0 Origin and environment Indonesia tropical 0 Part of plant that is used as spice unopened ower buds 0 Major use 7 kretek cloves mixed with tobacco for cigarettes Cinnamon Cinnamomum zeylanicum 0 Type of plant evergreen tree 0 Origin and environment Native to India and Sri Lanka grows under wet tropical conditions 0 Part of plant that is used as spice bark 0 Difference between cinnamon and cassia cinnamon is only the inner bark while cassia is the entire bark Saffron Crocus sativus 0 Type of plant Flower in the Iris Family 0 Origin and environment Native to E Mediterranean and asia minor 0 Part of plant that is used as spice stigma of the ower Vanilla Vanilla planifolia 0 Type of plant Member of the Orchid family perennial vine Origin native to tropical rainforest of central America and mexico Part ofplant that is used as spice Pods Process of extracting spice slowly dried which is what develops the avor o o o o Vanillin pure vanilla extract Allspice Pimenta dioica 0 Type of plant evergreen tree 0 Origin and environment new world spice discovered by Spanish explorers 0 Part of plant that is used as spice berries fruit EVSC 2559 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 15 Herbs and Spices II Capsicum peppers 0 Type of plant small bushy herbaceous annual 0 Place of origin tropical America 0 single genus in the tomato family Solanaceae all belong to this genus 0 part of plant that is used as spiceherb fruits o Capsicum anmmm I small bushy herbaceous annual I includes Bell pepper sweet pepper and Jalape o o Capsicum frutescens I cultivated mainly in the tropics and warm temperate I Tabasco pepper 7 used to make Tabasco sauce 0 Capsaicin found mainly in the seeds and placental area 0 Scoville Organoleptic Test method for testing hotness Sweet pepper has a value of 0 while Habaneros200000 value amount of dilution required genus Allium Lily family 0 place of origin central asia o volatile sulfur compounds that give Allium their pungent avor o biennial Onions Allium cepa 0 type of plantherbaceous biennial grown for a single large bulb 0 part ofplant used as herb bulb Garlic Allium sativum 0 type of plant herbaceous biennial 0 part ofplant that is used as herb bulb Leeks Allium pormm 0 type of plant 0 part ofplant that is used as herb bulb Shallots Allium ascaltmicum 0 type of plant cluster of offsets 0 part ofplant that is used as herb bulbs Chives Allium sch oenoprasum 0 part ofplant used as herb leaves Ramp wild leek native to Eastern North America Ginger Z ingiber of cinale 0 Type of plant monocot perinneal 0 Place of origin China 0 part of plant that is used as spiceherb horizontal subterranean stems Mint family Lamiaceae source of many important and familiar herbs including Spearmint peppermint o perennial herbs oregano 0 Egyptian Greeks and roman s Rosemary o Woody perennial herb fragrant evergreen needlelike leaves sweet basil 0 Type of plant for each 0 General area of origindiversity for the mint family Mediterranean 0 Part of plant that is used as herb for each Coriander Coriandrum sativum 0 Type of plant annual herb in the parsley family 0 Place of Origin SW Asia to N Africa 0 Parts ofplant used as herbspice fresh leaves and dried seeds Cumin Cuminum cyminum 0 Type of plant herbaceous annual 0 Place of OriginMediterranean to East India 0 Parts ofplant used as herbspice seeds Mustard Brassica nigra and Brassica alba 0 Type of plant annual 0 Place of Origin Europe and western Asia 0 Parts ofplant used as herbspice seeds Curry powder developed by british o Blend of spices and herbs Italian herbs seasoning miX of herbs like basil oregano Majoram sage and parsley Bouquet garni bundle of herbs tied together boiled in soup stock and stews then removed after cooking EVSC 2559 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 16 Stimulating Beverages Caffeine central nervous system stimulant and a mild diuretic Reaches the bloodstream within 5 minutes of being swallowed Increased alertness because it mimics the feelings produces with the body releases the hormone adrenaline 0 Excess doses however caffeine can produce unpleasant symptoms 0 Heavy drinkers can develop a tolerance to caffeine and can even suffer withdrawal symptoms when they cease Coffee Cuffed arabica Place of origin and environment for growth Native to Eastern AfricaEthiopia 0 Seeds were boiled to prevent planting in other countries 0 Midto Equitorial Regions 0 Cannot tolerate sustained freezing temperatures cultivation is restricted to tropical and subtropical latitudes 0 Can grow in open or shaded orchards Cuffed caneph 0m 7 o robusta coffee source of 25 of worlds coffee Cuffed liberica 7 o Liberian coffee source of l