Week 9 Notes (3/14 and 3/16 Lecture Notes)
Week 9 Notes (3/14 and 3/16 Lecture Notes) 21001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kennedy on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21001 at Kent State University taught by Devon M. Hawkins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
1 2 3 Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 1 Categorical Imperative the supreme principle of morality one rule that we can all follow in the same way a Imperative an order Categorical vs Hypothetical Orders immediately Does not order Intrinsic Contingent and instrumen1 Formulations we must know 2 things a Universal law formulation act as if the maxim of your action were by your will to become a universal law of nature pg 94 i General form 1 Determine the maxim rule for action aka how will I behave 2 Universalize the maxim 3 Can humanity survive if 2 were true a If yes then we have an imperfect duty not follow the maxim i Imperfect duty duty that is required but we decide whenwhere we will perform it b If no then we have a perfect duty to not follow the maxim i Perfect duty one that must be done and is required immediately b Endinitself formulation act so that you use humanity always as an endinitself never merely as a means to an end pg 97 i General form 1 Ask ourselves if our maxim con ictscontradicts the idea of humanity as an endinitself a If yes then we have a perfect duty to not to follow the maxim b If no then does the maxim prevent harmony with the idea of humanity as an endinitself i If yes then I have an imperfect duty to not follow the maxim ii If no then I have no duty at all because there isn t a risk here 1 Doesn t rate on the moral scale Kant 17241804 a The only thing goodinitself intrinsically good is a good will i What separates us from animals is rationality ii 2 realms 1 Rational realm a Intellectual only i Our rationality is what makes us specially capable of morality 2 Bodily realm a Physical needs foodwater b Emotions b Duties that we have the responsibility of upholding i Preserve one s own life aka don t commit suicide 1 We have a perfect duty to ful ll this ii To be bene cent aka to be good to others 1 We have an imperfect duty to ful ll this iii To cultivate our talent 1 We have an imperfect duty to ful ll this Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 2 iv Be truthful aka don t lie 1 We have a perfect duty to ful ll this c Critiques of the categorical imperative i It can sometimes contradict our moral intuitions ii It doesn t help us decide between two equally good or two equally bad options iii It tells us what we re not supposed to do it s a negative test 1 Can be confusing iv You can trick the imperative into letting you do things that it normally wouldn t 1 This is don t by formulating highly speci c or very broad maxims d Critiques of intentionbased theories i We can t ever know with certainty what other people intend 1 EX grocer a Did he lower his prices by his imperfect duty to be beneficent or did he lower his prices for his own sake to make money ii Our intentions are really complex 1 We usually have more than one intention at a time iii We re really good at lying to ourselves ie we may say that we did something out of duty when in reality we had ulterior motives e Kant says most of our actions are amoral i Moral actions actions done from duty ie we have only one intention and that is to do our duty ii Immoral actions actions done in contradictioncontrary to duty iii Amoral actions actions done in accordance with duty ie we have multiple intentions one of which is to do our duty 4 Thomas Hobbes 1588167 9 a What he is philosophically i Metaphysics materialist nominalist 1 Materialist soft realism ii Epistemology empiricist iii Ethics ethical egoist and a social contract theorist 1 Ethical egoism selfinterest is foregrounded a Consequentialist theory b doesn t say that we have no commitment to other ppl but is centered around I 2 Social contract deontological theory that depends on natural law theory b State of nature this is a state with no government and no laws state of war and state of all against all i Equality 1 We are all equal mentally and physically a We are able to be physically equal because the weakest can team up and beat the strong b Our equality is proven by our conceit i We are all conceited 2 Limited resources there isn t enough foodwatershelteretc for everyone a Pg 103 in such condition there is no place for industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain and consequently no culture of earth no navigation nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea Hannah Kennedy Kent State University 3 no commodious building no instruments of moving and removing such things as require much force b We are all enemies in the state of war because we ght for 3 things i Competition we ght to gain limited resources ii Diffidence we mistrust others so we ght for safety iii Glory we ght to get the best of the limited resources 1 We ght for reputation c Peace any state other than the state of naturewar d Laws of nature laws for survival lex naturalis pg 105 4 foundational laws i Seek peace and follow it ii Defend oneself by all means aka the right of nature or just naturale iii Do unto others as you would have done to you aka the Golden Rule iv Keep your promises covenant e How the Social