INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1101
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dayne Mohr on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Donald Bearden in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/209835/psyc-1101-georgia-state-university in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
1 Benefit Method of Child Development 2 Sensory Memory a 3 things i ecioic sound ii iconic visual iii haptic touch 3 Proactive Interference 4 Flashbulb Memory a when an event is paired with emotional arousal which causes hormonal changes that we would most likely remember i EX a surprise or tragedy etc 5 Serial Position Effects a Rehearsal 6 Mental Set a the tendency to repeat solutions that have worked in the past 7 Heuristic a simple thinking strategy allowing us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently speedier but more error prone than algorithms flash of insights linked to brain activity b Representative heuristic prototype i judging the likelihood of things based on how well they seem to match particular prototypes ii Ex developing a prototype of experiences in the mind thinking that if you have long hair and are laid back you must be from california to judge new experiences c Availability heuristic memory i estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory ii Ex thinking you will live longer by smoking weed because your grandfater lived to be 105 years old and he used to smoke d both of these heuristics are used to make snap decisions 8 What is Concept 9 Algorithim a a methodical rule or stepbystep procedure that guarantee a solution discovering an efficacy A process we use for problem solving 1O Gardner s Theory of Intelligence a brain damage diminishing one s ability but not others is known as savant syndrome i savant syndrome individually the person excels in only one area but is really bad in other areas b based on this gardner proposed the idea of multiple inteilligence i he said brain damage will cause an effect but only effect one of the mental abilities 11 What is Prototype a a mental image or best category of a particular cateogry i ex a robin fits into the bird category more than does a penguin 12 What is Cognition a mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating b cognitive psychologist study these activities including the logical and illogical ways we create concepts solve problems make decisions and form judgements 13 Which type of memory list would you remember 14 Robert Sternbergs Theory of Intelligence a includes analytic academic problem solving practical and creative intelligences b look up more information in book 15 Know Poly Graphs a BOOK b Lie Detector Tests 16 Bulimia a Is characterized by private bingepurge episodes of overeating usually of high calorie foods followed by vomiting laxative use fasting or excessive exercise i Always includes binge purging 17 Anorexia a Atypicalweight person usually an adolescent caucasian female diets to become significantly gt15 underweight yet still feels fat and is obsessed with losing weight i can fast and ii also includes binge purge to become undenNeight 18 Main Difference between Anorexia and Bulimia a Anorexic people are usually undenNeight by 15 also anorexia includes fasting whereas bulimia only includes purging 19 What is Binge Purge a eating then vomiting Binge Eating Disorder a marked by significant binge eating episodes followed by remorse but not by purging fasting or excessive exercise i no fasting purging ii typically feel very guilty after eating high calorie meals Homeostasis a Maintaining a stability and balance internally in the body Encoding a Retrieval b Rehearsal i shorttermtolongterm Serial Positioning Effect a Primacy Effect i tendency to remember the first few things on a list b Recency effect i tendency to remember the last fewthings because it is still floating around in your echoic memory Primacy Effect a 1st half Recency Effect a remembering the last half of a list Semantic Encoding a One is more likely to remember something if it has meaning or relation to them b Yields better memory of verbal information and acoustic or visual Set Point a A biologically fixed tendency to maintain an optimum weight b changes depending on life style Drive Instinct a complex behaviors that are rigidly patterned throughout a species and are unlearned innate or inherent Maslow s levels of need n he is going to give examplesscenarios gt know which level he is talking about Expresses the idea that until satisfied some motive are more compelling than others Basic needs must be met before anything else according to maslow the theory is not always true gt being homeless but still feel for love forfamily or soldiers protecting or giving a child food before yourself if you are both starving i physiological breathing food water sex sleep homeostasis excretion i39 safety of body family health property i39 lovebelonging friendship family sexual intimacy iv esteem self confidence achieve respect v self actualization problem solving morality creativity acceptance look up definitions from book 0 O39 Q 31 Emotional