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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Han Truong on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2603 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Jennifer Barnes in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 1 Development systematic changes and continuities from conception to death quotFrom womb to tombquot 1st growth growthphysical changes that occur from conception to maturity called aging Aging or and neutral changes in organism Biological aging is the deterioration of organisms over time Stereotypical deterioration of organisms over time gains at rst are low stability in middle losses as age increases Sometimes performance decreases with maturity Apfelbaum and colleagues 2008 asked children to play quotguess whoquot Fewer guesses leads to a better performance Old kids performed better controlled But later on they performed differently because of manipulation ie changing the racedidn t feel comfortable asking about race Old age is not always characterized by losses as psychological wellbeing increases after 500 Types of development 0 Physical growth of body physiology 0 Cognition o Psychosocialemotion and relationships Cognitivepsychosocial emotion and perception ie sur ng the webmost likely to nd pic of snake before pic of ower Social cognitionencoding retrieval and processing of info to others 0 Theory of mind 0 Metalizing o Mindreading quotthe mentalistquot Psychosocialphysical sensationphysical and social appraisal psychosocialquot ie Ra s like coffee warmer Physical cognitive chronic ear infections affect language The lifespan Prenatalconception to birth lnfancy 2 years Preschool 5 6 Middle childhood 612 Adolescent 1218 Adulthood middle adulthood late adulthood Nature vs nurture debate over relative importance of biological predispositions nature and nurture Nature emphasizes heredity development maturation changes programmed by genes Also focuses ion universal processes innate predispositions Ex oxytocin has OOOOOO genesreceptorsvariation in levels affects behavior and implicated in autismschizophrenia o Nurture emphasizes role of environment events and conditions outside of the individual 0 Physical environment air quality nutrition and available food exposure to toxins noise levels and the life social environmentsocial norms o Microsystem immediate environment mesosystem interrelationship between microsystems Exosystem environments a person does not experience directly MACROSYSTEM encompasses all of the above ChronosystemO change of constancy in person or environments over time 0 Development is primarily a process of learning Based on experience and practice 0 Cultural in uences focus on environment and learning Responding to environmentshumans are incredible learners 0 Early on babies can make facial expressions Case of language language is a human universal culturally speci c variation in which language is acquired o Heredityenvironmental in uences may contribute to a single trait Nature affects nurture Cognition perception language memory concepts understanding physical world problem solving 0 Relationships in childhoodfuture impact Early experiences in uence us today Experimental design and developmental methods Science is everywhere does not only pertain to laboratories Psychology is everywhere con ned to people The way people talk to each other either courtship or friendship Sex differences taste understanding of physical objects knowing what objects we won t fall through Intelligence personality The scienti c method way of approaching a question or s that prioritizes objectivity and openness to revise one s theories in accordance with the data Ex precious puppy must be open to revising leave room for disproving to occur 1st step observation ex people shake hands duration of hand shake varies sometimes people make eye contact when they shake hands strength of the grip speci ccultures have certain handshakes children shake hands differentlya question happens after observations Why do people shake hands Theory set of concepts and propositions designed to organize describe and explain observations If our theory is right then we would expect make a prediction 0 Prediction novel circumstance or measurement with speci c relevance to your theory don t predict something you already know 0 quotI predict that people will shake hands across a variety of conceptsquot Not a good one Better predictions quotMen will shake hands more frequently than womenquot Or quotHand shakes will last longer when the people shaking hands are males of relatively equal status and buildquot Hypothesis possible explanations of phenomena used to predict 0 Design an experiment observe and record variables test hypothesis 0 Revisit theory modify re ne or reject your theory accordingly Treat data as a new observation A theory can never be proved ONLY disproved What makes a good theory 0 Falsi able have to be able to make predictions that will turn out not true 0 Internally consistent 0 Supported by data 0 Observation theory hypothesis experimenttesting analyzing