New Course in Environmental Science
New Course in Environmental Science EVSC 2559
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Popular in Environmental Science
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Domingo Cruickshank on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EVSC 2559 at University of Virginia taught by Thomas Smith in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/209784/evsc-2559-university-of-virginia in Environmental Science at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
EVSC 220 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 2 83007 Taxonomic Classi cation 0 Plants 0 Fungi 0 Animals 0 Protista o Monera Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Functional Classi cation of Plants 0 Nonvascular plants lack a specialized conducting vascular system 0 Vascular plants have a vascular system Germination the development of a seed from its embryonic form to the birth of a new plant Angiosperms and Gymnosperms o Angiosperms owering plants seeds enclosed in a fruit 0 Gymnosperms plants that lack owers but produce seeds naked seeds Monocotyledons monocots and dicotyledons dicots o Monocots one cotyledon or embryonic leaf cotyledon stays below ground when the seed germinates o Dicots contain two cotyledons that emerge above ground during germination rst photosynthetic leaves Annuals biennials and perennials o Annuals completes its life cycle in 1 year 0 Biennial requires all or pat of 2 years to complete its life cycle 0 First season it produces vegetative structures and food storage organs second season it seeds owers and fruits o Perennial plants live more than two years Herbaceous plants 0 A plant that has leaves and stems that die at the end of the growing season to the soil level Can be an annual biennial or perennial Grasses and forbs 0 Grass Monocotyledonous green plant or used to describe a plant that has a similar appearance 0 Forb a owering plant with a nonwoody stem that is not a grass Woody plants 0 Nonherbaceous perennial plants which have stems above ground that remain alive during winter and grow shoots the next year from the above ground parts Trees shrubs and vines 0 Tree a large perennial woody plant larger than a shrub At least 5 6 m high and secondary branches supported by a main stem 0 Shrub multiple stems and lower height less than 56 In Large number of plants can be either shrubs or trees depending on the growing conditions 0 Vine any climbing or trailing plant Plant Cell Structure Plasma or cell membrane a exible thin layer surrounding a small mass of jellylike living material called the cytoplasm Cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane Nucleus contains genetic material Organelles chloroplasts and mitochondria Chloroplast photosynthesis is carried out by these 0 Mitochondria breakdown carbs and sugar to produce ATP during respiration Plant tissue group of cells with a specialized function Dermal vascular xylem and phloem and ground 0 Dermal tissue outer protective layer 0 Vascular tissue consist of phloem and xylem which form a vascular system throughout the plant Conducts water and solutes Ground Tissue serves a diversity of functions including the production and storage of food packing and support Root and Shoot system 0 Primary root 0 Lateral Root 0 Root Tip Roots Radicle the embryonic root that extends by the division and elongation of cells to form the primary root Taproot and brous roots 0 Taproot have one large mainroot with small lateral branch roots 0 Fibrous roots high branched and lack a central main root Structure of root system meristem root tip root hairs vascular tissue etc o Meristem at the tip and manufactures new cells its an area of cell division and growth 0 Root tip 0 Root Hairs small elongated epidermal cells that increase surface area Modified roots Storage roots roots are enlarged and store large quantities of starch and toher carbohydrates which may be used later for growth Adventitious roots originate on leaves and stems absorbs water and nutrients but also provide support for the plant in the soil Pneumatophores in mangrove small adventitious roots stick up from the mud they absorb oxygen and increase its availability to the submerged roots Stems provide a framework that bears branches or leaves Also carry nutrients to and from the leaves Structure of shoot system Node and intemode the stem is divided into nodes and internodes the nodes hold buds which grow into one or more leaves owers cones or other stems The intemodes act as spaces that distance one node from another Modi ed stems Tendrils in veins tendrils aid in hold the plant to a supporting structure Stolons runners aboveground horizontal stems At each node one the stolon a root and bud will sprout to initiate a new plant Rhizomes underground stems just below the surface containing nodes and intemodes which produce small nonphotosynthetic