INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1101
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This 66 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dayne Mohr on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/209838/psyc-1101-georgia-state-university in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
The Story of Psychology Prologue The Story of Psychology What is Psychology I Psychology s Roots I Psychological Science Develops Contemporary Psychology I Psychology s Biggest Question I Psychology s Three Main Levels if Analysis I Psychology s Subfields Psychology With hopes of satisfying curiosity many people listen to talk radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves um unonjoqdmmH am Dr Crane radioshrink Psychic Ball gazing Psychology s Roots Aristotle 384322 BC npe39uo6ugqseM39AnoEduq Aristotle a naturalist and philosopher theorized about psychology s concepts He suggested that the soul and body are not separate and that knowledge grows from experience Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology s first graduate students studied the atoms of the mind by conducting experiments at Leipzig Germany in 1879 This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today 0Z6IZ881MPUHMPA Psychological Science is Born OI6IZT78D 89ml satires Anew American philosopher William James wrote an important 1890 psychology textbook Mary Calkins Iames s student became the APA s first female president Psychological Science is Born 69619981 was Sigmund Freud an Austrian physician and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior Psychological Science is Born Psychology originated in many disciplines and countries It was until the 19205 defined as the science of mental life Psychological Science Develops Behaviorists CD 7 5 5 D H A H 0 O F H 0 0 O V 89618A81 110mm Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology Psychological Science Develops Humanistic Psychology npe39puemoo39quAyno j duq Rogers 19021987 r Xp39SJe thJ EO39MMM duq Maslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance Psychology Today We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior What we do and mental processes inner thoughts and feelings Psychological Associations amp Societies Thr 321 Brilish i Psychological 3quot I Society 39 The American Psychological Association is the largest organization of psychology with 160000 members world Wide followed by the British Psychological Society with 34000 members Contemporary Psychology 1 Psychology s Biggest Question 2 Psychology s Three Main Levels of Analysis 3 Psychology s Subfields Psychology s Three Main Levels of Analysis Biological influences Psychological in uences genetic predispositions learned fears and other learned 39 genetic mutations expectations natural selection of adaptive emotional responses physiology and behaviors cognitive processmg and genes responding to the environment Perceptual IHterPTEtBtIOHS Behavior or mental process Socialcultural in uences presence of others cultural societal and family expectations peer and other group influences 0 compelling models such as the media Psychology s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Neuroscience How the body and brain How are messages enables emotions transmitted in the body How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives Evolutionary How the natural selection How does evolution influence of traits the promotes the perpetuation of one s genes behavior tendencies Behavior genetics How much our genes and our environments in uence our individual differences To what extent are psychological traits such as intelligence personality sexual orientation and vulnerability to depression attributable to our genes To our environment Psychology s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Psychodynamic How behavior springs How can someone s from unconscious drives personality traits and and con icts disorders be explained in terms of sexual and aggressive drives or as disguised effects of unfulfilled wishes and childhood traumas Behavioral How we learn observable How do we learn to fear responses particular objects or situations What is the most effective way to alter our behavior say to lose weight or quit smoking Psychology s Current Perspectives Perspective Focus Sample Questions Cognitive How we encode process store and retrieve information How do we use information in remembering Reasoning Problem solving Socialcultural How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures How are we as Africans Asians Australians or North Americans alike as members of human family As products of different environmental contexts how do we differ Psychology s Subfields Research Psychologist What she does Explore the links between brain and Blologlcal rnlnd Developmental Study changlng ab111t1es frorn womb to tomb Study how we perceive think and solve Cognltlve problems Personality Investigate our persistent traits Explore how we View and affect one Soc1al another Psychology s Subfields Research Biological Other 115 99 Experimental 0 141 A Developmental 246 Psychometrics 55 Cognitive 80 Social 216 Personality 48 Data APA 1997 Psychology s Subfields Applied Psychologist What she does Clinical Studles