data applying theory 0 QALMRI method a way of critiquing experiments and organizing thoughts 0 What is the this research is attempting to address 0 Broad quotIs there a functional purpose to shaking handsquot 0 Speci c quotDo people shakes hands more often in situation that emphasize competitionquot 0 Alternatives What are the possible answers to the Have the experimenters failed to consider a valid alternative Good experiments consider at least 2 plausible alternatives 0 Logic how does the experimental designs address the How will it distinguish among alternatives Corresponds to prediction Does the logic make sense 0 Method identi es the procedures implemented for design Does the method measure what the experimenters think it measures Of the experiment controlled 0 Results actual data outcome of experiment statistical data 0 lnferences what can be concluded more broadly If the study was welldesigned the results should allow us to eliminate one of the alternatives 0 Why does it matter Why should we care 0 Experimental design 0 Method who do you test Children or grandma s 0 Sample the group of individuals chosen to be the subjects for experiment 0 Population a wellde ned group that a researcher who studies a sample is interested in drawing conclusions about 0 Random sample identify all members of the population of interest Truly random sampling is rare in the psychological sciences 0 College undergraduates make up for 80 of the major psych studies 0 WEIRD W Western Educated Industrialized Rich Democratic 0 Sample bias For a child to participate in a study their parents have to agree Often times children are recruited through schools similar for elderly individualspeople with caretakers 0 Method How do you collect data Talking watching technology Verbal reportsask him if he likes you direct questioning behavioral observationobserve the way he acts around you or other girls physiological measures hook electrodes to his headessenUaHyiHegaL Everybody lies Accuracy people generally want to look good so they lie Self presentation participants simply may not be a good judge of their own capabilities Some populations may not be capable of selfreport such as babies Directly asking someone questions about either themselves or another person Ex asking college roommate about yourself or another person Accuracy parents may wish to present their child in the best possible light parents may not be able to accurately judge Parents want to ensure that their kids did well Self and otherreport strengths can be highly controlled questions are worded the exact same way every time o Behavioral observations scientist observes participants in common on their natural habitat Ex preschool observationboys are more aggressive o Observing and recording behaviorscientists construct special conditions to elicit the behavior of interest structured observation 0 Structured able to control experiment generate behavior of interest can results be outside the lab naturalistic less control behavior of interest may occur infrequently results may be more likely to apply in real world settings Ecological validity degree to which one can generalize from lab to naturalistic studies Demand characteristics cause a participant to form an interpretation of an experimenter s purpose an unconsciously modify their behavior accordingly Physiological measures fMRI or EEG skin conductance heart rate blood test gaze direction and movement pupi dilation Hard to fake Good for nonverbal populations vegetative states and comasbrain imaging Weaknesses how do you interpret it Often costy75000 dollars for an eye tester and invasivescary to young children What kind of experimental design case study experimental method correlational method Case study indepth examination of an individual or small group of individuals Often test people with conditions ie ones with amnesia Jean Piaget developed his theories of development based in part on indepth studies of his subjects 0 Are results generalizable Experimental method experimenter manipulates environment 0 Independent variable manipulated Dependent depends on independent Measured to see if it changes 0 Ex children prefer duplicates prefer original painting not a forged one 0 Attachment objectteddy bear that they sleep with re truck is a regular toy Children wanted duplicate toy Random assignment manipulation experimental control Correlational method determines whether 2 variables are related Ex kids having imaginary friends and why they do Correlation is not causation not always does one thing cause the other Spanking aggressive kids in school can prove it and vice versa A third variable could cause both to go up 0 May be the only ethical option Developmental research designs 0 Cross sectional designs different age groups are studied Cohort effects 0 Longitudinal designs one group of subjects 5 studied repeatedly 0 Walter Michel The Stanford marshmallow test offer children a marshmallow If they wait they can have 2 later Leave the kids in the room to see if they wait or consume the rst one Measured distraction techniques 0 Downsidescan be