INTRO TO HUMAN SEXUALITY
INTRO TO HUMAN SEXUALITY PSYC 2070
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lquot gt Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity Sex The biological aspects of being male or female Gender The behavioral psychological and social characteristics of men and women PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT X AND Y MAKE THE DIFFERENCE Complex organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction where two parents each donate a gamete or germ cell which combine to create a new organism The germ cells from the sperm and from the ovum each contains half of the new person s genes which direct the development of the genitals and reproductive organs and set the biological clock running to trigger puberty female menopause and male andropause Most cells in the human body contain forty six chromosomes arranged in twenty three pairs Twenty two of the pairs look almost identical and are referred to as autosomes The two sex chromosomes are made up of an X chromosome donated by the woman s ovum and either an X or Y chromosome donated by the man s sperm If the male contributes an X chromosome the child will be female XX and if it is a Y the child will be male XY During fertilization a sperm and egg each containing twenty three chromosomes called haploid join to produce a zygote containing forty six chromosomes called diploid The zygote can now undergo mitosis cell division and reproduce its forty six chromosomes The forty six chromosomes are threadlike bodies made up of over 100000 genes each of which contains deoxyribonucleic acid DNA that acts as a blueprint for how every cell in the organism will develop Sexual Differentiation in the Womb A human embryo typically undergoes about nine months of gestation At about four to six weeks the first tissues that become the embryo s gonads develop 1 Internal sex organs a Around the fifth to sixth week of gestation the primitive gonads form which can potentially develop into testes or ovaries b The primitive duct system the Mullerian duct female or the Wolffian duct male develop by the tenth or eleventh week c In female embryos hormones lead to the disappearance of the Wolffian ducts and the Mullerian duct fuses to form the uterus the inner third of the vagina and the Fallopian tubes d In male embryos the testes begin producing Mullerian inhibiting factor MlF and testosterone which cause the Mullerian ducts to disappear 2 External sex organs a Male and female organs that began from the same prenatal tissue are called homologous b In females hormones cause the mound of skin beneath the umbilical cord the genital tubercle to develop into the clitoris the labia minora the vestibule and the labia majora c In males androgen stimulates the skin beneath the umbilical cord to develop the penis the urethra and the scrotum 3 Hormonal Development and In uences a Endocrine glands such as the gonads secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream to be carried to the target organs Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity Fr The ovaries produce the two major female hormones estrogen and progesterone Estrogen is an important influence in the development of female sexual characteristics throughout life While progesterone regulates the menstrual cycle and prepares the uterus for pregnancy d The testes produce androgen which in uences the development of male sexual characteristics throughout life 4 Brain Differentiation a Most hormonal secretions are regulated by the brain yet hormones also affect the development of the brain b Female brains control menstruation and must signal the release of hormones in a monthly cycle Whereas male brains signal release of hormones continuously B Atypical Sexual Differentiation Not Always Just X and Y 0 Atypical sexual differentiation may be caused by hormone or genetic irregularities and can result in an infant born With ambiguous genitals or external genitals that do not match the infant s genetic sex 1 Sex chromosome disorders a Klinefelter s syndrome 0 Occurs in about one in 700 live male births 0 An ovum containing an extra X chromosome is fertilized by a Y sperm resulting in XXY 0 Men With XYY are infertile have small testicles low levels of testosterone can have gynecomastia and are tall With feminized boy contours 0 Testosterone therapy can enhance the development of secondary sexual characteristics 0 b Tumer s syndrome 0 Occurs in about one in 2500 live female births 0 An ovum Without any sex chromosome is fertilized by an X sperm resulting in X0 0 External genitalia look typical but ovaries do not develop fully causing amenorrhea and infertility 0 Turner s syndrome can cause short stature immature breast development abnormalities of certain internal organs and mental retardation 0 Administration of estrogen and progesterone can enhance the development of secondary sexual characteristics c XYY syndrome and triple X syndrome occur rarely 0 May cause slight mental retardation and fertility problems 2 Hormonal irregularities A hermaphrodite is born With fully formed ovaries and fully formed testes Which is very very rare Most individuals With intersex conditions are pseudohermaphrodites Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH 0 A genetic female XX is exposed to large amounts of androgens during prenatal development 0 Occurs in l in 10000 to 18000 girls 0 The internal organs remain female but the external organs may appear masculinized Androgen insensitivity syndrome AIS 0 A genetic male XY does not respond to testosterone and develops internal testes With female external genitalia 0 Occur39s in l in 20000 boys 9 06 Fl Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity 0 AIS is typically determined in adolescence when girls do not menstruate C Treatment for ambiguous genitalia I Today s experts recommend no surgery until a child can consent due to the uncertainty about intersex conditions in infancy This would mean waiting until the child is 3 5 to determine how to proceed II GENDER ROLES AND GENDER TRAITS 0 gender rolesgculturally defined behaviors seen as appropriate for males and females 0 gender traitsiinnate or biologically determined gender specific behaviors A Girls Act Like Girls Boys Act Like Boys 1 Masculinity and femininity refer to the ideal cluster of 1raits that society attributes to each gender 2 Most societies have cultural figures who are supposed to embody the traits of masculinity and femininity and serve as models for socializing youths into their gender roles 3 Many studies have documented less gender role stereotyping in African American populations than in Caucasian populations 4 Changing gender roles can result in confusion fear and even hostility in society because gender roles can allow for comfortable interaction between the sexes since people can assume how they are supposed to behave in relation to the other sex B Are Gender Roles Innate l Behaviors are complex and are almost always interactions between one s innate biological capacities and the environment in which one lives and acts 2 Research has explored various physical traits such as size and emotional traits such as mothering to determine what traits might be innate but no differences between the sexes are universally accepted by researchers C Studying Gender 1 During the 1970s and 1980s the focus of gender research was on girls whereas increasing research is now being conducted on boys in addition to girls 2 Researchers have also been interested in whether people overestimate or underestimate gender characteristics III GENDER ROLE THEORY 0 Socializationithe process whereby an infant is taught the basic skills for functioning in societ A Evolutionary Biology Adapting to Our Environment B Social Learning Theory 1 We learn our gender roles from our environment and from the same system of rewards and punishments that we learn our other social roles 2 Children learn to model their behavior after the same gender parent to win parental approval 3 Children also see models of the appropriate ways for their genders to behave in their books on television and when interacting with others C Cognitive Development Theory Age State Learning 1 All children go through a universal pattern of development following the ideas of Piaget 1951 who suggested that social attitudes in children are mediated through their cognitive developmental level 2 Children begin to categorize themselves based on the information they receive about their genders U H lt gt Dd 0 U m Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity 3 Rigid gender role behavior should decrease after the age of seven or eight once children realize that gender roles are social and arbitrary Gender Schema Theory Our Cultural Maps 1 According to Sandra Bem 1981 1983 1987 children think according to schemas which are cognitive mechanisms that organize our world 2 Gender schemas organize our thinking about gender as determined by culture 3 The gender schema becomes so ingrained that people do not even realize that they are created by stereotypes VARIETIES OF GENDER Culture and social structure interact to create sex typing a way of thinking that splits the world into two basic categoriesimale and femaleiand suggests that most behaviors thoughts actions professions emotions and so on fit one gender more than the other Williams amp Best 1994 collected data about masculinity and femininity in thirty different countries and found that people largely agree on gender role stereotypes Masculinity The Hunter 1 It is difficult for men to live up to the strong social demands of being male due to the contradictions inherent in masculinity 2 Male stereotypes tend to be narrower than female stereotypes and men who want to conform to society s ideas of masculinity have less exibility in their behavior than women who want to live up to feminine stereotypes Femininity The Nurturer 1 Sheila Rothrnan 1978 has argued that American society has gone through a number of basic conceptions of what womanhood should be such as virtuous or wife companion 2 The mes sages women receive from modern North American culture are contradictory such as messages about beauty and careers Androgyny Feminine and Masculine l Androgyny refers to having both masculine and feminine characteristics 2 In the 1970s researchers suggested that androgyny was a desirable state since androgynous individuals have greater exibility in behavior because they have a greater repertoire of possible reactions to a situation Transgenderism Living As the Other Sex 1 Transgenderismioverarching category for gender role non conformism transsexualism tansvestism etc are forms of transgenderism 2 Transsexualsia person who feels that he or she is trapped in the body of the wrong ender 3 Transvestiteia person who dresses in the clothing of the other gender and derives pleasure from doing so 4 Drag queensfemale impersonatorsiprofessional actors typically gay men who dress in flamboyant women s clothing to perform for a variety of reasons Transsexualism When Gender and Biology Don t Agree 1 A male transsexual feels that he is a female trapped in a man s body his gender identity is inconsistent with his or her biological sex which is called gender dysphoria 2 Sex reassignment surgery SRS refers to the procedure where transsexuals have their bodies surgically altered to resemble those of the other sex ost transsexuals report a life long desire to be a member of the other sex which