Type of plant 0 Self fertilizing and selfcompatible Arabica where the other two are not 0 Small tress with ossy leaves and fragrant jasminelike white owers produce in the leaf aXils o Fruist take 7 to 9 months to mature Type of fruit comes from an inferior ovary is an accessory berry called a 0 Cherry accessory fruit 0 a tough outer layer composed of the oral cup and exocarp the eshy mesocarp and the fibrous endocarp or parchment Fruit structure 0 two seeds pressed together in such a way that the inner side of each one is attened Coffee bean 7 part of fruit 0 Each seed commonly called a bean is surround by a thin silvery seed coat The seed itself is composed mostly of endosperm surround a small curved embryo berries ripen sequentially on branches 0 only a few can be picked at a time and cannot be harvested mechanically Multistep process involved in preparation of beans 0 l Flesh is removed Either a dry or wet process can be used to remove the outer parts of the fruit IN the dry process the fresh fruit are dried in the sun and the pericarp is subsequently rasped away 0 2 In the wet process the fresh fruit are depulped by a machine and the seeds are washed The wet seeds are then allowed to ferment for 12 to 23 hours This fermentation is not the same process that is involved in the production of alcohol but rather refers to the chemical change in the bean 0 When the fermentation is nished the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove the fermentation residue generating massinve amounts of highly polluted coffee wastewater Finally the seeds are dried by being turned in the sun for at least a week Any remaining endocarp and the seed coat are removed mechanically o Beans are usually graded before shipping Grading is typically by hand individuals picking out and discarding cracked diseased or discolored beans 0 The next step is roasting the green coffee Green beans Process of roasting o Roasting is done in cylinders that simultaneously tumble and heat the seeds 0 The actual roasting begins when the temp inside the bean reaches 200 degrees C though different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different temps During roasting caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starched within the bean changing them from green to brown Sucrose is rapidly lost during the roasting process How does the degree time and temperature of roasting in uence the character of the final product roasted bean 0 During roasting aromatic oils caffeine weakens changing the avor of the coffee 0 The roasting process in uences the taste of the beverage by changing the bean both physically and chemically Decaffeinated coffees 0 Two ways caffeine is removed solvent and water extraction 0 Water is more expensive because it cannot be sold as a product Tea Camellia sinensis Type of plant 0 Small evergreen trees obtained today through root cuttings but can be propogated by seeds Place of origin 0 China Part of plant that is used to produce tea 0 For f1ne teas only the two or three youngest leaves and the terminal bud of each branch are picked That parts contain the highest quantity of caffeine Differences in the production of green and black tea 0 Green tea the leaves are usually steamed for 45 to 60 seconds and then dried and rolled to a 90 degree to 110 degree c for about 45 minutes then rolled without heat for another 25 minutes and are finally dried and pressed at 50 to 60 degree c for an additional half hour 0 Constitutes about 20 of all tea produced Black tea is more complex than that of green tea and produces a final product that is more complex in avor See Slide for process o Cacao Theobroma cacao 0 Place of origin and type of environment new world plant native to south central america 0 Type of plant small tress propagated by seeds or cutting Naturally grow as understory trees 0 Unusually nature of ower position location on plant bear owers directly on the trunks and branches rather than in leaf aXils or on branch tips owers are produced twice a year 0 Type of fruit mature in about 3 months Grow pods anywhere from 1030 cm in length pods are picked by hand and cracked open and the seeds and pulp are scraped from the husks 0 Structure of fruit 0 Part of fruit used to derive cacao for making beverage 0 Processing go through fermentation pulp around the seeds ferment and form alcohol and acetic acid Fermentation gives the seeds that avor and aroma of chocolate Seeds are polished after being dried The seeds are roasted Once roasted the seeds are cracked to release the large cotyledons o Nibs the cotyledons left after roasting and separation from the seed coats it is the part of the fruit that