assesses and treats people w1th psychologlcal dlsorders Helps people cope with academic counsehng vocational and marital challenges Studies and helps individuals in school Educatlonal and educatlonal settlngs Industrial Studies and advises on behavior in the Organizational workplace Psychology s Subfields Applied Industrial 6 Other Educational 3 9 Counseling 15 Clinical 67 Data APA 1997 Clinical Psychology vs Psychiatry A clinical psychologist PhD studies assesses and treats troubled people with psychotherapy Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals MD who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Chapter 1 The Need for Psychological Science I Did We Know It All Along Hindsight Bias I Overconfidence I Critical Thinking How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions I The Scientific Method I Description I Correlation I Experimentation Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life I Describing Data I Making Inferences Frequently Asked Questions About Psychology What About Intuition amp Common Sense Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature Intuition and common sense may aid queries but they are not free of error Limits of Intuition Personal interviewers may rely too much on their gut feelings when meeting with job applicants l Another example Heads or Tails 89321111 A1199 X 2L Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias is the lkneWitallalong phenomenon After learning the outcome of an event many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome We only knew the dotcom stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet Overconfidence Sometimes we think we know more than we actually know How long do you think it would take to unscramble these anagrams People said it would take about 10 seconds yet on average they took about 3 minutes Goranson 1978 Anagram WREAT WATER ETYRN ENTRY GRABE BARGE Critical Thinking Critical thinking does not accept arguments and conclusions blindly It examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions The Amazing Randi uontzpuno 1 Hormoan rputza seumf 9111 JO Aseunoo Theory A theory is an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events For example low selfesteem contributes to depression Hypothesis A hypothesis is a testable prediction often prompted by a theory to enable us to accept reject or revise the theory People with low selfesteem are apt to feel more depressed Research Observations Research would require us to administer tests of selfesteem and depression Individuals who score low on a selfesteem test and high on a depression test would confirm our hypothesis Research Process 1 Theories Example Low selfesteem feeds depression con rm reiect lead to 3 Research and observations Example Administer tests of selfesteem and depression See if a low score on one predicts a high score on the other 2 Hypotheses amplefPeople with 39 low selfesteem will scor high39emn a depression scale lead 0 Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles V 5 g W E w 8 539 w n R E o E a Is language uniquely human Survey A technique for ascertaining the selfreported attitudes opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative random sample of people lo 399uo1s19q1eopuu i 39mmzyVz duq Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample it is called a random sample unbiased If the survey sample is biased its resuns are nOt valid The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blind transfer a few into a smaller jar and Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording selfseating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation IHIQJOW 12pm JO Aseunog Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies surveys and naturalistic observation describe behaviors Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another we say the two correlate Correlation Indicates strength of relationship 000 to 100 1 coefficient Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables V 037 I Indicates direction of relationship positive or negative Scatterplots Perfect positive correlation 100 Scatterplot is a graph comprised of points that are generated by values of two variables The slope of the points depicts the direction while the amount of scatter depicts the strength of the relationship Scatterplots A A I I Q I I v 39 9 I O O I I I I I O I 6 I I I I 9 0 I Perfect negahve No relationship 000 correlation 100 The Scatterplot on the left shows a negative correlation while the one on the right shows no relationship between the two variables Data Data showing height and temperament in people HEIGHT AND TEMPERAMENT HEIGHT AND TEMPERAMENT OF 20 MEN OF 20 MEN Height in Height in Subject Inches Temperament Subject Inches Temperament 1 80 75 11 64 48 2 63 66 12 76 69 3 61 6o 13 71 72 4 79 9o 14 66 57 5 74 60 15 73 63 6 69 42 16 70 75 7 62 42 17 63 30 8 75 6o 13 71 57 9 77 31 19 68 84 1o 60 39 20 70 39 Scatterplot The Scatterplot below shows the relationship between height and temperament in people There is a moderate positive correlation of 063 95 Temperament 90 scores 55 60 65 70 75 80 8 Height in inches Correlation and Causation Correlation does not mean causation 1 could cause D gt e ressmn Low selfesteem p or could cause