Arousal a Know2factortheory 32 Cannon Bard Theory 33 James Long Theory 34 Implicit Memory a Retention without conscious recollection 35 Explicit a Memory of acts and experiences that one knows consciously and can share b Being able to knowthat you do throughout your day 36 Deja vu a sometimes referred to as Temporal Memory Epilepsy b already seen before c 70 of most of the population have experienced this phenomenon Age 1525 years old d It occurs in the temporal lobe of the brain 37 Savant Syndrome a savant syndrome individually the person excels in only one area but is really bad in other areas 38 Creativity a people with high intelligence scores do well on creativity test but beyond a score of about 120 IQ i research says there are 5 components expertise 2 imaginative thinking skills 3 personality 4 intrinsic motivation 5 creative environment 1 basically people categorised as retarded have a strength in another area Savant syndrome lady the lady excelled in music but not anything else 39 Proactive Interference a something learned in the past interferences with our ability to recall something we have recently learned 4O Retroactive Interference a something we recently learned interferences with something we learned in the past 41 Reification or Reifying intelligence chapter 10 42 Heritability a Flynn effect 43 Stereotype Threat 44 Reliability a Reliability and validity are important to test develeopment b Reliability refers to the extent to which a test yields consistent scores i the same score should be archived if a retest is done 45 Validity a refers to the extent to which a test measures or predicts what is supposed to occur i Content Validity 1 determined by assessing whether the test truly samples the behavior that is of interest Is the content getting to the cognitive domain ii Predictive Validity 1 is determined by computing the correlations between test scores and some criterion Ex GPA is supposed to predict success 46 Standardization a look in book but in chapter 10 47 Drive Reduction Theory 48 49 5O 51 52 53 54 55 56 a proposes that most physiological needs create arounds psychological states that drive us to reduce or satisfy those needs in an attempt to maintain homeostasis i we are also pulled by external incentives Ex money Basal Metabolic Rate a the body s resting rate of energy expenditure b Ex more muscle gt higher BMR because they have a higher muscle mass and metabolism and its also known as the amount lost while the body is at rest State Dependent Memory a mood congruent memories i research shows depressed people will recall negative memories or if you are in a particular mood you are going to remember those memories you had in that same mood b example talked about in class when you drink coffee to study you should drink coffee when you take the exam same with gum Spacing Effect a retaining more information more easily if you distribute time What we call heuristic common tongue is rule of thumb NeurologicalPhysiological effect of Alzheimer39s a knowthe 2 symptoms of it Functional Fixedness a ourtendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed and unchanging i Ex using a shoe as a hammer Confirmation Bias a searching for information that confirms our beliefs and ideas and ignoring contradictory evidence i Ex once people form a bad idea they will not budge Aptitude Test a measuring the abilitiescapacity to learn Achievement Test a crystallized knowledge assess what a person has learned Ex in school b how are these 2 tests different i one measures the amount one can learn and the other measures what the person has already learned c what are they testing d what do they measure Encoding different types a effortless processing b automatic encoding What is Prototype a a mental image or best category of a particular category i ex a robin fits into the bird category more than does a penguin Chunking a Cluster information in familiar units i fb itw act aib mkg b ii fbi twa cia igm etc Spacing Effect a retaining more information more easily if you distribute time Morphines Phonemes Language Brain Injuries a 2 types b know language disorder and part of brain where it is affected Emotional valence and Arousal Long Term Potentiation Telegraphic Speech Phases of Child Language discussed in Class a their receptive language abilities mature before their productive language i 4 months old babbling ii 1 year old oneword stage iii 2 years old twoword stage iv telegraphic speech stringing words together to make speech Cerebellum and Hippocampus a Hippocampus i Feeds new information into the cortex for permanent storage ii Auditory information gt hippocampus gt temporal lobe 1 Ex in Alzheimer39s they are able to regenerate new cells with medicine same with depression iii Explicit memory memory of facts and experiences b Cerebellum i Processes Implicit memories 1 Implicit memories retention without conscious recollection c type of memory in each 69 PegWord System 70 Short Term 71 Long term 72 Working Memory 73 Belief Perspective 74 General Adaptation Syndrome 75 Eugenics Movement a just know originated from the United States b America was unwilling