is typically satisfied only through sex reassignment surgery The process of seeking gender reassignment is long and complicated involving a process of counseling hormone therapy and surgery 711 Q lt Dd Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity Third Genders Other Cultures Other Options 1 Some cultures have a gender category that is neither male nor femaleia third gender 2 A category of individuals in many Native American societies called a berdache was usually a biological male who was effeminate or androgynous in behavior and who took on the social role of females Asexualism The Genetics But Not the Sex 1 Asexuality often refers to the lack of sexual desire but can also refer to a lack of maleness or femaleness 2 Most are assigned a gender is childhood given hormones and live as male or female GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION Adulthood Careers and Families 1 Gender socialization pressures shape career choices for women and men 2 In recent years men s and women s roles have been changing in the workplace 3 Women and family life a Women receive con icting messages from American society A conservative message that women must be married and have children to be fulfilled and the feminist message that to be fulfilled women must have a career outside the home b As more women enter the workforce women are struggling with guilt feelings for being away from their homes and children with a societal dispute forcing mothers to take sides on the issue 4 Men and family life a Recent research suggests that many men are taking more responsibility for childcare and domestic chores b Because of the changing workforce the numbers of two parent heterosexual families with wives as the primary wage earners are increasing The Senior Years 1 Empty nest syndrome and retirement can be two issues that adults face as they age affecting women and men in different ways 2 As people age gender roles relax and become less restrictive DIFFERENT BUT NOT LESS THAN TOWARD GENDER EQUALITY 1 Epstein 1986 1988 believes that gender distinctions begin with basic human dichotomous thinking like good bad soft hard and male female 2 Rogers 1978 argues that we cannot apply Western notions of gender equality to countries with fundamentally different systems 3 It is the content of gender roles not their existence that societies can alter to provide each person an opportunity to live without being judged by stereotypes of gender Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships Psychology 2070 Outline Write your personal ad Dating Fun or Serious Business Marriage Happy Ever After Having Children or Remaining Childless Marital Sex Changes Over Time Extramarital Affairs It Just Happenedquot Open Marriages Sexual Adventuring Marriages in Other Cultures Sexuality in Older Adult Relationships SameSex Relationships Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships SameSex Marriage SameSex Relationships in Other Cultures Divorce Whose Fault or NoFault Why Do People Get Divorced Adjusting to Divorce Divorce in Other Cultures Forced Choice Situations iDating Fun or Serious Business Dating is a way to discover and compare q lit in search of the best partner Dating provides companionship emotional support possibly economic support Factors related to those who date better physical amp emotional health higher self esteem sexrole identity Can be difficult for homosexuals to find dates l Interracial Dating lvl 39 25 of college students reportedcurrently being in an interracial relationship 50 would be open to dating someone of another race African Americans are more open to interracial dating than Caucasians More exposure to white culture More Caucasians available Reduced pool of available black men 3quot Sexuality in Dat Relationshipsquot In college hooking up is becmingi more common 1 r quot 39 Some couples abstain from sex The woman s past sexual experience more strongly predicts a couple s sexual behavior a couple is more likely to abstain if it is a female virgin Cohabitation Instead of or On The Way to Marriage Why increased relationship failure Couples develop as separate individuals Type of people that are more likely to cohabit may be more likely to get divorce if faced with marital problems The need to test the relationship likely means a couple is not ready uquot x Marriage Happy Ever After 93 in the US say a happy marriage is an important life goal Marital satisfaction factors Quality of spousal friendship physical amp emotional intimacy both believe marriage is a longterm commitment For men frequency of pleasurable activities done together For women frequency of pleasurable activities focused on emotional closeness Never Married Rates by Race 43 40 419 I 297 H Percent White Asian Hispanic African Non Hispanic American Women i Men Marriage Happy Ever After Cont Couples usually put more effort into the marriage in the beginning Marriage quality peaks in the first few years declines to midlife rises again Marriage Happy Ever After Cont Married couples tend to be happier healthier and live longer Health benefits mostly for men Wives monitor husband s health Wives have many role responsibilities Having Children or Remainin Childless Children decrease relationship tim Married couples with children tend to ave lower marital satisfaction than those without Satisfaction decreases as the number of children increases Satisfaction is high before kids declines until kids are teens increases when kids leave Marital Sex Changes Over Time Upper classes have more frequent and varied sexual practices eg positions oral sex Asexual married couples do so out of mutual agreement typically ln marriages masturbation tends to be taboo but still practiced Men often report higher sexual needs except in senior years Marital Sex Changes Over Time Cont First 5 years of marriage sex tends to be frequent and satisfying 40 married couples have intercourse 2 timesweek 50 do so a few timesmonth Next 15 years other issues in life are focal amp there is some dissatisfaction Husbands increased interest in other women Wives decreased interest in sex overall 20 years or more sex more difficult with biological changes Heterosexual Sexual Intercourse 3 American categories 13 have intercourse at least 2xweek 13 have intercourse afewtimes a month 13 have intercourse a few times a year or National average is once a week Marriages in Later Life Remarriages after 40 tend to be more stable May cohabitate rather than remarry Older women more likely to be widowed Those still married are usually happy men more so than women Women typically care for a sick husband and lack emotional support Older men are twice as likely to remarry Women outnumber men in older age Older men tend to many younger women 39l Sexuality in Elderly Relationships Society links sexuality with youth though most elderly are sexually interested and active 50 of 60 years Americans report sex is as good or better than when they were younger Frequency of intercourse declines with age Sex oncemonth or more about 50 of those 60 40 wanted it more often Sexuality in Elderly Relationships Cont Most common behaviors over 80 touching masturbation sexual intercourse No differences related to sexual orientation Preferences may change less intercourse and more oral sex Factors related to sexual maintenance age physical health medications satisfaction in life partner availability Sexuality in Elderly Relationships Cont Most common sexual problem for elderly women lack of tenderness amp sexual contact testosterone levels do not go down in women Discontinuance of intercourse in a marriage is typically due to the male s refusal or inability erectile problems due to a variety of reasons JExtHaJnarital Affairs It Just N Happenedquot i r Less tth 5 of societies are more strict about forbidding affairs than the US Almost all couples expect exclusivity Factors related to cheaters Stronger sexual interests Permissive sexual values Less satisfaction in their relationship Opportunities for sex outside of the couple According to Georgia Code 16618 quotan unmarried person commits the offense of fornication when he voluntarily has sexual intercourse with another person and upon conviction thereof shall be punished as for a misdemeanor A person who is convicted of a misdemeanor shall be punished by a fine not to exceed 500000 or by confinement in the county or other jail for a term not to exceed 12 months or both Extramarital Affairs It Just Happened Cont 75 of Americans believed extramarital sex was intolerable 20 of women 1535 of men reported extramarital sex Process of developing an affair Become emotionally close to someone Keep relationship secret Start to do things together dating Sexual and emotional affair Extramarital Affairs It Just Happenedquot Cont Married couples are the most deceptive about sex outside of the relationship Women more likely disturbed by emotional infidelity tend to engage in emotional affairs tend to have affairs when older Men more likely disturbed by sexual infidelity tend to engage in sexual affairs typically when younger 90 affairs due to emotional needs not met King of Queens episode Season 3 Episode 1 23 and 33 Doug imitates the accent of a hot new guy from work named Rico Doug39s imitation turns on Carrie but finds 0th it is the only way to excite Carrie Open Marriages Sexual Advertising Comarital sex consenting of married couples to sexually exchange partners SwingersJPolyamorists About 3 million swingers in the US 1 Swingers tend to be white middleclass middleaged church goers Report higher satisfaction increased sexual excitement and arousal Marriages in Other Cultures Cont Arranged marriages still exist 60 worldwide Japanese business class Iran rural China 812 year old daughters sold for bride price Illegal but in Afghanistan Africa Bangladesh Marriages in Other Cultures Cont Polygamy having more than one spouse Polygyny having more than one wife Common in Africa and the Middle East Mormon fundamentalist groups in the US Wives have lower fertility rates Men gain prestige amp power women gain protection of a wealthy man Polyandry having more than one husband Less common than polygyny Usually to keep inheritance together Consanguineous marriages woman marries a relative to maintain family property Samesex marriage SameSex Marriage Defense of Marriage Act 1996 each state can recognize or deny any samesex marriages spouse is referred to as the other sex Vermont 2000 passed a civil union statute Massachusetts 2004 gave full marriage rights to same sex couples 7 states CA CT DC HI ME NJ VT IO granted legal status to samesex couples Voters in CA eliminated right to marry in 2008 SameSex Marriage Cont Samesex marriage isn t linked to procreation which the US attempts to guard Samesex marriages may be more unstable due to pressures of social disapproval SameSex Relationships in Other Cultures Netherlands Belgium Canada Spain NonNay and South Africa are the only countries that have currently legalized samesex marriage Civil unions and domestic or registered partnerships are legal in the Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Nonvay Portugal New Zealand Switzerland Sweden and the United Kingdom Australia provides equal rights Ireland lacks support Divorce Whose Fault or No Faun No fault divorce makes divorce easier and more acceptable Covenant marriages restrictive rules amp regulations for ending a marriage Couples have many reasons for staying together even