expensive repeated testing may bias effects sample sizes are often small effects may not generalize to later cohorts Sequential designs testing different cohorts repeatedly over time Theories of Development 0 Social emotional situations as we grow up we increase these 0 Everyone has ideas and preconceptions about developments Everyone has ideas on how to raise kids 0 Lay theoriesnot scientists but have theories about how development works Sandra Cisneros turning eleven still feel 111 Sometimes you cry need your mom act like a child Not a psychological theory but a good depiction 0 Within scienti c framework goals for developmental theory Describe patterns that characterize development Rousseaugood nature Hobbesbad nature John Locke Tabula Rasa means blank slate Can become anythingeither good or bad Within the discipline of psych there is a lot of debate as to whether some skills or knowledge come quothardwired in brainquot Nativism holds that a subset of our beliefswe are born with Empiricism born with mechanisms for learning but knowledge must be acquired through experience Stability vs change 0 Do we become older versions of younger selves or do we become different as we develop Shy when young shy when older bullied girl turns into walked over mom This is nature vs nurture again Can later experiences changes as much as early experience can Activity vs passivityare we active in our development of do we simply react How much control do we have over our behavior and outcomes in life Determinism events in the world are determined by prior decisions Opposite of above free will is the idea that agents can and do make choices Mechanistic models view development as a series of predicable responses to stimuli Giving a mouse a cookiehe will ask for milk Organistic models view human development as internally initiated by an active organism Get to choose environments chose to take this class choose how much attention to pay Continuity vs discontinuity o Are changes gradual and incremental or dramatic and abrupt A qualitative change a change in kind crawling to walking 0 Quantitative change change in degree 0 Growth is gradual and incremental but growth spurts can be dramatic and abrupt 0 Language babbling complicated language words Universality vs context speci c 0 Changes in development are universal cultural subculture and context involved 0 Individual differencescharacteristics in uences and developmental outcomes Psychoanalytical theory 0 Put forth by Sigmund Freud most famoustheories that hold that human developments is shaped by unconscious forces and drives that motivate human behavior Unconscious motivation thoughts feelings and emotions that in uence thinking and behavior even though they cannot be recalled 0 Development is heavily colored by emotion behavior holds symbolic meaning 0 Freud focused largely on con icts and personality and psychsoexual developmentcalled us pleasure seeking humansdriven by biological urges that must be satis ed The self ld impulsive irrational and pleasure seeking wants what it wants Can t talk a baby out of cryingthey want what they want Ego rational component of personality Develops around 1 year ofage Superego internalized moral standards Ego negotiates con icts bw id and superego ie chocolate mousse Hulkwant eat superegoyour on a diet or gluttony is wrong 0 Freudabout sex Con ict occur in 5 stages Libido shifts to different regions Oral anal phallic latency genital Development can become arrested if people don t deal with this Fixation sucks thumb biting ngernails oral Anal toilet training Defense mechanisms regressionreverting to an earlier stage of development Repression removing unacceptable thoughts from consciousness Phallic children are attracted to their opposite parent and jealous of samesex parent This is overcome of represented in the latency stage Oedipal and electra complexes are widely discredited His theory overemphasizes sex Sometimes repressed memories can be falsely implanted Underestimated the importance of conscious thoughtthings actually I our thoughts Focused on emotional development understood that role of our early family and childhood play a role in determining personalities Emphasized importance of unconscious thoughts feelings and motivations lndentified selfother relationships Psychosocial theoryErik Erikson O In uenced by Freudless focus on sex more on in uence that society has on development Interested in how people adapt to their environments We are active and engage in rational thought in environments Interested in how people adapt to their environments Belief that development did not end at adolescence Believed that developments involved crises that must be resolved Each stage build on the one before it 1st stage Trust vs Mistrustmain crisis to overcome during 1st year Infants depend on caretakers for everything Virtue ofhope 2nCI stage autonomy vs shamedoubt 13 years Kids start doing stuff on their own and asserting their independence Parents say NO more frequently If infants are yelled at a lot then they develop dependence instead of independence 3rd 36 years Children