leaves which can sprout a new plant Tubers enlarged terminal portions of underground rhizomes Corm and bulb Corm Short thickened underground stem with thin papery leaves 0 Bulb shot stem with a terminal bud at one end Leaves primary photosynthetic organs of plants serving as key sutes where energy from light is converted into chemical energy Structure of leaf Petiole stalk of the leaf Blade the actual leaf Veins vascular tissue of the blade Simple leaves leave with a single blade which comes in many shapes and sizes Compound Leavesleaves that are deeply divided and form several blades or lea ets Palmately its lea ets diverging from a single point Pinnately lea ets arrange along an aXis Differences in the structure of dicot and monocot plants root stem and leaf Monocot have leaves with a strap shaped leaf blade vascular bundles run parallel through the leaf and leaf bases usually wrap around the stem Dicot typically composed of a at thin portion the blade with vascular bundles in a netted pattern Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 3 Plant Metabolism Photosynthesis the process by which plants use light energy to make food molecules from c02 and h20 Chloroplasts 7 Mesophyll cells where photosynthesis will take place Rubisco the enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of C02 to simple sugars in the process of photosynthesis Respiration is the utilization of simple sugars for the production of energy that can be stored to do work Mitochondria where respiration occurs Net photosynthesis Photosynthesis Respiration Stomata openings on the surface of the leaf through which C02 moves from the atmosphere Diffusion the tendancy of particles of any kind to sprad out spontaneously from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated Transpiration loss of water from the inside of the leaf to the atmosphere through the stomata Relative humidity actual vapor pressure saturation vapor pressure 100 Stomatal conductance the rate at which C02 moves into the leaf Controls on rate of transpiration closure of the stomata Wateruse efficiency rate of C02 uptake rate of H20 lostnet photosynthesistranspiration Transport of water and photosynthates xylem and phloem the products of photosynthesis are transported from the mesophyll cells to the smallest veins of the phloem in the leaves where they are then transported throughout the plant Light response of photosynthesis solar radiation provides the energy that drives photosynthesis the availability of light has a direct in uence on rates of photosynthesis In uence of nitrogen on rate of photosynthesis Increased N has a direct in uence on the rate of photosynthesis because it is a limiting nutrient needed for production of Rubisco Temperature response of net photosynthesis due to enzymes having a characteristic temperature response temp has a direct in uence on photosynthesis C4 and CAM photosynthetic pathways 0 C4 has a higher water use efficiency 0 Better for dry environments 0 CAM efficient at conserving water but not at processing carbon EVSC 2559 Plants People and Culture Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 4 Flowers Fruits and Seeds Structure of ower Sepals small leaves surrounding the base of the ower Petals colorful part of the ower which attracts pollen carriers Stamens anther and filament o Consist of one or more stamens Each stamen is made up of paried anthers sacs containing pollen on a filament or stalk Pistil consisting of one or more carpels stigma style ovary female parts of the ower consisting of an ovary ovules a style and the stigma 0 From the ovary extends the tubular structure called the style and on the top of the style is a surface receptive to pollen called the stigma Carpelfemale part of the ower that bears ovules which develop into seeds if fertilized Peduncle the base stem of the ower what the ower sits on In orescence cluster of owers Complete and incomplete owers 0 If a ower has all four parts sepals petals stamen and pistil Perfect and imperfect owers if a ower contains both function stamens and pistils it s a perfect ower if its lacking either its imperfect Monoecious and dioecious o Monoecious plants have separate male and female owers on the same plant 0 Diecious species have separate male and female plants Pollination transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma Nectar a sugarrich liquid produced by plants to attract pollinating animals Fertilization 7 fruit and seed formation 0 After fertilization takes place within the ovule the ovule develops into a seed and the ovary surrounding it develops into a fruit A fruit may contain one or more seeds Fruits provide protection and aid in dispersal Perica1p exocarp mesocarp and endocarp o The fruit wall that develops into the ovary wall is the pericarp 0 Three layers I Exocarp outer layer I Mesocarp middle layer I Endocarp inner layer Four basic types