to make changes People were being sterilized forthe best phenotypes to succeed Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 8 Memory 1 What are the stages of memory we discussed in class a Encoding types visual acoustic semantics Semantics is the most effective especially when it is related to self b Storage c Retrieval 2 What is the difference between shortterm vs working memory a Working memory is the use and processing of short term memories 3 Understand all terms in the lecture slide related to memory eg spacing effect serial position encoding a Primacy effect increased ability to remember the rst items in a list b Recency increased ability to rememberthe last item in a list c Serial position effect ability to remember is effected by when the information appears in a study d Spacing effect retain more easily if we distribute rehearsal instead of one long session e Encoding capacity for holding a small amount of information in the mind in an active readily state for a short period oftime 4 What are mnemonics and what are they used for What are examples ofthese a Mnemonics are anything used to help retention i Chunking organizing info into small manageable parts 5 What is longterm potentiation a Forming or strengthening of neural interconnections due to increased activity in neural pathways long lasting increase of the response ofa postsynaptic neuron to a particular pattern of stimuli from a presynaptic neuron 6 Know the parts ofthe brain associated with memory that we discussed and that are in your book a Hippocampus feeds new information into the cortex for permanent storage long term and spatial navigation i Right side visual and location memory ii Left side verbal memory b Cerebellum processes implicit memories i Implicit memories include procedural memory motor learning and classical conditioning c Synapses places where neurons meet to communicate 7 Understand differing types of memory eg flashbulb implicit etc a Flash bulb event is paired with emotional arousal causing hormonal changes more likely to remember b Implicit memory retention without conscious recollection c Explicit memory of facts and experiences that one knows consciously and can share d 8 Understand proactive and retroactive interference a Proactive interference something learned in the past interferes with our ability to recall something we have recently learned b Retroactive interference something recently learned interferes with something learned in the past 9 What are the misinformation effect imagination inflation and source amnesia a Source amnesia refers to an explicit episodic memory disorder in which someone can recall certain information but does not know where or how they obtained it b Misinformation effect a memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects the peoples reports on their own memory Misinformation can convince us ofan event that never really happened 0 Imagination inflation details ofa memory are exaggerated versions ofthe actual even Chapter 9 Thinking and Language 1 Explain the terms concept and categories as discussed in class and according to lecture slides a Concepts groupings of similar ideas used to organize events objects and people b 2 What type of focus do cognitive psychologists have according to lecture and the text a Thinking knowing remembering and communicating 3 What is a prototype How are they used with regard to concepts a prototype concepts are assigned a mental picture or specific examplememory to help include all of its parts Le a dog 4 legs pointy nose barking 4 Understand heuristics as discussed during lecture a Simple ef cient rules hard coded by evolutionary processes or learned which explain how people make decisions come to judgments and solve problems typically when facing complex problems or incomplete information usually works but can lead to systematic errors or cognitive bias b Representativeness heuristic judging the likelihood of things based on how well they seem to fit or match particular prototypes 0 Availability heuristic occurs when we base ourjudgment on the availability of information in our memories 5 What is the difference between trial and error and developing and algorithm when problem solving 6 a Trial and error process of nding a solution to a problem by trying as many possible solutions and learning from mistakes until a way is found b Precise step by step plan for a computational procedure that begins with an input value and yields an output value in a finite number of steps Know all terms related to language from the text and lecture slides eg semantics syntax phonemes etc 7 a Phoneme smallest most basic unit of sound b Segmentation any discrete unit that can be identi ed either physically or auditory in stream of speech 0 Semantics rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes words and sentences d Syntax refers to the rules we use to order words into grammatically sensible sentences Compare and contrast the following terms con rmation bias xation mental set framing and belief perseverance 8 a Belief perseverance cling to our ideas in the face of contrary evidence b Framing set