are presented with new challenges and responsibilities Require purposeful action Industry vs inferiority age 6puberty Children must master skills or feel unworthy 4th identity vs identity confusionwho they want to be and the path they want to take in life How they dress behave Fidelity 5th intimacy vs isolation early adulthood make promises to others Virtuelove 6th generativity vs stagnation middle adulthood Helping guiding and contributing Integrity vs despair late adulthood looking back on life regrets Virtuewisdom Development extends through adulthood Acknowledges the interplay between the individual and society Focuses heavily on emotional and personality development Descriptive but not explanatory 0 Learning theories 0 OO 0 Focus on observable behavior rather than internal crises or motivations which are unobservable Able to make concrete and testable predictions Associative learning mental link formed bw two events Classical conditional response to a stimulus Ex Pavlov s dogssalivation before food there Salivation was a learned response associated with feeding time Unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response Trained themticking metronome hearing it meant no food still salivated Conditioned stimulus and response Watson and Raynor believed that this same logic could be applied to human infants and fear responses quotLittle Albert the ratquotmade a scary noise when touching him Baby would start crying every time he saw the rat Classical conditioning might have a predisposition to fear snakes Mineke and Cookebaby monkeys Played sound of screaming adult monkey The monkeys learned to fear toy snakes and toy crocodiles but not toy owers There is evidence that some things are easier to condition than others Operant conditioning learning based on an association of a behavior with its consequences Reinforcementincreases strength of behavior Positive punishments consequence is unpleasant event Negativeremoval of pleasant stimulus Taking away car key can t watch tv Positive reinforcement when consequence is pleasant getting a sticker for being good Negative reinforcement removal of an unpleasant stimulus Cutting a sandwich the wrong way Operant conditioning base on association of a behavior with its consequences The biggest strength of these theories is the degree to which they can and have been empirically tested But just because learning can happen this way doesn t mean that it always happens this way Social cognitive theory Alfred Bandera People learn by observing and imitating models Young boy copies way his dad walks Unlike conditioning learners must pay attention construct mental representations Behavior cognition environment Stressed idea of human agency Seek info in the world to learn Vicarious reinforcements the effect of watching someone else get reinforced Latent learning occurs but not evident in behavior Chunking behavior recombining chunk learned from different sources to create something new 3 sisters sings a song makes up a story I could make a songcombining scenes Theories focus on personality and behavior Very little emphasis on how cognitive capacities develop 0 0 Few exceptions skills imitation language may be learned in part through imitation Causality number and amount laws of physics thinking and application of logic are lacking in these theories and society s role in developmentbiological mechanisms 0 Cognitive theories of development 0 O O Cognition process by which knowledge is acquired through perception intuition and reasoning Conscious thoughts Jean Piaget forefront of child cognition Constructivism humans actively create their own understanding of the world from experience Piaget believes that development occurs with maturation of the brain and experiencing discrepencies does not believe in DNA effects or environmental effects Children s brains are not the same as adults children view things differently This difference does not just exist bw children and adults but also bw children of all ages Piaget focuses on con icts bw understanding and reality as they experience it in the environment They start out confused then a light comes on in their head Piaget thought that children are intrinsically motivated to learn and have an inborn ability to adapt to environments by using experience Mental categories schemes Piaget said adaptation modi ed scheme 0 Schemas things that aren t real Example unicorns spells dragons elf mermaidsbut princesses don t belong on this list Because they are real Realized that some things in fairy tales are real Involved 3 steps to organize and adapt o Assimilationnew info into existing cognitive structures 0 Accommodation ts new info adapt current knowledge in response to new experiences Equilibriation balances Piaget believed that we take in and understand info about he world in different ways at different times As a result distinct developmental stages occurs at time of disequilibrium Stages Sensorimotor birth to 2 concentrates on coordinating senses with motor actions discovering about hands Starts with re exes planned and intentional actioncombine actions in new