though unhappy children religion lack initiative Current rates suggest 50 of US marriages will end in divorce Divorce Whose Fault or No Fault Cont Divorce rates are highest in teen women and decline with age Early marriages have a greater risk of divorce Typically divorce occurs early in a marriage median was 71 years in 1988 Interracial marriages have high divorce rates Typically one partner wants the divorce 75 of the time temale39s initiate the other is shocked W Do People Get Divorced Social Factors Accessibility and low cost Equitable division of marital assets More acceptable in US society Religious groups are less opposed than in W y Do People Get Divorced Cont Relationship Factors in Divorce Communication problems Women feel unloved belittled amp criticized Men feel neglected and that they have incompatible interests values amp goals Both sexes reported loss of sexual interest Why Do People Get Divorced Cont Adjusting to Divorce Most divorced individuals adjust well and 75 remariy typically 4 years between divorce amp remarria e Divorce is taken more easily among black men amp women than whites Often harder on women whose incomes tend to decline Some women39s careers may improve 20 of divorced fathers with children don39t provide assistance Why Do People Get Divorced Cont Divorce in Other Cultures In most societies divorce is relatively simple and ccepted Not so in mostly Roman Catholic countries Ireland legalized divorce in 1995 Chile in 2004 Easier for men to obtain a divorce in some countries Many reasons for divorce the h different patterns in different societies FORCED CHOICE SITUATIONS 77 1 Would you rather be the one to a ask for a date b wait to be asked 772 Would you rather a make the first move 1st kiss holding hands etc b have the other person make the first move 773 Would you rather be a broken up with what words would make it easier b the one to break up with someone what would you say 74 Would you rather date someone who is a older than you b the same age as you c younger than you 775 On the first date with someone would you rather a go on a double date with a friend b go alone just the two of you 776 Would you date someone if they had just broken up with your friend a yes you would date them b no you would not date them 77 Do you believe Friends with Benefits a non romantic yet sexual relationship works a yes b no 78 If you were confident that their choice would be a good one would you let your parents pick your mate a yes b no 779 Do you believe in love at first sight a yes b no 710 Do you believe it is possible to love someone and have that end or is true love forever a yes Ibelieve it is possible to stop loving someone b no I believe that once you love them you never stop loving them Do you believe distance makes the heart grow fonder a yes time away helps relationships b no time away hurts relationshi s 712 If you found out your boyfriend girlfriend cheated on you would you a stop seeing them b give them another chance 7713 Would you prefer a a wild passionate turbulent relationship b warm calm consistent one 7714 Do you tend to a trust someone unless he she has done something to make you do otherwise b withhold trust until he she has earned it Why do you think you are that way Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality I STUDYING CHILDHOOD SEXUALITY Research on childhood sexuality can be sensitive A B 0 gt Dd gt5 The US government has sponsored four large scale longitudinal studies to examine adolescent behaviors 1 National Survey of Family Growth NSF G 2 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Males NSAM 3 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health ADD 4 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System YRBS More future research is needed in the following areas 1 the frequency of sexual behaviors other than heterosexual intercourse 2 differences in gender ethnicity race religion and social class 3 same sex attractions and behavior 4 cross cultural research 5 the meaning of sexuality for young people BEGINNINGS Birth to Age 2 Physical Development Fully Equipped at Birth 1 Ultrasound has shown that male fetuses have erections in the uterus and female babies are capable of vaginal lubrication from birth 2 Kinsey established that half of boys between the ages of 3 and 4 could achieve the urogenital muscle spasms of orgasm though no uid is ejaculated U Kinsey didn t collect data on girls and orgasm but there is anecdotal evidence that girls do experience orgasm Sexual Behavior Curiosity 1 Body pleasures such as nursing or other stimulation can create a generalized neurological response that stimulates the genital response erections or vaginal lubrication 2 Masturbation a b Many infants start touching their genitals as soon as their hands are coordinated enough around 3 or 4 months of age Masturbation is normal and common at this age illustrating a natural curiosity about exploring the world and their bodies EARLY CHILDHOOD Ages 2 t0 5 Sexual Behavior Curiosity and Responsibility 1 Masturbation a b C 1 Over 70 of mothers in one study reported that their children under six masturbated Masturbation in early childhood may be deliberate and Obvious and may even become a preoccupation Parental reaction is very important because parents who are tolerant can teach them to respect and take pride in their bodies Setting socially acceptable limits to touching genitals can be one way parents can teach responsibility 2 Sexual Contact a Childhood sex play often begins with exposing the genitals touching and even Dd gt2 Dd 0 Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality rubbing up against each other b In one study 48 of parents reported that their children under 6 years old had engaged in sex play with another child Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Sex is Different l The secrecy surrounding sexuality is typically taught to children during early childhood as they learn about covering up the genitals and not touching them in public 2 Children are rarely taught the anatomically correct names for their genitals 3 Due to the Visibility of penises boys and girls express more excitement in boys bodies and boys learn more about sexual pleasure and penises while girls learn very little about their clitorises MIDDLE CHILDHOOD TO PRETEEN Ages 6 to 12 Physical Development Puberty 1 Internal pubertal changes begin in the body around the age of 6 or 7 but the visible signs of puberty begin around 9 or 10 2 In girls breast buds appear and pubic hair growth may begin 3 In boys pubic hair growth starts a couple of years later than in girls 4 Girls may begin menarche and boys begin semenarche Psychosexual Development Becoming More Private 1 Research actually shows that sexual interest and activity in societies across the world steadily increases during childhood 2 It does appear that children become better at hiding their sexual interests and behaviors after learning about societal taboos surrounding sexuality Sexual Behavior Learning About the Birds and Bees Prepubescence continues to be a time of sexual discovery as children learn about adult sexual behaviors and begin to assimilate cultural taboos and prejudices around sexual behaviors 2 Masturbation is not uncommon in childhood and early adolescence with research suggesting that boys masturbate more than girls and reach orgasm more frequently 3 Sexual Contact 9 Sexual play both heterosexual and homosexual is common during this period b Sex games such as spin the bottle and post office help children learn about sexuality with friends and through play c Research on sexual contact among children in early adolescence is difficult to find due to adult s recollections that may not be accurate and dated research such as Kinsey s data of 1948 and 1953 d Both boys and girls exhibit a range of sarne sex sexual behaviors as they move through childhood from casual rubbing to more focused attention on the genitals e Sexual contact with siblings or close relatives such as cousins is another fairly common childhood experience 1 Research suggests that it can be harmful when there is a large age difference or coercion is used 2 More often sibling sexual contact involves mutual sexual curiosity and is harmless V ADOLESCENCE Ages 12 to 18 A Physical Development Big Changes 1 Puberty is a major stage of physiological sexual development marking the start of 0 Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality reproductive ability 2 The physiological changes of puberty often lead to awkwardness and discomfort 3 Maturing earlier or later than average can be challenging for both girls and boys and can contribute to adolescents having negative body images 4 Females a For most girls the first signs of puberty are the beginnings of breast buds the appearance of pubic hair and the widening of the hips b Menarche is an important aspect of female puberty but can mean different things to different girls such as being associated with cramps and embarrassment 5 Males a Spermatogenesis and ejaculation occur early in male puberty and may even precede secondary sexual characteristics such as body hair and voice changes b Spontaneous erections which may have nothing to do with sexual feelings can be embarrassing for adolescent boys Psychosexual Development Emotional Self Awareness l Adolescence Ages 12 to 17 a Friendships during this time are crucial to emotional well being b Cliques dating and body image become important in adolescence c Adolescents typically increase the frequency of dating during this time d Gay lesbian bisexual and transgender adolescents may have a tough time fitting in and feel depressed and alone 2 Late Adolescence a Almost all cultures allow marriage and other adult privileges in late adolescence b Historically in Western cultures people began looking for marriage partners during late adolescence a phenomenon that has become increasingly less common Sexual Behavior Experimentation and Abstinence l Adolescent sexual activity has increased in the past 50 years due to an increasing link between love and sex 2 Masturbation a Masturbation remains an underreported sexual behavior in adolescence due to the embarrassment factor b Research suggests that males masturbate more than girls 3 Abstinence a Abstinence means different things to different people such as ab staining from Vaginal penile intercourse or all types of sexual behaviors b SlECUS the national sexuality education organization encourages adolescents to delay sexual intercourse until they are physically cognitively and emotionally ready for mature sexual relationships and their consequences c Rates of abortion in heterosexual teens increased between 1991 2006 d Adolescents with positive self images are more likely to delay sexual experiences than those with poor self images e Research suggests that boys feel more embarrassment and guilt about their virginity than girls 4 Heterosexual Intercourse a The decision to have sexual intercourse for adolescents can be a difficult one and they do it for different reasons a Adolescents report that their first intercourse is usually unplanned although the decision to engage in sexual intercourse is rarely spontaneous V o gt B Chapter 8 Childhood and Adolescent Sexuality b Average age in engaging in intercourse is 17 5 Sarne Sex Sexuality a Sarne sex sexual contact is common in adolescence and young people may or may not identify With the labels of heterosexual lesbian gay or