Special Topics in Aerospace Engineering
Special Topics in Aerospace Engineering MAE 4504
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dayton Klein II on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAE 4504 at University of Virginia taught by Robert Johnson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/209793/mae-4504-university-of-virginia in Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Space Science Atmospheres Part 7 c07 CO2 Cycle 02 Cycle SIf Mons Venus Do Gases evolve from interior Yes H20 coz sozetc silicates P late Tectonics Recycles Atmospheric Sources Volcanoes Outgassing H2 H20 C02 H2 S SO2 Impacts Comets meteors micrometeorite LOSSES Surface Condensation Reactions Escape Jeans Hydrodynamic Blow off PhotoDissociation Solar Wind Solar Fields Inventory of H29 Greenhouse Venus gas Earth water Mars ice We discussed the lack of H20 on Venus and Mars sort of Inventorv of C02 Ea h Atmosphere 24x101sgm Ocean 13 x102 gm Biosphere 1 x1019gm Buried 36x1023gm Venus Atmosphere 44x1023gm Surfacel Buried Mars Atmosphere 30 x102 gm scaled by mass to Venus 0005 Surfacel Buried Photo synthes Respiration Plants CO2 L 02 C Resipration 02 C 9 CO2 Ocean dissolves CO2 gt bicarbonate bicarbonate gt CO2 release Near Equilibrium Burial land Sea Weathering Carbon in rocks is oxidized gt CO2 Limestone Ca CO3 dissolves in water gt bicarbonate Burial in the Oceans H20 C02 9 HZCO3 Ca 2H2CO339 Ca eCaCO3 CO2 H20 marine organisms then CaCO3 SiO2 elimestone CO2 COg Cycle on Earth GW T piration Atmosphere Evaporation ecay A 002 lt 18 2394X1O gm 4x1017gmyr 1017gmyr A Dissolve Photosynt esis 4x1017gmyr 1017gmyr Biosphere ocean carbohydrates 003 1019 gm 13x1OZOgm Volcanoes Dissolve Burial Weat1i1ering 10159myr 3x1014gmyr 3X10 gmyr 1015gmyr Rocks Organics Carbonateslt 6x10229m 3x1023gm sedimentation CO2 36x1023 gm H20 16x1024 gm Annual Emissions to the 6 A 2 5 CL v Land Use Change g 4 Combushon of Fossul Fuels 5 o w 3 E 2 lt 1 0 o 398 8gt VIVUUI I JVVJ VI you Hull 1 mzwoaasuik Rascalch em2r Petagrams of CarbonY ear gt l00 COAL OIL GAS I 0000 Deforestation contributes between I 2 40000 62me by mmel Ems amp Skee Hangman The Woods Hole Research Camel Double Atmosphere CO2 Add 24x1o18 gm co2 Vapor pressure of CO2 up Dissolves More gt find new equilibrium Experiment is being done Since 1980 5x1017 gm C02 added by fossil fuel burning Look at fastest parts only Atmosphere 3 Ocean quot4 no Rate Equation dnAnA ih dt 1 dis 1 dt evap In Equilibrium Carbon Concentration Long Term Historical Record Correlation of CO2 and Temp Antarctic Ice core temperature record Antarctic ace acre carbon droxrde record N O L m qdd uoqenueauoo 03 oueudsoww N a n g as 5 0 g E 2 E S E 2 a 8 1C 17C C 10 2C BC 4C 5 60 7C 80 90 10011012C13C14015C Thousand years before present Carbon concentration vs time Increase from 280 ppm 1860 to 370 ppm present 31 increase Note 370 ppm 00370 39 39 1qu rem InMn l39JN umluuu llm 5mm lmululmlmlUcummunpln IMO I I dllllml39h 47mlmmIlemlunquothmmu1lnmpumAdmummmuNt39ImJnh InIIpl IIL MIAlecw lTul 0 Wm ml Imwnuupn Dr I39Icm lJan Mu 39MDL lyamun L h rm w mug lump h plenumm mmuym m l t V 39ley Mu I lullzn l ulllmnlu mm Nmul Ldkcdmuu mulmdu Estimate Time Constants and New Equilibrium Fraction in Ocean 98 Fraction in atmosphere 2 al3x1020gm 4x1017gmyr 325yr 17evap tdis 24x1018gm 4x1017gmyr 6yr Now Double TIAOO 77000 277A0 no0 New Equilibrium moo now Tdis 77 evap Size of Increase A Mam A rdis z 2 evap Double gt 2 increase Find Effective Time Constant 2 O O dt Tdis T t evap evap 1 T 1 1 e Tdis Tevap Tdis z 6 years Actual change is 10 in 6years Since ocean circulates rnixes only slowly VENUS Run away Greenhouse H20 does not condense H20hv a OHH a OH2 H2 Hescape Total CO2 44x1023g Atmosphere Surface Equilibrium Silicate Rocks CO2 eg CaSiO3 CO2 Gives Carbonate Quartz CaCO3 SiO2 Old idea passive Magellan Surface Looks Active Also there is some watergtactive volcanism Mars COz Poles H Atmosphere A runOff Weathering Carbonates not seen Principally Atmosphere Poles Poles Permanent Ice Caps Seasonal CO2 Caps Runoff to ground water Vapor Pressure Determined by temperature Winter Pole Orbital cycles are very important CO2 hv gt C02 gt02 02 e gt O O energygtescape Europa I Mars Where does the C go Ven us Earth Mars warm er EDDIE water vapor fquot E fz ax greenhcuse greenhcuse heat heat RH surface J wk surface I LIFE t and x f f quot Eaking uni 39 a f PD 3 x q LUZ water K cornblres A a lean wi 11 rock 5 39 K quotf xx x I I R I C 05 at to m nine 3 gt E 39 1 x m U re NI xxwrth r0 ck Hf 39reenhause 139 39 E J 32 X If r I Y x I xk 02 I i lt r Aquot KXUUtgdbbEd CO 2 KRf Eel ante 9 X in stiffr HOT Just Right Venus has runaway greenhouse effect and no waterleft Earth has life and liquid water keeping temperature balanced and most of its CO2 in the rocks Mars has mnaway refrigerator with water frozen in permafrost layer and most of its COB in the rocks or frozen on the surface Atmospheric O In beginning O oxidizes roeks some 02 H20 1 o H2 carbonates in rocks oxidized Little 02 no 03 gt UV gt no organisms Present 02 Cycle Source of O2 H20 ultimately But condensation limits loss to space by H20 9 HO H 02 eventually produced by organisms Photosynthesis CO2 2H20 hve CHZO 02 Respiration O2 CH20 9C02 H20 energy Note CO2 stabilized by oceans H20 C02 9 HZCO3 Ca 2H2CO339 Ca a CaCO3 CO2 H20 marine organisms CaCO3 SiO2 elimestone COZ 02 not so a fraction dissolves in ocean a biology Oxygen Cycle Oceans 14x1024gm Photo dissociation 4x1011gmyr V Respiration Atmosphere weathering Decay 2 1017gm 12x1021gm A A 3x1014gmyr Photo syntheSIs 17 Burial 10 gmyr Of carbon 3x1014gmyr 4 1 gt V Biosphere Sediment Rock Carbon hydrates Organic 1019gm 6x10229m remove 002 Produce 002