ways to produce both familiar and new outcomes Ex 13 month nephew wants things and tries to get them Discover object permanence objects stills exist even when out of view Babies will reach around barrier to get to the toy Age 2 to 7 years preoperational children begin to use representations to better understand the world Complex language drawings younger children scribble but older children draw something Symbolic representation use of one object to stand for another increase in role and pretend play Piaget thought that children were swayed by own perceptions Conservation altering an object s surface properties does not change its basic properties Amount of liquid in a glass looks like less water in short glass but its not Egocentrism inability to view the world from the perspective of others 0 Concrete stage711 children can problem solve Eliminate egocentricity Ability to classify object Understand that one event may be in uence by many things Children can only perform concrete observations are this point Difficulty thinking about hypotheticals and thinking about possibilities in a systematic way 0 Formal operational stage extends into adulthood ability to think about past and present watching shows what could be ie the matrix or the future Introduces future planning politic ethics philosophy and scienceunderstanding these 00 Piaget emphasized qualitative changechildren are not mini adults and the idea that children are active in their learning Pioneered the eld of child development Said both nature and nurture occur 0 Criticism underestimated abilities of children at different ages Do his stages make sense 0 Sociocultural theory People learned through social interactions teachers at home through parents Vygotsky thought children construct own knowledge We are social species Emphasis on social constructs such as language and tools 3 types of learning imitative instructed self regulated ex learning to tie shoes must live in a culture that wears shoes Zone of proximal development 0 Difference bw what a child can do alone and what they can do with help 18 month old can clap chew on things point at things but she can t do math problems drive a car But with help she can decorate an xmas tree build a sand castle or dance Scaffolding temporary support to help children master a task Ex oating devices to help children learning to swim Information processing theory 0 To study development we must observe and analyze the mental processes involved in perceiving and handling info 0 Use experimental data to build models Systems theories of development 0 Look at the organism as part of a larger system Change over lifespan is the result of the ongoing and everchanging relationship between environment Ecologicalcontextual 0 Individual is inseparable Sociobiologcaltheories o Ethology and evolutionary of psych adaptations and evolving biological bases mechanisms work of Darwin Behaviors that developed to solve problems 0 Natural selection nonrandom process by which biological traits become either more common or not reproductive changes Survival of the ttest 0 Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness EEA Combination of physical and social conditions in with a trait was naturally selected ie huntergathering Traits for EEA might not be here today Ethology study of distinctive adaptive behaviors of animal species Why are chimpanzees violent and other primates not Bowlby adapted ethology to think about human behaviors Why are people attached to babiesless likely to be eaten by predators Evolutionary psych applies Darwinian principles 0 Why do humans behave altruistically taking a cost to yourself to give a bene t to someone else Donating blood giving away money etc Behavior is strongly in uenced by biology tied to evolution and characterized by critical or sensitive penods Systems theories differ as to what the speci c system of interest is May not provide any coherent developmental theory Theories debated today 0 Core knowledge humans are born with a small of separable systems of core knowledge about the world other skills and beliefs are built onto this core Four systems objects actions number and spacepossibly a 5th representing partners Spatiotemporal understanding of object in world Objects have cohesion Rubber duck pulling the duck will cause it to move not split in half Continuity and contact objects don t interact from a distance Billiard balls hit others in order to move Critics emphasize that many of these studies take place with older infants suggesting that knowledge could be the result of learning Human pedagogy Triadic communication infants actively seek out adults to provided info about the world Child has an interest in an object requesting info from adults ldea that infants react and expect that adults are trying to teach them generalizable properties of the object fastlearned learn something in one trial because not learning it on their own Infants are sensitive to and show a preference for cues that adults are being communicative Ex eye gaze motherese turn taking games These theories build upon or are reactions to many