bisexual b Many adolescents Who experience sarne sex sexual attraction feel rejected and try to hide their feelings but increasingly gay lesbian and bisexual adolescents are taking pride in their identities and starting support groups 6 Other Sexual Situations a Other sexual situations include other types of sexual experiences that adolescents may experience such as prostitution and child pornography b Many sexual variations transvestism exhibitionism voyerism may begin in adolescence From Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity GENDER ROLE SOCIALIZATION gender identity disorderidiagnosis given to children Who have a strong and persistent identification With the other sex or the gender role of the other sex and may be uncomfortable With their own biological sex or gender role Childhood Learning by Playing 1 As early as age two modeling behavior begins to emerge and children begin to realize that objects and activities are appropriate to specific genders and they believe that these gender rules are fixed rather than exible 2 Boys are treated more harshly When they adopt cross gender characteristics 3 Children With a strong and persistent identification With the other sex and are comfortable With their own biological sex may be diagnosed With gender identity disorder 4 Early in childhood gender segregation or homosocial play begins Which may be due to different playing styles attraction to similarities or learned social roles 5 During the school years children become judged by peers and teachers based on gender roles With boys experiencing more rejection from peers for violating gender stereotypes Adolescence Practice Being Female or Male 1 By adolescence gender roles are firmly established and they guide adolescents through their exploration of peer and romantic relationships 2 Gender role expectations can be challenging in adolescence for gay lesbian bisexual and transgender adolescents 3 Gender roles in adolescence are changing particularly in regards to heterosexual relationships Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships mm Adult Sexual Relationships 0 Every society has rules to control the ways that people develop sexual bonds with other people I DATING FUN OR SERIOUS BUSINESS 0 Sociologists View dating as a way for prospective mates to compare the assets and liabilities of eligible partners to choose the best available mates 0 Studies show that those who date are in better physical and emotional health than those who do not 0 Steady dating in adolescence is associated with higher self esteem and sex role identity A Interracial Dating 1 In 1967 the Supreme Court struck down state anti Iniscegenation laws which outlawed interracial relationships 2 Since the early 1980s the number of interracial couples has nearly doubled 3 In college aged populations close to 25 of students report being involved in an interracial relationship and almost 50 said they d be open to dating someone from a different race 4 Although the number of people who approved of interracial relationships exceeded the number who disapproved for the first time in 1990 a large minority does not accept such relationships B Sexuality in Dating Relationships 1 Couples vary greatly in how long they wait to engage in sexual behaviors 2 In recent years more adults are standing up for virginity instead of being embarrassed about it 3 Men often initiate sexual behavior even though men and women often report similar interest levels 4 In relationships that are rated as the happiest both partners initiate sex equally and both feel free to say no if they do not feel like having sex 5 The majority of couples do not discuss their sexual history partners and use of condoms prior to their first sexual intercourse C Sexuality in Older Adults 1 2 3 4 Society equates sexuality with youth Half of all Americans 60 years and older report their sex life is as good or better than when they were younger Most common behaviors for men and women over age 80 include caressing masturbation and sexual intercourse Most prevalent sexual problems reported by older women are lack of tenderness and sexual contact 11 MARRIAGE HAPPY EVER AFTER 0 Ninety three percent of Americans say that a happy marriage is one of their most important life goals Over the last 30 years the age at first marriage has been increasing although this number leveled off in the 19905 0 Marital satisfaction for men has been found to be related to the frequency of pleasurable activities doing things together in the relationship while for women Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships it was related to the frequency of pleasurable activities that focus on emotional closeness 0 John Gottrnan has found that the quality of the friendship with one s spouse is the most important factor in marital satisfaction for both men and women 0 Marital quality tends to peak in the first few years of a marriage and then declines until midlife when it rises again 0 Research found that couples married more than 25 years were less likely to be open and use positive affirmations than couples who had been married only a few years 0 The majority of married couples report that their marriages are happy and satisfying with one study finding that 60 of couples reported that their marriages were happy 0 Research where married couples were asked why their marriages lasted found that marriages seem to last most when both partners have a positive attitude toward the marriage View their partner as a best friend like their partner as a person and the belief that marriage is a long term commitment 0 Overall marriage provides more health benefits to men than women as married women tend to be less healthy than married men 0 Over the last few years research has found a trend in the mental health benefits of marriage applying equally to men and women most likely due to an increase in e uality in marriage A Having Children or Remaining Childless l 2 Satisfaction levels fall lower as the number of children increases Marital happiness is higher before the children come when it declines steadily until it hits a low when the children are in their teens and then begins to increase once the children leave the house B Marital Sex Changes Over Time C l 2 U 4 U 53 Most couples report a decline in sexual activity over time The reasons sexual behavior decreases in long term relationships has less to do with getting bored with one s par1ner than it has to do with the pressures of children jobs commuting housework and finances The frequency of sexual activity and satisfaction with a couple s sex life has been found to be positively correlated However it is not known if increased sexual frequency causes more satisfaction or if increased satisfaction with the marriage is responsible for the increase in frequency of sexual behavior Frequency and type of marital sex has been found to differ by social class with upper class individuals tending to have marital sex more frequently using more sexual positions and practicing more oral sex and other varieties of sexual contact Some marriages are asexual which means the partners do not engage in sexual intercourse Masturbation is often viewed as taboo in marital relationships although married men and women did report masturbating Marriages in Later Life 1 2 Most older couples report that their marriages improved over time and that the later years are some of the happiest Older men are twice as likely to remarry because women outnumber men in older age and also because older men often marry younger women D Extramarital Affairs It Just Happened 1 Research estimates that less than 5 of all societies are as strict about forbidding extramarital intercourse as our society has been Equot U 4 5quot gt1 9quot 0 10 Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships Although extra marital sex refers to sex outside of marriages the authors are also referring to extra relationship sex or unmarried couples whom have sex with someone other than their partner Those who cheat in intimate relationships have been found to have stronger sexual interests more permissive sexual Values less satisfaction in their intimate relationship and more opportunities for sex outside the relationship Half the states in the United States have laws against sex outside of marriage although these laws are rarely enforced One study found that 75 of Americans believe that extramarital sex was unacceptable and should not be tolerated The research on the incidence of extramarital affairs varies greatly Both non married heterosexual couples and lesbians who live together have been found to be less deceptive and secretive than married couples Although many people think that sexual desire drives an extramarital affair research has found that over 90 of extramarital affairs occur because of emotional needs not being met within the marital relationship Gender and age differences play a role in the type of extramarital sexual relationships that occur Men are more disapproving of extramarital relationships and less optimistic about the continuation of a marriage after an affair than women E Open Marriages Sexual Adventuring l 2 3 4 Some married couples open up their relationships and encourage their partners to have extramarital affairs or to bring other partners into their marital beds believing that sexual variety and experience enhance their own sexual life Comal ital sex refers to the consenting of married couples to sexually exchange partners who are often referred to as swingers or polyarnorists Researchers have explained that open marriages are okay as long as both partners know about it Most couples who engage in comarital sex have strict rules meant to protect the marriage with sex seen as separate from the loving relations of marriage F Marriage in Other Cultures Courtship and Arranged Marriages l 3 There are still a few industrialized cultures where arranged marriages take place although those are often in the upper classes These are marriages arranged by parents or relatives that are often not based on love In some cultures courtship was or is a highly ritualized process in which every step is defined by one s family or community a Venezuela b South Africa c China 0 For 2000 years marriages in China were arranged by parents and elders and emotional involvement between prospective marriage par1ners was frowned upon 0 After the Communist Revolution of 1949 the Communist leaders established the Marriage Law of the People s Republic of China which sought to end arranged marriages and establish people s right to choose their spouse freely Over the last few years the practice of selling young girls for marriage has risen G Customs and Other Practices 1 Some societies allow the practice of poly garny which is the practice of having more than one spouse at a time a It typically takes the form of polygamy which is the practice of having multiple Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships w1ves b Although polygamy is rarely practiced in the United States there are some small Mormon fundamentalist groups that do practice polygamy although they are not officially recognized by the Mormon Church c The thought that polygamous marriages developed in order to increase fertility is disproved by the research suggesting that wives in polygamous marriages have lower fertility rates d It may be more likely that polygamy developed as a strategy for men to gain prestige and power by having many