chocolate is actually obtained Ground into a fine paste by a 0 Chocolate liquor EVSC 2559 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 17 Alcoholic Beverages Process of fermentation biological process in which sugars are converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide Ethanol anaerobic process Saccharomyces 7 yeasts Constraints on process of fermentation by Saccharomyces Cannot make their own food so must convert Sugars into alcohol As well they can only tolerate a certain amount of alcohol Mead Definition fermented solution of honey and water Process of production made by boiling a solution of honey to which amino acids and some herbs are added Fermentation takes 6 to 8 weeks Wine Definition fermented fruit juice Vitis vim39fera 7 European species of grape Original region of domestication western asia Type of plant vine that produce berries Process of wine making grapes are harvested then crushed pressed and fermented Must occurs when wines are fermented at temps below 1015 degrees Celsius Difference in production of red rose and white wines I White wine free juice is run into fermentation tanks Crushed pressed then fermented Red wine skins go in to the fermentation vat with the juice Color comes from the skin pigments Rose is made from limited contact with the skins during the process Difference in the production of sweet and dry Wines 0 Dry when fermentation is complete when there is no more residual sugars 0 Sweet wine the wine maker must interrupt fermentation while there is still sugars present by lowering the temperature filtering the wine of yeast or adding sulfur dioxide to inhibit the yeast Lees dead yeast cells that settle to the bottom of the tanks Racking when the wine is transferred across a series of tanks during aging to remove sediment Production of sparkling wine a result of excess carbon dioxide bubbles from secondary fermentation in the bottle Varietal when Pinot Noir Chardonnay or merlot are used as a predominant grade 7580 Blended wine blend of several grape varieties of the same vintage Vintage year when grapes were produced Beer Definition Definition fermented grain Process of beermaking brewing can be made from any starchy carbohydrate mainly barley Malt dried germinated grain Barley grains are moistened with water spread out on the malting oor Grains are then dried and crushed Adjuncts grain starch Mash Adjuncts and water heated in a mash turn Wort mash is strained producing clear amber liquid Hops H umulus lupulus Wort is boiled with hops hops yellowgreen pistillate owers Topfermentation vs bottomfermentation 0 Top process at room temperature the yeast rises to the top of the tank as the process continues forming a frothy mass 0 Bottom occurs as low fermentation temperatures Ale and lager o Ale produced using the topfermenting yeast o Lager can be classi ed into two types I Pilsner Lager with strong hop component I Munich less hops less bitter EVSC 2559 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 18 Alcoholic Beverages II and Sugar 0 Process of distillation the process by which a mixture of substances is separated by their different boiling points 0 Differences in the production of the following distilled plant products 0 Brandy and forti ed wines I Brandy usually 4060 ethyl alcohol by volume Can also be made from grape pomace or fermented fruit juice I Forti ed wine additional alcohol has been added most common being brandy o Whiskey broad category of alcoholic beverages that are distilled from fermented grain mash and aged in wooden casks All are made in essentially the same way by fermenting and distilling the product Difference lies in the kinds of grains places and length of aging and presence or absence of blending I Scotch made from malted barley Taste is a result of kilning the malt over res fueled by peat Sour mash process in the distilling industry similar to the making of sourdough bread The sour mash process is done to improve the consistency and quality of the liquor So that every bottle taste as close to the same as possible 0 Bourbon American form of whiskey at least 51 corn Distilled to no more than 160 proof Aged in oak barrels for at least 2 years Tennessee Whiskey American whiskey similar to that of bourbon except it is aged for 4 or more years Unlike bourbon undergoes ltering 0 Gin a grain spirit avored with juniper berries Vodka clear liquid containing water ethanol puri ed by distillation Usually 3550 alcohol by volume 0 Tequila spirit made in the area surrounding tequila in meXico I blue agave native to meXico The heart which looks like a large pineapple or pine cone is used It is cooked usually 3840 alcohol content 0