of the more foundational theories we have reviewed GeneEnvironment interactions Nature vs nurture Organism affects the environment and vice versa Nature at the level of the gene Not just a bean but individual traits and genes Genes at the species level 0 O O The genetic endowment that members of a species have in common A fennec fox has in common with other fennec foxes What makes them different from monkeys Charles Darwin evolution is the change over time Natural selections nonrandom process by which biological traits become either more or less common Need Genetic variation in population Some genes more adaptive than others Genes are heritable Adaptive genes are passed on to future generations more often than nonadaptive others Kettlewell s Moth experiment light colored moths were common before industrial revolution dark colored developed after The trees got darker Gene is only adaptive in context Environment consists not only of physical and social pressures but also other species evolving at the same time quotevolutionary arms racequot across species more common genes in moths for camou age and more common for birds to spot them Species heredity genetic endowment that members of a species have in common lncludes genes that in uence maturation and aging processes Make humans unique Humans have an extended childhood puppies do not stay little for long Because humans have large brainsallows us to learn the complexities of human society Humans tend to live past their reproductive prime Not the case in all species ie Betty white is too old to have a baby Some theorists have suggested that this might convey a bene t to one s children and offspring Baltes 2003 argued that selection primarily operates during the rst half of life Humans are unique due to genes Many of these aspects directly affect aging and maturation Darwin s theories are an example of genesenvironmental interaction 0 Genes reproductions relatedness 0 Genetic material DNA chemical that carries inherited instructions for the development for all cellular life forms Chromosomes coils of DNA that consist of genes Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes 46 total All 23 pairs are in body Genessmall segments of DNA on chromosomes Human Genome Project 13 years long Looked through and identi ed 25000 genes that make up DNA 999 of base chemical are identical in all humans 1 is hugely signi cant 0 Genetic similarity 98 in common with chimps 0 Genetic variation Sexual reproductions is a source of genetic variation Gametes have only 23 chromosomes By process of meiosis Each pair separates independently of others 64 trillion different children from same set of parents Fertilization sperm and ovum combine to make zygote 0 Half of the genetic material comes from mom and half from dad o Mitosis 2 types of chromosomes autosomes 22 not related to sex 0 sex chromosomes pair of chromosomes that determines sex 0 Females XX Males XY 0 Implications 0 Father determines sex of child 0 Life expectancy the x chromosome is longer than y and carries more genes may contribute to women living longer than men 0 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes 0 We are 50 related to each parent 0 Relation to siblings Full siblings on avg are 50 related to each other Twins and multiple births o Monozygotic identical one egg divides to form 2 or more identical individuals 1250 births Twins may be mirror images Coefficient related10 o Dyzygotic fraternal two ova fertilized by sperm No more genetically related than any other siblings 0 Can have similarities or be quite different 1125 births Tends to run in families Rate of twin birthshad risen 7 as of 2006 Due to infertility treatment use Gene expression 0 Allele 2 or more alternative forms of a gene that occupy same position on chromosome Homozygous possessing 2 identical alleles Hetero 2 different alleles for a trait There is a difference between the genes inherited and the traits that are displayed Genotype physical characteristic speci c genes ie blond hair 0 Phenotype personality emotional traits A single genotype may lead to more than one phenotype ie height a person may be genetically predisposed to a certain build Different nutrition in youth can cause a different phenotype 0 Genes may be turned on or off by regulatory DNA Off by stress Epigenesis turn on or off and determine functions of body cells More prone to occur during pregnancy or puberty FRAGA and colleagues conducted a DNA and RNA analysis of 40 pais in identical twins Similarity in gene expression was dependent on age For young children very similar when older genetic expression changed Dependent on how much time they spent together 0 Expression is impacted by environment How are genes expressed as traits 3 kinds of mechanisms of inheritance 0 singles genepair a trait is in uenced by only one pair of genes Dominant genes are expressed over recessive genes Ability to roll tongue recessive gene not to be able too o R ability to roll rnot able to Harry could have RR or Rr Hermione is rr 0 Baby can roll tonguephenotype Some genes dominate others Incomplete dominance