wives while women could gain the protection of a wealthy man 2 Polyarldry the practice of having more than one husband at a time is much less common that polygamy and when it happens it is usually for reasons of keeping together inheritance In a consanguineous marriage a woman marries her own relative to maintain the integrity of a family property a In the majority of US states consanguineous marriage is illegal and has been since the late 19 11 century b In many Muslim countries in northern Africa western and southern Asia north east and central India and the middle Asian republics of the former Soviet Union marriages take place between relatives between 20 and 55 of the time c Marriages between certain cousins are legal in many US states U III SAME SEX RELATIONSHIPS A Sexuality in Same Sex Relationships 1 Research suggests that due to gender role conditioning lesbians may have more difficulty initiating sex than heterosexual relationships or gay male relationships 2 Research suggests that gay men engage in sexual behavior more often than lesbian women do B Civil Unions and Domestic Partnerships 1 Civil unions and domestic partnerships are legally recognized unions that come with varying rights and benefits 2 Countries vary in what they approve or allow with partnerships 3 Legalized relationships are unavailable to the majority of same sex couples in the US today 2008 4 In 2000 Vermont was the first state to legalize civil unions by 2008 10 states offer civil unions C Sarne Sex Marriage 1 In 1999 the US Congress enacted the Defense of Marriage Act which allows each state to recognize or deny any marriage relationship between same sex couples and recognize marriage as a legal union of one man and one woman as husband and wife and refers to a spouse only as a person of the other gender 2 Sarne sex marriage was available only in the states of Massachusetts California and Connecticut in 2008 although California voted on an initiative to overturn this ruling in late 2008 which passed 3 Heterosexual marriage is strongly linked to procreation childbirth and childrearing and the US has long regulated marriage in an attempt to protect procreative health 4 Many gay and lesbian couples marry their partners in ceremonies that are not recognized by the states in which they live 5 Many groups have been working to get states to set up domestic partner acts where sarne sex couples who live together in committed relationships can have some of the benefits granted to married couples U m lt gt Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships Same Sex Parenting 1 One study found that whereas more than 50 of heterosexual men and women had children 20 of lesbian and bisexual women and less than 10 of gay men had children 2 Options for parenting include having their own biological child adopt foster parent or help raise a partner s biological child Same Sex Relationships in Other Cultures 1 As of 2008 same sex marriage was legal in Belgium Canada the Netherlands South Africa and Spain 2 Civil unions and domestic or registered partnerships were legal in the Czech Republic Denmark Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Norway Portugal New Zealand Switzerland Sweden and the United Kingdom Although homosexuality is outlawed in many countries in Africa legal marriage rights were nonetheless extended to same sex couples in 2005 U DIVORCE WHOSE FAULT OR NO FAULT Re ecting the substantial changes in marriage and divorce by 1985 all states offered couples some type of n0fault divorce which is a divorce law that doesn t allow for blame to be placed on one partner for the dissolution of a marriage Currently 50 of marriages in the United States end in divorce Those who marry early are more likely to divorce eventually with the majority of divorces taking place among women who were married as teens Interracial marriages have higher divorce rates than marriages within racial groups Usually one parmer wants to terminate a relationship more than the other parmer When one partner is the initiator in heterosexual relationships it is usually the women with one study finding that women initiated two thirds of the divorces Why Do People Get Divorced 1 Social Factors Affecting Divorce a Divorce rates are in uenced by changes in the legal political religious and familial patterns in the United States b Divorce has become more accessible and cheaper c In an attempt to reduce the skyrocketing divorce rates some states have instituted covenant marriages which are preceded by premarital counseling and have strict rules about divorce d In recent years divorce has become generally more acceptable in American society 2 Predisposing Factors for Divorce a Couples who marry at a young age often suffer more marital disruption than older couples partly due to emotional immaturity b Couples who marry because of an unplanned pregnancy are more likely to divorce c Waiting longer before having children promotes marital stability by giving couples time to get to know each other d Catholics and Jews are less likely to divorce than Protestants e People who have been divorced before or whose parents have divorced have more accepting attitudes toward divorce than those who grew up in happy intact families 3 Relationship Factors in Divorce a Some warning signs when it comes to divorce are communication avoidance demand and withdrawal patterns of communication where one partner demands that they address the problem and the other partner pulls away and little mutually constructive communication B C D Chapter 9 Adult Sexual Relationships Fr Men and women listed different complaints about their partners Many couples make the mistake of believing that the little annoyances or character traits that they dislike in the potential spouses will disappear after marriage or that they will be able to change their spouse once married Adjusting to Divorce 1 One year after a divorce 50 of men and 60 of women reported being happier than they were during the marriage 0 2 Depression is common in those who divorce but believe that marriage should be permanent 3 Divorced black men and women adjust to divorce more easily and experience less negativity from peers than do whites 4 Economic adjustment is often harder for women because women s income tends to decline more than men s 5 Approximately 75 of divorced people remarry with some people experiencing serial divorce which is the practice of divorce and remarriage followed by divorce and remarriage 6 Men remarry at higher rates than women Divorce and Sex 1 Research found that the older a person was at divorce the less sexual activity occurred afterwards 2 The more religious a divorced person was the less likely he or she was to have another sex partner 3 Divorced persons without children are more likely to have sexual partners than those with children 4 Men are more likely to have one or more partners while women are less likely to find new partners Divorce in Other Cultures 1 In societies such as the United States Sweden Russia and most European countries divorce is relatively simple and has little stigma It can be difficult to obtain a divorce in Catholic countries since Catholicism does not allow for divorce a Ireland legalized divorce in 1995 and prior to this time Ireland was the only country in the western World to constitutionally ban divorce b The last country in South America to legalize divorce was Chile in 2004 Many traditional societies had ways to assure that divorces did not disrupt the community although traditional laws can still be enforced 0 In Egypt and Israel according to Islamic law and Jewish law it is far easier for men to divorce than for women A man can divorce his wife simply by repudiating her publicly three times while a woman must go to court to dissolve a marriage 4 In China recent changes in divorce law allows a partner to divorce and take everything if the other par1ner was engaging in extramarital sex Overall divorce rates seem to be going up in most countries in the world as they modernize and as traditional forms of control over the family lose their power N U U Chapter 8 Childhood amp Adolescent Sexuality Psychology 2070 Outline From Chapter 4 Questions of the Other Sex Advantages Disadvantages and Stereotypes Studying Childhood Sexuality Beginnings Birth to Age 2 Early Childhood Ages 2 to 5 Middle Childhood to Preteen Age 6 to 12 Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Physical Development Big Changes Psychosexual Development Sexual Behavior Experimentation and Abstinence Childhood Selfstimulation a Case Study Advantages Disadvantages amp Stereotypes Females Maes Studying Childhood Sexuality Society in the US limits research on childhood sexuality believing it may cause undesired sexual behaviors in children Beginnings Birth to Age 2 Many behaviors are due to curiosity not to be termed sexual Male fetuses and newborns are capable of erections Female newborns are capable of vaginal lubrication Young children are capable of orgasm although young boys do not ejaculate Beginnings Birth to Age 2 Cont Sexual Behavior Curiosity Selfstimulation is common after 34 months frequency varies although reports indicate boys do so more than girls This is a soothing and tension reducing behavior not to reach orgasm mmon at this age than in later childhood increases again after puberty Parental reaction is important Psychosexual Development Discovering what it is to be a quotgirlquot and quotboyquot Gender Role Socialization 39 Children are greatly defined by their gender Name clothing decorations toys Treatment by parents teachers others Model behavior of same gender individuals Rewarded for stereotypical behavior punished for nonstereotypical behavior especially boys Perceiving Gender Roles Ages 0 2 Early Childhood Ages 2 to 5 Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Boys are taught the name penis for their focus of sexual pleasure Girls are not taught about their focus of sexual pleasure clitoris Girls are often taught incorrect terms for their genitals Perceiving Gender Roles Ages 2 5 Middle Childhood to Preteen Ages 6 to 12 Physical Development External signs of puberty begin around 9 10 Psychosexual Development Bodily privacy becomes a concern Middle Childhood to Preteen Ages 6 to 12 Cont 39 Sexual Behavior Masturbation by the end of this period most children are capable of stimulating themselves to orgasm Boys 2 times per week Girls once a month 39 Boys learn masturbation from each other and may do so in groups 39 Girls learn by accident SiblingRelative sexual contact may occur Perceiving Gender Roles Ages 6 12 Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Begins after puberty ends with identity establishment in adulthood Period of physical emotional and cognitive change Peer relationships dating sexuality all increase in importance Many first experience heterosexual intercourse Sexual orientation often is discovered particularly difficult time for homosexual adolescents Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Cont Physical Development Body matures and establishes reproductive ability Puberty typically begins around 813 for girls menarche mean is 12 39 914 for boys semenarche mean is 13 Can be an awkward stage for many Sexual and Reproductive Timeline 174 159 Menarche Semen First First First lntend no arche intercourse marriage birth more children Over the past few decades age of first marriage and short term sexual relationships have