i gt or Low selfesteem Distressing events COUId Cause and or biological predisposition Depression Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences experimentation is the backbone of psychological research Experiments isolate causes and their effects Exploring Cause amp Effect Many factors influence our behavior Experiments 1 manipulate factors that interest us while other factors are kept under 2 control Effects generated by manipulated factors isolate cause and effect relationships Evaluating Therapies Doubleblind Procedure In evaluating drug therapies patients and experimenter s assistants should remain unaware of which patients had the real treatment and which patients had the placebo treatment Evaluating Therapies Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental breast fed and control formulafed conditions by random assignment minimizes preexisting differences between the two groups Independent Variable An independent variable is a factor manipulated by the experimenter The effect of the independent variable is the focus of the study For example when examining the effects of breast feeding upon intelligence breast feeding is the independent variable Dependent Variable A dependent variable is a factor that may change in response to an independent variable In psychology it is usually a behavior or a mental process For example in our study on the effect of breast feeding upon intelligence intelligence is the dependent variable Experimentation A summary of steps during experimentation Random assignment controlling for other variables such as parental intelligence and environment Independent Dependent Condition variable variable Ex erimental Breast milk Intelligence p score age 8 Control Formula 39nteulgence score age 8 Comparison Below is a comparison of different research COMPARING RESEARCH METHODS methods Research Method Basic Purpose How Conducted What Is Weaknesses Descriptive To observe and record Do case studies surveys Nothing No control of variables behavior or naturalistic observa single cases may be mis tions leading Correlational To detect naturally Compute statistical Nothing occurring relation ships to assess how well one variable pre dicts another association sometimes among survey responses Does not specify cause and effect Experimental effect u I I IIIU factors use random assignment c v r r 39H results may not general ize to other contexts not ethical ln manipulate certain variables Statistical Reasoning Statistical procedures analyze and interpret data allowing us to see What the unaided eye misses White 53 Dthers Asian Hispanic 15 4 15 1 ii Composition of ethnicity in urban locales Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life Doubt big round undocumented numbers as they can be misleading and before long become public misinformation Apply simple statistical reasoning in everyday life to think smarter Describin g Data A meaningful description of data is important in research Misrepresentation may lead to incorrect conclusions Percentage 100 Percentage100 still functioning still functioning 90 after1o years 99 after1o years 80 70 98 60 50 97 4O 3O 96 I 20 10 95 0 Our Brand Brand Brand Our Brand Brand Brand brand X Y Z brand Y Z Brand oftruck Brand of truck Measures of Central Tendency Mode The most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean The arithmetic average of scores in a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores that were added together Median The middle score in a rankordered distribution Measures of Central Tendency A Skewed Distribution 475 710 15 2 2 30 35 4o 45 50 70 1 Mode Median Mean 4 One family Income per family in thousands ofdollars Measures of Variation Range The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean Small Deviation Large Deviation Standard Deviation STANDARD DEVIATION IS MUCH MORE INFORMATIVE THAN MEAN ALONE L 80 39 A 39 which tell L L h Lud m in each class are really faring Test Scores in Class A Test Scores in Class B Deviation Deviation rorn rom Score the Mean Deviation Score the Mean Deviation 72 8 64 60 20 440 74 6 36 6a 20 400 77 3 9 70 quot1C 100 79 1 1 70 10 mo 82 2 4 90 10 100 84 4 16 90 10 100 35 5 25 we 20 400 37 7 L9 E 2 E Total 640 Sum of deviationsY 204 Total 640 Sum of deviations 2000 Mean640880 Mean64o88o Standard deviation Standard deviation Sum ofdeviations2 5 Sum of deviations 2 153 Number of Scores 8 Number of scores 8 Normal Curve A symmetrical bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data normal distribution Most scores fall near the mean Making Inferences A statistical statement of how frequently an Obtained result occurred by experimental manipulation or by chance Making Inferences When is an Observed Difference Reliable 1Represer1tative samples are better than biased samples 2Lessvariable Observations are more reliable than more variable ones 3M0re cases are better than fewer cases Making Inferences When is a Difference Significant When sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large we say the difference has statistical significance It is probably not due to chance variation For psychologists this difference is measured through alpha level set at 5 percent
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