incompletely dominates a recessive genes yielding a new blended trait ie curly hair is dominant and strait is recessive but hair can be a combo of both 0 Simple dominance some diseases or disorders are the results of dominant genes Huntingtons and Achondroplasial Dwar sm Sex linked aka Xlinked x chromosome contains more genetic material Males do not have backup x so they are more likely to suffer from recessive conditions Polygenic multiple genes affect inheritance These genes interact with environment 0 Most human traits intelligence personality ad susceptibility to cancer and diseases For all of these reasons genotype is not always shown in phenotype Mutation Change in structure or arrangement of one or more genes that produce a new phenotype Can result from environmental hazards Gene that affects a receptor required by some strands of HIV Mutationa 32 base pair deletion in this gene If you are heterozygousCCh5R Sickle cell shape of red blood cells having one sickle cell gene protects from malaria Carriers of one recessive genes experience symptoms such as pain and breathing problems Mutations can also be benign ie blue eyes 0 Chromosomal abnormalities a child receives too many or too few at conception Down syndrome child receives 3 21st chromosomes Errors in meiosis linked with age More time for ovasperm to degrade More likely to be exposed to hazards or toxins Old females may be less likely to miscarry Sex chromosomal abnormalities an individual must have at least one chromosome to be viable Counselors provide info on the nature likelihood effects and treatment of genetically based diseases and disorders Complex ethical and public policy issues Genes the environment and experimental design o If Grey had been given a perfect childhood would she have been different as an adult Who Am I can I take credit or proud of things I ve done How can we be different from each other 0 Behavioral genetics study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences affect us 0 Heritability proportion of variability in a trait within a large sample of people that can be linked to genetic traits of individuals Experimental breeding o Breeding not animals breeding or with dogs Selective breeding attempting to breed for a certain trait in animals to see if trait is heritable o If you can breed for a trait then that trait is necessarily heritable ie rats can run in maze o Is intelligence heritable Specific are mice that are quicker at solving puzzles more likely to produce offspring that can solve just as well 0 Tryon 1940 divided mice into slow and fast Mazed bright and mazed dull Breeds both together and looks for performance in offspring o In past these experiments have shown that sex drive emotionality happen in rats Dmitri Belyaev process of domestication How did dogs evolve from wolves Wolves with a greater tolerance for humans were bred with dogs Replicated process with wild foxes Speci c question could breeding foxes make them friendly like dogs Starting at 1 month of age they were tested for their reactions To see if they would bite Only the top 20 percent in terms of sociability to humans were bred in each generation Yes the foxes became friendly Other changes also occurred foxes had smaller skulls wagging tails curled tails oppy ears started looking like dogs Recent experiments show that cognitive changes happen as well Selective breeding can only be done with animals Twin adoption and family studies 0 Coefficient of relatedness identical twins share 100 percent of genetic material adopted siblings share environment but not environment Twins apart share genes not environment 0 Twin studies identical twins are more similar on a given trait that samesex fraternal Concordance percent of pairs of people studied 0 Monozygotic twins bailey more concordant for autism that dizygotic twins 60 concordance rate among monozygotic 0 percent among di Also looked at whether the twins of individuals with autism demonstrated broader spectrum social or cognitive abnormalities 92 percent concordance with mono Comparison of identical and fraternal raised together versus apart o Is sleepwalking hereditary Participants pairs of twins at least one twin walks Fraternal together and apart ldentical apart and together 0 ldentical 6 together 45 apart 0 Higher concordance in identical would suggest genetic factors 0 However both fraternal and identical are more concordant when raised together than apart 0 Even though raised together not perfect results Shared enviro in uences experiences shared by other individuals Nonshared enviro not shared by other individualsdifferent peer groups o It is difficult to nd twins reared apart 1968 psychologist purposely sought out twins and told adoptive parents that the children had no twins Part of a study data will be locked away until 2066 Twin studies on sleepwalking do exist Criticisms at twin studies 0 Identical share a more similar prenatal environment are treated more similar that fraternal due to personality 0 ldentical twins generally look the same how much someone looks affects how they are treated Height is correlated