increased Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Cont 39 Sexual Behavior Masturbation increased activity to achieve orgasm does not correlate with increased sexual behaviors as an adult 39 Boys 35 times per week less with regular sexual intercourse 39 Girls less than boys more with regular sexual intercourse Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Cont 39 Sexual Behavior Sexual Contact Sexual Intercourse 39 Most boys 90 wanted their first intercourse mostly due to curiosity also affection 03 forced 39 Most girls 70 wanted their first intercourse most due to affection also curiosity 4 forced 39 First intercourse is usually not planned CrossCultural Age of First Intercourse Sweden United States Great Britain Canada France Age by which half of women aged 20 24 had intercourse Proportion of High School Students Who Have Had Sex At Least Once 2005 l O 03 O 01 0 4s O LO Q 0 U M I 0 0 Grade 9 Grade 10 Grade 11 Grade 12 Females Males Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Cont Sexual Behavior Abstinence to maintain virginity 20 never have intercourse as a teen Why abstinence avoid disease and pregnancy parental values peer values Related factors live with both biological parents connected to family discussed it with parents higher intellect Boys are more embarrassed about virginity Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Cont 39 Sexual Behavior Sexual Contact Homosexual Sexuality 39 Samesex contact is common at this age 39 1013 unsure about their orientation 16 are homosexual or bisexual 39 812 had sexual contact with samesex partners Sexual Contact Other Sexual Situations 39 Adult sexual variations may begin here Adolescence Ages 12 to 18 Cont 39 Sexual Behavior Racial Differences in Sexual Activity 39 African American males more likely to lose their virginity young and have more lifetime partners than nonAfrican American males Females tend to have sex later than males regardless of racial group Adolescence Sexual Risk Taking The Senior Years Female with typical wifemother role may experience empty nest syndromequot Adjustment required at retirement if a large part of identity was rela 0 work More relaxed gender roles Different But Not Less Than Toward Gender Equality Society has the ability to alter the gender roles to be lessjudging and rigid Recommended Reading Maccoby E 2000 Perspectives on gender development International Journal of Behavioral Development 24 4 398406 Chapter 4 Gender Development Gender Roles and Gender Identity Psychology 2070 Outline A Case of a Boy Being Raised as a Girl Prenatal Development Sexual Differentiation Gender Roles and Gender Traits Gender Role Theory Varieties of Gender Gender Role Socialization from Infancy through Old Age How Much Do You Know About Gender Questions of the Other Sex Advantages Disadvantages and Stereotypes Gender and Sex 39 Gender refers to behavioral psychological and social characteristics of men and women 39 Sex refers to the biological aspects of being male or female 39 Both nature and nurture are important in forming gender Case study Dr John Money and BrendaBruce Prenatal evelopment X and Y Make the ifference Each parent supplies a gamete each with half of the genetic information 23 chromosomes including a sex chromosome Male sperm X or Y Female eggovum X Sex chromosomes control development of internal sex organs the embryo s hormonal environment external sex organs the brain s sexual differentiation Mullerlan duct Wolfflan Male development mm Mull rianduct Fallopiantubes degenerating Wolf anducx degenerating Seminal vesicle Prostate gland Seminal vesicle Cowper39s glands Figure 4 1 Development of the male and female internal reproductive systems from the undifferentiated stage Glans Urethral folds Urethral groove Gen al tubercle Labioscrolal swelling Perineum Anus Male development Gians Femata development Urethral folds Labioscrotal swelling Clitoral hood Clitoris Labia majors Labia minora Vagina fold fused Anus Figure 4 2 Development of the male and female external gen ta ia from the undifferentiated genital tubercle Hormonal Development and In uences 39 Ovaries produce Estrogen female sexual characteristics Progesterone menstrual cycle and pregnancy Testes produce Androgens development of maletypical characteristics Atypical Sexual Differentiation Not Always Just X and Y 39 Atypical sexual differentiation can occur with irregularities in Sex chromosomes Sex hormones Maternal hormone exposure Sex Chromosome Disorders Over 70 sex chromosome abnormalities Extra or missing sex chromosomes 3 most common Klinefelter39s syndrome XXY Turner39s syndrome XO XYYXXX 4 Fl 1 lF39Fll Hormonal Irregularities Hermaphrodite born with fully developed testes and ovaries extremely rare 39 Pseudohermaphrodite or lntersexed external genitals appear on some level similar to both sexes Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia CAH XX exposed to a lot of androgen prenatally during sexual differentiation AndrogenInsensitivity Syndrome AIS XY the body doesn t respond to testosterone that is produced by the testes Gender Roles and Gender Traits Gender roles culturally de ned behaviors attitudes emotions trai mannerisms appearances an occupations that are appropriate for females and males Gender traits biologically determined differences between males and females Are Gender Differences Innate Behaviors are complex and typically interactions of nature and nurture Cultures can vaiy widely in their definition of male and female and transcend seeming traits r V in All i uli Bio ogIcaI differences body size strength muscle to fat ratio maturation brain form and function heartiness Gender differences are easier to publish but research has begun to look at gender similarities Gender Role Theory A variety of theorists and positions Contradictions in the male role Provide but don t solely focus on career Be sexually successful but not degrading to women Be strong and stable but be emotionally available Do not be dependent on a woman Men have a less flexible role than women Femininity Typically viewed as the opposite of masculinity Characterized by beauty empathy concern softness modesty Contradictions in the female role Job fulfillment but stay at home with kids Not just for looks but use make upbe thin Opportunities are available on men s terms Men and Women Careers and Families Breadwinner is a prized part of being male Fathers spend less time with their infants than mothers Women pursue careers out of desire and necessity yet hold primary responsibility for home life more than men with the same occupation Often feel guilt for not adequately meeting both demands Androgyny Feminine and Masculine Rate high in femininity anol masculinity Flexibility in behaviors This concept may be reinforcing gender roles An example of transgenderism Billy Tipton was a well known jazz musician who was discovered to be a female when he died in 1989 Third Genders Other Cultures Other Options Some cultures have a third gender category Native American berdache Oman xanith Hawaiian aikane Tahitian mahu Asexualism The Genetics but Not the Sex Born without any sexual organs no biological nder Has a genetic gender XX or XY Typically assigned gender as a child and given ormones The Senior Years Female with typical wifemother role may experience empty nest syndromequot Adjustment required at retirement it a large part of identity was related to work More relaxed gender roles Different But Not Less Than Toward Gender Equality Society has the ability to alter the gender roles to be lessjudging and rigid lquot gt Dd II A Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation refers to the gender or genders that a person is attracted to emotionally physically sexually and romantically Heterosexual are predominantly sexually attracted to members of the other sex straight Homosexuals are predominantly sexually attracted to members of the same sex Bisexuals are sexually attracted to members of either sex GLBTQ refers to people whose identity is gay lesbian bisexual transgendered and questioning or queer WHAT DETERMINES SEXUAL ORIENTATION Behavior romantic love and self identification are different ways to classify sexual orientation and they don t always correspond with each other Models of Sexual Orientation Who Is Homosexual 1 Alfred Kinsey and his colleagues studied sexual orientation a Kinsey developed a 7 point scale The Kinsey Continuum ranging from exclusively heterosexual behavior 0 to exclusively homosexual behavior 6 b This scale was the first to suggest that people engaged in complex sexual behaviors were not reducible simply to homosexual and heterosexual 2 Klein Sexual Orientation Grid KSOG a This model took the Kinsey Continuum further by including seven dimensions attraction behavior fantasy emotional preference social preference self identification and lifestyle b Each dimension is measured for the past present and the ideal Measuring Sexual Orientation How Prevalent 1 There continues to be controversy about how many gay men lesbians and bisexuals there are today 2 General agreement among scholars is that 3 4 of males are predominantly gay l5 2 of women are predominantly lesbian and 2 5 of people are bisexual 3 Surveys indicate that the frequency of homosexual behavior in the United States has remained constant over the years in spite of the changes in the social status of homosexuality 4 The challenge with measuring these groups is that researchers are measuring different things such as behavior self identification etc WHY ARE THERE DIFFERENT SEXUAL ORIENTATIONS Biological Theories Differences are Innate 1 Genetics a Despite some research findings that homosexuality in men may be more common in identical twins cautions exist due to the problems with separating out environmental factors and genetics 2 Hormones a Prenatal Factors 0 Early hormone levels were found to influence sexual orientation 0 Other researchers have concluded that the evidence for the effect of prenatal Chapter 1 Sexual Orientation hormones on both male and female homosexuality is weak b Adult Hormone Levels Overall studies so far do not support the idea of adult hormone involvement in sexual orientation 3 Birth Order a Birth order research attempts to examine the effects of sibling placement b Fraternal birth order could contribute to a homosexual orientation due to placental cells in the uterine endometrium influencing later gestations and children born later could develop an immune response that in uences the expression of key genes during brain development 4 Physiology a Research in the 1990s suggested differences in the hypothalamus between gay men and heterosexual men B Developmental Theories Differences Are Due to Upbringing l Freud and the Psychoanalytic School a Freud thought everyone is inherently bisexual yet he also viewed male heterosexuality as the result of normal maturation b Later psychoanalytic theorists Irving Bieber in particular refuted some of Freud s views and emphasized that male homosexuality was the result of overly possessive mothers and absent fathers and this triangulation drove the boy to the arms of his mother which inhibited his normal masculine development c Reparative therapy or conversion therapy has included techniques such as aversive conditioning drug treatment electroconvulsive shock brain surgery and hysterectomies There is no reliable research to support reparative therapy and the majority of professional organizations oppose