of information that individuals rely on to understand and respond to events 0 Confirmation bias tendency of people to favor information that confirms their beliefs or hypotheses d Fixation state of mind involving obsession with a particular person idea or thing e Intuition immediate cognition without the use of conscious rational processes f Mental set tendency to approach situations in a certain way because that method worked in the past Know stages of child language a 4 months babbling b First birthday one word stage c d 9 d e Chapter 10 In 1 Second birthday two word stage Telegraphic speech Know brain areas associated with language and what they do Angular gyrus reading aloud visual mathematics and cognition Supramarginal gyrus Brocas area language production Wernicke s area language comprehension Primary auditory cortex telligence What is intelligence What kind ofdifferent intelligences are there theorized to be eg emotional academic etc How do we estimate this eg what tells us if someone is intelligent a in a particular area The ability to learn from experience solve problems and use knowledge to adapt to new situations b Emotional intelligence perceive understand manage and use to promote creative and adaptive thinking 0 task 2 Understand both a intel General intelligence those who excel at one type of cognitive tend to excel in other kinds of cognitive tasks too Gardener s and Sternberg s theories of multiple intelligences Garderner Theory of multiple intelligence differentiates ligence into various specific modalities wide range of cognitive abilities and there are only very weak correlations among them i Model of 8 intelligences verbal logical mathematical visualspatial musicalrythmic bodily kinesthetic naturalist intrapersonal interpersonal existential b intel Sternberg triarchic theory analytical creative and practical hgence i mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to selection and shaping of realworld environments relevant to one s life 3 What are aptitude and achievement tests used for what do they tell us about someone a Aptitude tests measure the capacity to learn b Achievement tests assess what a person has learned 0 WAIS standardization normal curve used to measure intelligence in adults and older adolescents 4 What are reliability and validity used for a Reliability refers to the extent to which a test yields consistent scores b Validity refers to the extent to which a test measure or predicts what it is supposed to 5 What is eugenics Review notes from class discussion and video a Study or belief in the possibility of improving the qualities of the human species or a human population especially by means as discouraging reproduction by persons having genetic defects or presumed to have inheritable undesired traits Chapter 11 Motivation 1 What is motivation a A need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal 2 What are instincts a Complex behaviors that are rigidly patterned throughout a species and are unlearned 3 What does Drive Reduction Theory posit about an organism s behavior a When a physiological need arises so does a psychological drive to reduce the need ex when we are hungry we are driven to eat b Purpose is to conserve internal stability homeostasis 4 Understand Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs a Bottoms layers must be met rst before moving up 5 6 b Physiological breathing food water sex sleep 0 Safety security of body employment resources morality the family health property d Lovebelonging friendship family sexual intamacy e Esteem selfesteem confidence achievement respect of others respect by others f Selfactualization morality creativity spontaneity problem solving lack of prejudice acceptance offacts Understand terms used in the lecture slides regarding motivation eg set point a Set point biologically fixed tendency to maintain an optimum weight b Basal metabolic rate body s resting rate of energy expenditure Have a good understanding and be able to differentiate among the eating disorders discussed in class a Anorexia nervosa typical weight person diets yet still feels fat and obsessed with losing weight b Bulimia nervosa obsession with food private bingepurge episodes of overeating usually high calorie foods followed by vomiting laxative use fasting or excessive exercise 0 Bungeeating disorder significant binge eating episodes followed by remorse but not purging or fasting usually ovenNeight Chapter 12 Emotions and Stress 1 Compare and contrast the following theories regarding emotions JamesLange CannonBard Twofactor a James Lange theory states that our experience of an emotion is a consequence ofour physiological response to a stimulus eg we are afraid because our heart pounds b CannonBard theory proposes that the physiological response an our emotional experience occur simultaneously heart pounding and fear occur simultaneously 0 Two factor theory focuses on the inteplay ofthinking and feeling not on the timing of feelings to experience emotion one must 1 Be physically aroused 2 Cognitiver label the arousal How are cognition and emotion related a Physiological arousal drives