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by: Jake


Early Europe
Sean Field

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Weekly Notes
Early Europe
Sean Field
Class Notes
History Eary Europe
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Jake on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST105 at University of Vermont taught by Sean Field in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Early Europe in History at University of Vermont.


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Date Created: 03/16/16
Europe expanding 9001000 Key Terms King Alfred Hugh Capet Capetian Dynasty Otto I Ottonian Dynasty King Cnut King Alfred Vikings had conquered the lower half of the British Isles Alfred King of Wessex Over Thirty years he pushes the Vikings out of England The area he liberates becomes the heart of modern day England Divides the area of England into shires controlled by powerful lords who serve under Alfred English language begins developing in the Isles Olde English English political and cultural identity begins developing alongside a more coherent unified kingdom The Capetian Dynasty and the Emergence of France Carolingian Emperors essentially lost all real political authority Vikings attacking France Emperors do not do enough to stop it lose support from nobles and commoners Hugh Capet First king of France Takes the throne from the Carolingians establishes the Capetian Dynasty The Capetian king do not control all of France but are the most powerful lords in the kingdom at the time Ottonian Germany The New Empire Dukes in the eastern empire claimed power when the empire collapsed German kings rule a more centralized state than the French kings and wield more political and military power Henry of Saxony chosen as king Otto the Great Son of Henry Defeated the Magyars at Lechfeld 955 Invaded Italy 951 962 Italy still in political chaos Crowned Emperor of the Romans 962 Papacy establishes similar relationship with Otto as it did with Charlemagne Holy Roman Empire The New Christian Monasteries Poland Hungary Russia all develop Christian Monarchies 1000 AD Norway Sweden Denmark All develop Christian monarchies 1000 AD Not necessarily a religious decision it was mainly a political decision necessary for interactions with other Christian monarchies Danish Kings conquer England Swein Forkbeard 9851014 Cnut 10141035 The Take Off Economy and society 10001300 Key Terms Agricultural Revolution Manors Manorialism Serfs Communes Population expansion 10001300 AD European population triples 1525 million in 1000 6080 million by 1300 Climate Improves allows for land expansion and agricultural success No major epidemics between Justinian s plague and 1348 The Black Death End of major invasions by outside forces Western Europe starts producing more food healthier citizens longer lives more children Agricultural revolution Two theories People began clearing more land BottomUp economics The more land the peasants expand into the more successful they will be This in turn builds up the local lord by making his land more prosperous Economic selfInterest of the Lords TopDown Economics The lords fuel the peasant s expansion for their personal gain they are the source of expansion not the peasants The Commercial Revolution Agricultural Surplus People lived longer and healthier lives allowing for more time to be spent on technological improvement since there was less concern about starvation New fairs New Trade and Trade routes New roads slowly established but most routes went along rivers by boat making it much easier to sell products across Europe New banking Techniques Money vouchers and checks make it safer to travel on business without having to worry about being robbed Growth of Towns Trade centers begin popping up along trade routes aiding the economy and fueling expansion within the towns Communes and Guilds Communes A lord grants a town autonomy with the requirement that they pay him a certain amount of money every year Guilds Body of Merchants and Artisans that oversees the trade and production of a certain good or service that their town produces The Aristocracy Military Technology and Power Knights heavy Calvary wore 50 Lbs of Armor and carried many weapons essentially medieval tanks Bowmen Short bow shortrange combat Crossbow can pierce chainmail better range than short bow incredibly effective in battle Castles Heavily fortified castles began developing Originally small crude and functional powerful castles expanded and became increasingly ornate as a display of wealth and power by the lords that controlled them Chivalry Tournaments turn from a team sport into fight for individual glory The idea of chivalry was used by knights to justify their existence in a world that didn t need them Tournaments turned from training for war to entertainment for lords Popes Vs Emperors 10001200 Key Terms Cluniac Reforms Gregorian reforms Pope Gregory VII Emperor Frederick I Cluniac Reforms Began 910 Network of daughter houses outside of lay secular control reporting only to the pope The monastery at Cluny established by the Duke of Aquitaine Unusual as the duke was surrendering power to the church First example of a monastic order reporting directly to the papacy Gregorian Reforms or revolutions Advocated a the separation of the church from all secular powers primarily kings and emperors Attempts to establish a strict church hierarchy stemming from the Papacy 1000AD Ottonian Emperors rely on bishops and abbots for administrative functions and spiritual validation The Emperors are more powerful than the Popes at this time Goals of the Eleventh Century reform points Instance on Clerical Celibacy End of Simony Bargaining and payment for church offices Papa investiture of bishops the pope gets to decide who gets to be bishops Investiture controversy Emperor Henry IV r10561106 Vs Pope Gregory VII r 10731085 Gregory forbids any secular authority emperors from investing Bishops 1075 German emperors clash with popes German nobility backs the popes because they benefit from a weakened emperor Henry IV humbles himself at Canossa an attempt to reunite with the church after his excommunication Compromise is reached with The Concordat of Worms in 1122 Emperor Henry V and Pope Calixtus II Popes invest Bishops with their spiritual authority and the emperors have limited ability to appoint bishops The popes win they end up with more power and control over the Bishops If they want a certain person to be bishop they simply have to refuse to invest power in anyone else the emperor attempts to appoint Papal Monarchy Success in the Investiture Controversy The papacy gains political authority The First Crusade is called in 1095 Lateran councils 1123 1139 1179 1215 Once a generation called to establish church doctrine and address issues facing the church powers Europewide network of church courts Territorial Claims to central Italy Papal States establish the church as a more powerful political force Imperial Struggles in the First Half of the Twelfth Century Henry V dies without an Heir leading to political infighting and chaos within the empire Frederick Barbarossa r 1 1521 190 looking for new sources of imperial power New title Sacrum Imperial Holy Emperor The canonization of Charlemagne gave him a direct link to divine authority Establishes a series of AntiPopes in order to avoid recognizing Pope Alexander III Alexander III encourages the formation of the Lombard League in 1167 to resist Frederick s attempts to dominate Northern Italy Battle of Legnano in 1176 The league wins is the major battle in their con ict Frederick and Alexander finally make up around the time of the third Lateran Council in 1179 Frederick I drowns in a river during the Third Crusade in 1190


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