its use 2 Gender Role Nonconformity a Genderrole nonconformity studies are based on the observation that boys who exhibit cross gender traits that is who behave in ways more characteristic of girls of that age are more likely to grow up to be gay while girls who behave in typical male behaviors are more likely to grow up to be lesbians b As children gay men on average have been found to be more feminine than straight men while lesbians have been found to be more masculine Remember though that these findings are correlational meaning there is no cause and effect relationship c These gender role nonconformity studies do not tell whether these boys are physiologically or developmentally different or whether society s reaction to their unconventional play encouraged them to develop a particular sexual orientation d Many if not most gay men were not effeminate as children and not all effeminate boys grow up to be gay C Sociological Theories Social Forces at Work 1 Sociological theories are constructionist and try to explain how social forces produce homosexuality in a society 2 The idea of homosexuality is a product of a particular culture at a particular historical moment 3 The idea that people are either heterosexual or homosexual is not a biological fact but simply a way of thinking that evolves as social conditions change D Interactional Theory Biology and Sociology 1 Social psychologist Daryl Bem has proposed that biological variables such as genetics hormones and brain neuroanatomy do not cause certain sexual orientations but rather they contribute to childhood temperaments that in uence a child s preferences for sex Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation typical or sex atypical activities and peers 2 Bem s Exotic becomes Erotic theory suggests that sexual feelings evolve from experiencing one gender as more exotic or different from oneself than the other sex 111 HOMOSEXUALITY AND HETEROSEXUALITY IN OTHER TIMES AND PLACES A Homosexuality in History 1 The Classical Era a Before the 19 h century men who engaged in same sex sexual behaviors were accused of sodomy or buggery which were seen as sex crimes and not considered part of a person s fundamental nature b Homosexual activity was common and homosexual prostitution was taxed by the state c Lesbianism was rarely explicitly against the law in most ancient societies d Contrary to popular belief homosexuality was not treated with concern or much interest by either early early Christians 2 The Middle Ages a Homosexual relations were not forbidden even though there were many sexual codes based on Church teachings b By 1300 homosexuality was punishable by death in Europe in uencing the Western world s View of homosexuality for the last 700 years 3 The Modem Era a From the 16 11 century on individuals who engaged in same sex sexual behaviors were subject to periods of tolerance and periods of severe repression b Early American colonists viewed same sex sexual behavior negatively c Openly homosexual communities appeared now and then e In the late 19 h century physicians and scientists began to suggest that homosexuality was not a sin but an illness that would spread like a contagious disease f In Nazi Germany homosexuals were imprisoned and murdered along with Jews Gypsies epileptics and others g The view of homosexuality as a master status encouraged homosexuals to band together and press for recognition of their civil rights as a minority group h Western predominantly Christian societies have often existed without the hostility to homosexuality that characterizes modern America and Christianity itself has had periods of tolerance B Homosexuality in Other Cultures 0 Same sex sexual behavior is found in every culture and its prevalence remains about the same no matter how permissive or repressive that culture s attitude is toward it 1 Latin American Countries a In Central and South America male gender roles are defined through what makes one a man or machismo and that is defined by being the penetrator the active partner in sex b A man is not considered a homosexual if he takes the active insertive role even if it is with other men 2 Arab Cultures a It is not uncommon to see men holding hands or walking down the street arm in arm on Arab streets but for the most part male homosexuality is taboo b Gay men in the Arab world often limit their interactions with other men to sex 3 Asian Countries Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation a In 2001 the Chinese Psychiatric Associate removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders b Previously homosexuality was seen as a result of Western in uences and Viewed as a Western social disease c Buddhism does not condemn homosexuality so Buddhist countries generally accept it d In Thailand there are well known politicians who live openly as gay men 4 Sambia a The Sambia tribe of Papua New Guinea has been described in depth by Gilbert Herdt where a boy s life has historically involved sequential homosexuality b Sambians believed that mother s milk must be replaced by man s milk semen for a boy to reach puberty and so at the age of 7 boys began a process of oral sex with older men in order to ingest semen c After puberty the boy switches to the receiving role until he reaches 19 when he engages in primarily heterosexual relations d Although this was a common practice for many years the practice has faded in Sambia as Western in uences have changed the cultural traditions 5 The lesson of cross cultural studies of homosexuality suggest that trying to pigeonhole people or ways of life into our restrictive Western quothomosexuality heterosexuality bisexuality model seems inadequate IV GAYS LESBIANS AND BISEXUALS THROUGHOUT THE LIFE CYCLE A Growing Up Gay Lesbian or Bisexual l The presumption of heterosexuality is usually transmitted to young people continually by parents friends television movies newspapers magazines and even the government 2 Because group sports and heterosexual dating are important to male adolescents forming peer group bonds young gay or bisexual boys can feel unattached and alienated 3 The pressure and alienation may come slightly later in life for lesbians and bisexual girls because same sex affection is more accepted for girls and because lesbians tend to determine their sexual orientation later than gay men 4 Overall gay lesbian and bisexual youth have been found to experience higher levels of stigmatization and discrimination than heterosexual youth which may be responsible for the higher levels of mental health issues among GBL youth B Coming Out to Self and Others 1 Coming out is the need to establish a personal self identity and communicate it to others 2 Disclosure to self family friends and the public plays an important role in identity development and psychological adjustment 3 Gay men and lesbians have been coming out at earlier ages in the past few years 4 The National l quot J39 Study of A d Health has found that homosexual and bisexual youth are more likely than heterosexual youth to think about and commit suicide 5 Lesbian and gay youth who have a positive coming out experience also have been found to have a higher self concept lower rates of depression and better psychological adjustment than those who have a negative experience 6 Youth Who are rejected by their parents have been found to have increased levels of isolation loneliness depression suicide homelessness prostitution and sexually transmitted infections Approximately 26 of gay youth are forced to leave home because of their orientation Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation The F ederatian 0f Parents and Friends Of Lesbians and Gays PFLAG helps parents accept a child s sexual orientation along with engaging in advocacy and support for gays lesbians and bisexuals Between 14 and 25 of gay men and about 33 of lesbians marry the other sex at some point either before they recognize that they are gay or lesbian or because they want to fit into heterosexual society C Life Issues Paltnering Sexuality Parenthood and Aging 1 Equot U Same Sex Couples a Contrary to the image of gay and lesbian couples having a dominant and submissive partner such relationships are actually characterized by greater role flexibility and partner equality and lower levels of jealousy than are heterosexual relationships b Research suggests that gay and lesbian couples may work harder at keeping their relationships together Because they have fewer pa11ners to choose from they may work harder at their relationships Gay and Lesbian Sexuality a Gay men and lesbians tend to see their community as broad with sexuality as only one component b Masters and Johnson found in 1979 that arousal and orgasm in homosexuals was physiologically no different than in heterosexuals c Masters and Johnson found that gay and lesbian couples were less goal oriented than heterosexual couples Gay and Lesbian Parents a No significant differences have been found between the offspring of lesbian and straight mothers including the sexual orientation of their children b All the scientific evidence suggests that children who grow up with one or two gay andor lesbian parents do as well emotionally cognitively socially and sexually as do children from heterosexual parents c Three states Florida Mississippi and Utah specifically bar homosexuals from adopting children and several states making it very difficult for homosexuals to adopt children d 57 of Americans believe that same sex couples should have the legal right to adopt e Since same sex marriages are not yet legally recognized in the United States gay couples may have trouble gaining joint custody of children and the non biological parent may not be granted parental leave and may not be able to get benefits for the child through their workplace D The Effects of Stigma l 2 55 U GLB youth are more likely than heterosexual youth to think about and to commit suicide Pressure living in a society that discriminates against them may result in higher rates of drugalcohol use Workplace discrimination may affect wage earnings As of 2007 19 states and the District of Columbia have laws prohibiting workplace discrimination based on sexual orientation Employment Nondiscrimination Act passed the US House of Representatives in late 2007 V HOMOPHOBIA AND HETEROSEXI SM A What is Homophobia l Homophobia is used to refer to strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals and 2 3 4 Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation homosexuality People who hold negative Views are less likely to have had contact with homosexuals and bisexuals are likely to be older and less well educated are more likely to be religious and to subscribe to a conservative religious ideology have more traditional attitudes toward sex roles and less support for equality of the sexes are less permissive sexually and are more likely to be authoritarian Homosexuals may also experience internalized homophobia when they harbor negative feelings about homosexuality leading to decreased levels of self esteem and increased levels of shame and psychological distress Heterosexism refers to the presumption of heterosexuality a Even those with no negative feelings towards homosexuality are often unaware that businesses will not provide health care and other benefits to the partners of homosexuals b Heterosexism can be a passive lack of awareness rather than active discrimination B Hate Crimes Against