emotion and our cognition frames it b Spillover effect when people are already in a state of heightened physiological arousal and then an experience happens that provokes them to feel either a negative or positive emotion and that emotion is more intense What are the dimensions of emotion valence a Valance One dimension value assigned to an object situation or state that can usually be positive or negative b Intensity high arousal vs low arousal What is the Cartharsis Hypothesis Does it work a Release of emotional tension after an ovenNhelming vicarious experience resulting in the purging or purification ofthe emotions b Research indicates that people actually feel more aggressive after punching a punching bag What does research tell us about happiness a Happiness makes us more likely to engage in altruistic tasks the feel good do good phenomenon b Happy people do better in life What is stress and how does it affect us What can be done to help manage stress a Stress is an emotional pressure prolonged stress leads to health difficulties high blood pressure asthma and skin rashes b How we perceive and appraise a situation more than from the actual situation i Pros motivate fend off illnesses ii Cons lead to future health issues c Coping with stress i Problem focused coping changing the stressor or the way we interact with it ii Emotion focused coping used when we believe we cannot change a situation iii Aerobic exercise to increase heart rate and lung fitness iv Biofeedback technique consisting of measuring a person39s quantifiable bodily functions such as blood pressure heart rate skin temperature sweat gland activity and muscle tension then conveying the information to the person in realtime v Aromatherapyacupuncture massage therapies taking herbs going to a chiropractor 7 What is the General Adaptation Syndrome a Body s adaptive response to stress in 3 stages i Alarm physiological reactions including increased heat rate and faintness ii Resistance produce stress hormones increasing temperature blood pressure respiration iii Exhaustion vulnerable to illness collapse This is not a comprehensive study guide To do well on the exam you must have completed the readings and be familiar with lecture slides and inclass notes Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 8 1 What are the stages of memory we discussed in class 2 What is the difference between shortterm vs working memory 3 Understand all terms in the lecture slide related to memory eg spacing effect serial position encoding 4 What are mnemonics and what are they used for What are examples of these 5 What is longterm potentiation 6 Know the parts of the brain associated with memory that we discussed and that are in your book 7 Understand differing types of memory eg flashbulb implicit etc 8 Understand proactive and retroactive interference 9 What are the misinformation effect imagination inflation and source amnesia Chapter 9 1 Explain the terms quotconceptquot and quotcategoriesquot as discussed in class and according to lecture slides 2 What type of focus do cognitive psychologists have according to lecture and the text 3 What is a prototype How are they used with regard to concepts 4 Understand heuristics as discussed during lecture 5 What is the difference between trial and error and developing and algorithm when problem solving 6 Know all terms related to language from the text and lecture slides eg semantics syntax phonemes etc 7 Compare and contrast the following terms confirmation bias fixation mental set framing and belief perseverance 8 Know stages of child language 9 Know brain areas associated with language and what they do Chapter 10 1 What is intelligence What kind of different intelligences are there theorized to be eg emotional academic etc How do we estimate this eg what tells us if someone is intelligent in a particular area 2 Understand both Gardener s and Sternberg s theories of multiple intelligences 3 What are aptitude and achievement tests used for what do they tell us about someone 4 What are reliability and validity used for 5 What is eugenics Review notes from class discussion and video Chapter 11 1 What is motivation 2 What are instincts 3 What does Drive Reduction Theory posit about an organism s behavior 4 Understand Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 5 Understand terms used in the lecture slides regarding motivation eg set point 6 Have a good understanding and be able to differentiate among the eating disorders discussed in class Chapter 12 1 Compare and contrast the following theories regarding emotions JamesLange CannonBard Twofactor 2 How are cognition and emotion related 3 What are the dimensions of emotion valence 4 What is the Cartharsis Hypothesis Does it work 5 What does research tell us about happiness 6 What is stress and how does it affect usWhat can be done to help manage stress 7 What is the General Adaptation Syndrome This is not a comprehensive study guide To do well on the exam you must have completed the readings and be familiar with lecture slides and inclass notes Good Luck
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