with selfesteem and success in careers Facial traits assess qualities with strangers competence 0 Adults are more likely to use baby talk when talking to baby face kids Preschoolers learn better this way 0 Adoption studies 0 Compare adoptive children to their adoptive and biological Resemblance to bio parents it taken as in uence of genes lf parents are obese children most likely to be as well Children s lQ s are more closely related to bio parents than adoptive Criticisms mother s hormones in prenatal environment might affect cortisol stress levels Adoption agencies try to place kids in families similar to their bio homes Adoptive families are generally above avg enviros Family studies measure enviro similarity and different degrees of relatedness within a family unit and examine their effect on a trait or traits 0 Molecular genetics Analysis of particular genes Identify speci c genes variants allelescompare individuals with different alleles Most traits are determined by polygenetic inhertance Genetic underpinnings of autism many genes linked to autism Oxytocin Rigid compulsive behaviors Thousands of gene variations can disrupt social development in brain Rare mutations when combined make 1520 percent of cases 0 Mission impossible many polygenetic traits many genotypes may lead to a single phenotype Genes may predispose an individual toward a condition 0 Alzheimer s heritable Likely that many genes are involved Some but not all patients have this genes Head trauma doubles risk Molecular geneticists look for speci c alleles in trait multiple genotypes lead to similar phenotypes Ethical issues issue of privacy people with cancer gene don t want insurance to know or employers Understanding the genetic underpinnings of certain conditions may help us to better understand their etiology Ex thirteen screening for huntington s in House Heritability of various traits lntellect abilities strong effect of genetics the more highly related two people are the more strongly their IQ scores are who share no DNA effect of shared environment Fraternal twinsgtnontwin siblings more similar even no more related People raised apart effect of shared environment is very clear Genetic in uence overall intellect abilities becomes more apparent with age Beginning of life is dominated by milestones ie learning to crawl to talk to walk 7learned to read and 263 books per year Genetic in uence over intellectual abilities becomes more apparent with age Shared environmental in uence are reduced to next to nothing in adulthood Genetic difference account for upwards of 50 of variation However this does not appear to hold equally across different environments Environment can help you or hinder you from reaching genetic potential Need proper nourishment to function Need parents to care foryou Reaction range potential variability depending on environmental conditions and expression of hereditary trait Canalization narrow range Breadth of range can be determined as well Personality babies have different personalities at a young age Sistertalked a lot brother scared of people fear of old ladies o Temperament characteristic disposition or style of approaching and reacting to others Sociability and emotional reactivity temperament is building block to personality ldentical 56 fraternal close to 0 Personalitymost effected by nonshared environment 0 Nonshared enviro is so in uential because others experience different things Birth order kids differentiate themselves from siblings Longevity is there a heredity effect on how long people live Yes Hereditary basis for diseases such as cancer 0 Genes mutations produce greater risk of breast cancer or ovadan Obesity level of physical activity and high BP are all hereditary Yes genes account for about 13 of the variation in longevity across individuals Psycho disorders predispose someone to a condition Schizophrenia 48 percent rate of identical twins both having 0 Some strains of u might put baby at risk while in womb Psycho conditions may exist along a spectrum all of us vary on all kinds of traits Heritability social attitudes and political beliefs happiness musical aptitude vocational interests lnterrelationship of genes Genes affect enviro and vice versa 0 Geneenvironment interactionsterm describing a process wherein the effect of genes 0 Our genes and our environment may be systematically interrelated our genes and enviros are correlated 0 Passive correlation occurs because the majority of children are raised by one or more bio parents You share 50 of genes with each parent Parents who like the read are more likely to have books around the house for kids to read Shy parents have shy children 0 Evocative child s genotype evokes reactions in other people Outgoing kid and shy Strangers may not be sociable to shy children as much A child driven to succeed from those around them which may in turn strengthen their need to do well 0 Active occurs when an individual s genotype in uences the enviro they actively seek for themselves Ideas of good time either drinking or monopoly
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