Lesbian Gay and Bisexual People 1 2 3 4 Homophobia creates an atmosphere where it is seen as permissible to harass assault and even kill homosexuals Hate crimes are those motivated by hatred of someone s religion sex race sexual orientation disability or ethnic group Homosexuals are victimized four times more often than the average American with estimates that 80 of GLB youth being verbally abused A large number of hate crimes go unreported C Why Are People Homophobic l 2 U 4 One theory as to why people are homophobic is that it may be a function of personality type since rigid authoritarian personalities are more likely to be homophobic Another common suggestion is that straight people fear their own suppressed homosexual desires or are insecure in their own masculinity and femininity Perhaps people are simply ignorant about homosexuality and would change their attitudes with education People also tend to confuse sexual orientation with gender identity and may react negatively when they see males violating gender roles VII HOMOSEXUALITY IN RELIGION A Homosexuality and Religion 1 Equot U 4 U 53 Religion has generally been considered a bastion of anti homosexual teachings and beliefs while only traditional Judaism and Christianity have strongly opposed homosexual behavior Christian religions that are more on the liberal side include the United Church of Christ and the Unitarian Universalist Association Mainline Christian religions such as Presbyterians Methodists Lutherans and Episcopalians have more con ict over the issue of sexual orientation resulting in both liberal and conservative views While Orthodox Jews believe that homosexuality is an abomination forbidden by the Torah conservative Jews are more likely to welcome all sexual orientations and reform Jews tend to be the most accepting towards gays lesbians and bisexual members Recently religious scholars have begun to promote arguments based on religious law and even scripture that argue for a more liberal attitude toward homosexuality Buddhism encourages relationships that are mutually loving and supportive Chapter 1 1 Sexual Orientation Chapter 11 Sexual Orientation Psychology 2070 Outline Discovering Bisexuality Hating People for the People They Love What Determines Sexual Orientation Why are there Different Sexual Orientation Biological and Developmental Theories Trying Not to Be Gay Homosexuality and Heterosexuality in Other Times and Places Gays Lesbians and Bisexuals Throughout the Life Cycle Homophobia and Heterosexism How Much Do You Know About Gay Lesbian and Bisexual People Presumption of Heterosexuality Discovering Bisexuality Hating People for the People They Love Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation the genders that a person is attracted to emotionally physically sexually and romantically Heterosexual predominantly attracted to members of the other sex Homosexual predominantly attracted to members of the same sex Bisexual attracted to both men and women Sexual Orientation Cont Gay typically a homosexual male Lesbian homosexual female GLBTQ gay lesbian bisexual transgendered or questioning Models of Sexual Orientation Who Is Homosexual Kinsey Continuum Category Number Exclusively Predominantly Predominanlly Equally Predominantly Predominantly Exciusrvely heterosexual heterosexual heterosexual heterosexual homosexual homosexual homosexual inoi ental morethan an m e an incidental homosexual incidental homosexual incidental heterosexual homosexua heterosexual Heterosexual Homosexual i behavior i behavior First scale to suggest sexual orientation is a continuous variable Not static in time Measuring Sexual Orientation Kinsey et al39s statistics 1948 37 men 13 women had at least one adult homosexual experience Most believe 34 o of males and 152 o of females are predominantly homosexual and 25 o of the population are bisexual Samesex behavior has remained constant in the US overthe years Internationally samesex behavior has been found in 13 o of men and slightly lower rates in women W y Are There Different Sexual Orientations Biological Theories Differences Are Innate Developmental Theories Differences Are Learned Sociological Theorie 39 ociaI Forces atWork Interactional Theory Biology and Sociology Most theories neglect bisexuality Biological Theorie Differences Are Innate Genetics Hormones 7 Fl 39 Biological Theories Differences Are Innate Cont 39 Birth Order Gay men tend to be born later than siblings have older brothers but not older sisters Placental cells may influence later pregnancies later borns could develop an immune response that influences gene expression during brain development No related finding for lesbians Developmental Theories Differences Are Learned Freud and the Psychoanalytic School All of us are naturally bisexual Bieber gay men had intimate amp seductive mothers and absent or hostile fathers Developmental Theories Differences Are Learned Cont GenderRole Noncontormity Boys who have crossgender traits are more likely t to be gay as an a ul Girls who display maletypical behaviors are more likely to be lesbians as an adult Exoticbecomeseroticquot more arousal with the sex viewed as more different than the self Many gay men were not effeminate children amp not all effeminate boys are gay as a ults Sociological Theories Social Forces at Work 39 We learn how our culture thinks about sexuality and apply it to ourselves The idea of homosexuality differs in time and culture Homosexuality in History Views of homosexuality have differed throughout history The Ancient World and Middle Ages Homosexuality was common in Greek and Roman cultures Sodomy was considered a crime underthe Hebrew law Lesbianism was a mystery Little religious concern over homosexuality in Christianity until the 13th century when homosexuality was punishable by death This view has influenced the western view of homosexuality to the present day Homosexuality in History Cont The Modern Era Many periods of tolerance amp many of harsh oppression The US of Puritan origins is more disapproving than Europe Physicians viewed homosexuality as an illness until 1973 Homosexuality and Religions Historically Judaism and Christianity have opposed homosexuality Homosexuality is a sin in Catholic Southern Baptist and Assembly of God churches Welcoming Christian religions United Church of Christ Unitarian Universalist Association Liberal amp consenative views are in Presbyterian Methodist Lutheran Episcopalian churches Homosexuality and Religions Cont Reform Jews are most accepting in Judaism odox Jews see homosexuality as forbidden In Islam homosexual behavior is condemned However Shari39a Islamic law is most concerned with ublic behavior so there is a less strong condemnation of homosexuality if it is not displayed in pu Buddhism does not condemn homosexuality Homosexuality In Other C u ltu res In many societies samesex sexual activity is a normal part of life Samesex sexual behavior is in evew culture and in the same prevalence rate regardless of the society39s tolerance 1 the US Hispanic amp Asian homosexuals are more likely to cross gender boundaries Homosexuality in Other Cultures Cont Latin American Countries Thoughts are focused on masculinity amp femininity not homosexuality amp heterosexuality Not homosexual it taking the active penetrating role regardless of who is being penetrated Men that allow themselves to be penetrated are looked down upon Homosexuality in Other Cultures Cont Sambia of Papua New Guinea Mother39s milk is replaced by man39s milk semen to aid a boy in reaching puberty At 7 Sambian boys move to a communal hut where they perform oral sex on postpubescent boys amp swallow the semen After puberty the boy changes roles and provides the semen to the younger boys After 18 years marries amp is heterosexual Growing Up Gay Lesbian or Bisexual Few models are applicable to homosexual youth and the societal message is a nega ive one Parental rejection increases isolation loneliness ression suicide h melessness prostitution and STls among nonheterosexual youth About 26 are forced to leave home 25 of street youth are not heterosexual 2942 of nonheterosexual youth have attempted suicide 4876 have suicidal thoughts much higher than heterosexuals Life Issues Partnering Sexuality Parenthood and Aging Cont SameSex Couples Often homosexual couples are as satisfied as heterosexual couples although they face some intolerance from society Homosexual couples tend to have greater flexibility in their roles more equal partnerships less sexual jealousy Higher satisfaction among lesbian couple Gay couples have more harmful behaviors Life Issues Partnering Sexuality Parenthood and Aging Cont Gay and Lesbian Sexuality No physiological differences in arousal or orgasm based on sexual orientation Homosexuals tend to have slower more relaxed less demanding sexual sessions More time is spent caressing and sexually teasing each other Sexuality in SameSex Relationships from Chapter 9 Some lesbians have trouble 7 39ll more sexually active than lesbian May be due to longer love making for lesbians biology females39 comfort initiating men use sex for expressing feelings Gay men have less trouble initiating sex and are 5 Life Issues Partnering Sexuality Parenthood and Aging Cont SameSex Couples Most Americans support some samesex relationship recognition American Psychiatric Association supports legal recognition of samesex marriage Life Issues Partnering Sexuality Parenthood and Aging Cont Gay and Lesbian Parents Many gay and lesbian couples want to become parents and for the same reasons as heterosexual parents No significant differences in sexual orientation for the offspring of homosexual and heterosexual mothers About 67 studies have been conducted by the American Psychological Association focusing on children of gay parents Each of these studies proved that children do the same no matter which environment they grow up in The American Medical Association and the American Academy of Pediatrics agree with these findings Of course children raised by gay parents also get their share of criticism and taunting by people around them Stacey J amp Biblarz TJ 2001 How Does the sexual orientation of parents matter American Sociological Review 66 159183 Life Issues Partnering Sexuality Parenthood and Aging Cont Gay and Lesbian Parents Homosexuals can39t adopt in FL MS amp U Other states make adoption difficult for homosexuals What Is Homophobia Homophobia strongly negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality Homophobes are likely to be older less educated religious consena ive authoritarian less supportive of equality of the sexes l ss sexually permissive heterosex al men rican American Institutionalized homophobia eg religious homophobia s atesponsored homophobia lnternalized homophobia a form of homophobia among people who experience samesex attraction regardless of whether or not they identify as LGBT Hate Crimes against Gay Lesbian and Bisexual Persons Hate crimes are motivated by hatred of someone39s religion sex race sexual orientation disability or ethnic group The most socially acceptable form of hate crime is against homosexuals Homosexuals are victims 4x more than the average American Verbal and physical abuse may create psychological distress Why Are People Homophobia m mm L W What Is Homophobia Cont Trying not to be gay HE E FC H Thur T GHQUF 1 C EHTEH Presumption of Heterosexuality
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