of fruits simple fruits develops from a single carpel or several fused carpels aggregate fruits multiple fruits accessory fruits Simple fruits 7 eshy or dry Berry a eshy fruit that has soft tissues throughout and contains few to many seeds Tomato grapes blueberries cranberries Pepo a modified berry in which the fruit wall is a leathery rind Pumpkin squash watermelon Hesperidium has a leathery fruit wall with numerous oil glands surrounding the succulent cavities where the seeds occur Citrus Fruits Drupe a eshy or fibrous fruit that contains a hard stone surrounding a single seed Peaches cherries avocados olives Dehiscent and indehiscent many simple fruits are dry at maturity o Dehiscent split open along the structures to release their seeds o Indehiscent does not split open at maturity Follicle a simple dry fruit that splits along one suture to release its seeds Legume a simple fry fruit that splits along two sutures top and bottom Pea Pods Capsule a simple dry fruit that splits open along multiple sutures or pores Caryopsis grain Do not split open and contain one seed Corn and wheat Nut simple dry fruits that have a stony wall and do not split open at maturity Nuts Achene similar to the caryopsis in that it is simple and dry does not plit open at maturity and contains a single seed But the seed coat is not fused Sun ower seed Aggregate fruit formed from a single ower that contains separate free carples After fertilization each ovary from each individual carpel enlarges They may fuse to form a single fruit Raspberries Multiple fruit which forms from the carples of many owers that grow close to one another on a common oral stalk The carpel from each ower fuses Pineapple Accessory fruit other plant tissues are used in addition to the ovary tissue to make up the fruit Strawberry with the leaves on top Seed dispersal can be dispersed by animals digestive systems to move the seeds away from the parent plant Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 5 Genetics and Plant Breeding DNA chemical blueprint Genes DNA is contained within units called genes Alleles alternate forms of a gene Chromosomes 7 homologous chromosomes 0 Threadlike structures in the cell Most multicellular organisms have two copies of each chromosome one from the mother and one from the father Two copies of one genes are homologous Genotype the genetic makeup of an organism Phenotype the expressed traits of an organisms genetic makeup Phenotypic plasticity ability for different phenotypic expressions of the same genotype under different environmental conditions Asexual vs sexual reproduction Asexual 7 produces exact copies through budding 0 Sexual through pollination allows for genetic recombination Modes of gene action Complete dominance the heterozygous individual expresses the same phenotype as one of the homozygotes Recessive and dominant alleles genes 0 When two alleles are different if one allele is fully expressed while the other has no noticeable effect on the organisms outward appearance the allele that is expressed is dominant while the other which is no expressed is recessive 39 u t yg 4 J39 39J 39 is intermediate between the 1 11 homozygous types Population a group of individuals of the same species living in a given area at a given time potential for individuals to interbreed Gene pool sum of the genetic information within a population Inheritance Mutation a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene Natural selection Selective breedingarti cial selection manipulating plant species to favor characteristics that enhances their usefulness Outline with Key Terms and Concepts for Lecture 6 Topics in Plant Ecology Plant carbon balance 0 Carbon gain of the plant will be a function of the rate of photosynthesis and total amount of leaves Carbon loss of the plant will be a function of the total plant mass leaves stems and roots Carbon allocation the process in which plants allocate the carbon takenup in photosynthesis to the production of new tissues Change in carbon allocation under different levels of soil resources water and nutrients as certain resources become limiting to plant growth carbon must be allocated to the production of tissues that allow for access and acquisition of those resources Roots provide access to water and nutrients As these become limiting the plant will allocate more resources to production of new roots Differences in carbon allocation between different plant life forms grasses shrubs and trees and the J to their 39 quot with 39 39 conditions such as water availability 0 Plants from dry and or low nutrient environments allocate more of their carbon to the production of roots This increased allocation to root production reduces allocation to leaves Geographic distribution of C3 and C4 plants and relationship to environment 0 Less C4 plants as you move north into higher latitudes C3 plants begin to take over