Contract works 2 requirements i Must have a covenant promise I will give up my right of nature in exchange for protection from the government And therefore the government has an obligation to protect me and my stuff and to punish transgressors 1 This promise is to make a trade between a right and a duty they are interchangeable and interdependent a Right a privilege or bene t something that is guaranteed and something that I am entitled to b Duty an obligation to preserve a right i Obligations can be positive or negative 1 Positive duty requires action 2 Negative duty does not require action ie just have to stay out of their way to preserve their right to be left alone don t have to do anything ii Must have an enforcer someone to impelpersuade ppl not to transgress the government has to be there 1 There has to be an executive one person that makes everyone do something f A valid covenant has 2 parts i An expression of the covenant 1 Say that you ve made the promise 2 talk the talk ii An inference of the covenant 1 Your actions should be consistent with the promise made 2 walk the walk 31616 Lecture Notes Hobbes Review and Ross 1 Hobbes a What he is i Ethics ethical egoist consequentialist focuses on selfinterest Social contract theorist deontology depends on the natural law theory that states that the extent to which I am moral is the extent to which I am moral ii Metaphysics materialist soft realism nominalist iii Epistemology empiricist b State of nature state of wara state of all against all state in which has no government and no constitutionallegislative laws i Equality 1 Both mentally and physically 2 Conceit ii Limited resources 1 When we ght we ght in the state of nature we ght for 3 things a Competition to gain limited resources b Dif dence to ght for safety out of mistrust c Glory to ght for the best resources c State of peace any time that isn t the state of nature d Law of nature laws of survival i Seek peace and follow it ii Defend yourself by all means aka the right of nature iii Do unto others what you would have done to you aka the golden rule and non male cence iv Keep your promises relates to Kant e Social contract need 2 things this is morality to Hobbes aka the only way we can be moral i Covenant promise I will give up my right of nature the ability to defend myself in exchange for the government s protection The government must also punish transgressors 1 Rights guaranteed privilegebene t 2 Duties obligation to protect a right ii Enforcer someone to impelmotivate everyone to keep their promise f Justice keeping your promises pg 107 i Fool someone who thinks it is sometimes rational to break one s promises 1 Hobbes Response he admits that selfpreservation is rational but if we break our promises we are preventing our best chance at survival via the social contract of which is built on a promise a If we break promises then we can t have our social contract and if we can t have our social contract we will be in a state of naturestate of war 2 The social contract allows us to ful ll our human nature by following the Laws of Nature and ful lling of human nature is how we are moral a The social contract creates morality 2 William David Ross WD Ross a Background i He is a Scotsman ii British intuitionist believe that we apprehend knowledge and reality in an immediate way iii Who he is 1 Metaphysics realist 2 Epistemology rationalist 3 Ethics moral realist principlist primefacie duties theorist pluralist b What makes right acts right he isn t happy with Kant and utilitarianism i Critiques of utilitarianism and Kantianism 1 ideal utilitarianism states that we should replace maximizing happiness with maximizing good a b the extent to which we are moral is the extent to which we maximize goodness for the most amount of people i all people are counted equally 2 problems will ideal utilitarianism pg 113114 i It fails to account for the duties that arise from promises ii It fails to account for the moral significance of relationships 1 ie this means that it s okay that we view the people closest to us as more morally significant than a stranger we can still care about strangers but the people in my realm of relationships matter more 2 Kantianism 1 big problem a c Ross s Alternative Doesn t allow for breaking moral prohibitions ie breaking promises or lying i Prime facie duties features of actions that are always morally relevant and help to guide our action all equal Further these duties can always be outweighed by any of the other prime facie duties depending on context 7 kinds 1 Duties resting on my previous actions a b e f g Duties of fidelity keeping my promises Duties of reparation making up for my broken promises because it s okay to break them sometimes all I have to do is make up for it Duties of gratitude based on previous actions of others i ie if someone does something nice for me I have a duty to say thank you Duties of justice people should get a proportionate amount of bene t as compared to their merit Duties of bene cence be good to other people Duties of selfimprovement we should improve our own situation Duties of nonmaleficence we should not intentionally do harm to others ii Medical ethics is based a lot around prime facie duties 1 Re ective equilibrium snsz Justice Nonmaleficence Beneficence autonomy
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