Child Development Chapter 1
Child Development Chapter 1 PSYC 333
Popular in Child Development
One Day of Notes
verified elite notetaker
One Day of Notes
Journalism and Mass Communications
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 9 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Baylee Owen on Friday September 12, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 701 views.
Reviews for Child Development Chapter 1
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/12/14
Chapter 1 Introduction to Developmental Psychology amp Its Research Strategies Introduction to Developmental Psychology What is Development 0 Development systematic continuities and changes in the individual over the course of life o By describing changes as systematic we imply that they are orderly patterned and relatively enduring 0 Developmental continuities ways in which we remain stable over time or continue to reflect our past 0 Developmental psychology the branch of psychology devoted to identifying and explaining the continuities and changes that individuals display over time o From quotwomb to tomb 0 Developmentalist any scholar who seeks to understand the development process o Can be psychologists biologists sociologists neuroscientists anthropologists educators What Causes Us to Develop In order to grasp the meaning of development we must understand two important processes that underlie developmental change maturation and learning 0 developmental changes in the body or behavior that result from the agingprocess rather than from learning or experience o The human biological program calls for us to become capable of walking and uttering our first meaningful words at about 1 year of age to reach sexual maturity between ages 11 and 15 and then to age and die on roughly similar schedules o Maturation is partly responsible for psychological changes such as our increasing ability to concentrate to understand others feelings and to solve problems I So one reason that we are similar in many respects is that our common species heredity guides all of us through the same developmental changes at about the same points in our lives 0 a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from one s expltriences or pralttiltlt o We change in response to our environments particularly in response to the actions and reactions of the people around us Of course most developmental changes are the product of both maturation and learning What Goals to Developmentalists Pursue There are three major goals of developmental sciences to describe to explain and to optimize development In pursuing the goal of description human developmentalists observe the behavior of people of different ages seeking to catalog how peoplechangegyertimeAthough there are different typical pathways of development that virtually all people follow no two persons are alike Thus to adequately describe development it is necessary to focus both on typical patterns of change normative development and on individual variations in patterns of change ideographic development 0 Normative development developmental changes that characterize most or all members of a species tYpicapettern 9tbeh IYi9r 0 Ideographic development indiyidua variations of development In pursuing the goal of explanation developmentalists hope to determine why people develop as they typically do and why some people develop differently than others Explanation centers both on normative changes within individuals and variations in development between individuals Finally developmentalists hope to optimize development by applying what they have learned in attempts to help people develop in positive directions 1 Promote strong affectional ties between fussy unresponsive infants and their frustrated parents 2 Assist children with learning difficulties to success at school and 3 Help socially unskilled children and adolescents to prevent the emotional difficulties from having no close friends and being rejected by peers Many believe that such optimization goals will increasingly influence research agendas in the 21 century Some Basic Observations About the Character of Development A Continual and Cumulative Process Developmentalists have learned that the first 12 years are extremely important years that set the stage for adolescence and adulthood Human development is best described as a continual and cumulative Process The one lt9n tarJtischerJBe and the lth Inaesthet9sltILreteeshmaJ9tI2he e9tlite can have important implications for the future PERIoD or LIFE APPROXIMATE AGE RANGE PRENATAL PERIOD CONCEPTION TO BIRTH INFANCY l BIRTH To 18 IvIoNTHS oLD TODDLERHOOD 18 MONTHS TO 3 YEARS oLD PRESCHOOL PERIoD l 3 To 5 YEARS OF AGE MIDDLE CHILDHOOD 5 To 12 YEARS or AGE UNTIL ONSET or PUBERTY ADoLEScENcE 12 oR so To 20 YEARS OF AGE UNTIL THE INDIVIDUAL IS INDEPENDENT OF PARENTS YOUNG ADULTHOOD 20 To 40 YEARS or AGE IvIIDDLE AGE l4o To 65 YEARS OF AGE oLD AGE 65 YEARS or AGE OR OLDER We are focusing on the firstfive periods of life A Holistic Process Humans are physical cognitive and social beings and each of these components cggnitie psycho ccjaandphy icagrgyyth of self depends in part on changes taking place in other areas of development This holistic perspective is incorporated by many researchers into theories and research 0 Holistic perspective a unified view of the developmental process that emphasizes the important interrelationships among the physical mental social and emotional aspects of human development Plasticity 0 Plasticity capacity for change a developmental state that has the potential to be shaped by expe ence o Change in response to positive or negative life experiences The course of development can change abruptly if important aspects of one s life change For example children who have horrible starts can often be helped to overcome their deficiencies HistoricalCultural Context No single portrait of development is accurate for all cultures social classes or racial and ethnic groups Each transmits a particular pattern of beliefs values customs and skills to its younger generations and the content of this cultural socialization has a strong influence on the attribute and competences that individuals display Development is also influenced by pcjetaJchange historical events such as wars and technological breakthroughs are examples of this Each generation develops in its own way and each generation changes the world for succeeding generations Only by adopting a historical cultural perspective can we fully appreciate the richness and diversity of human development Research Strategies Basic Methods and Designs Investigators must carefully observe subjects analyze the information they collect and use the data to draw conclusions Research Methods in Child and Adolescent Development The Scientific Method 0 The Scientific Method the use of cbjegtie and repjcate methods to gather data for the purpose of testing a theory or hypothesis It dictates that above all investigators must be objective and must allow their data to decide the merits of their thinking o By cbjectice we mean that everyone who examines the data will come to the same conclusions that is it is not a subjective opinion o By repjcabe we mean that every time the method is used it results in the same data and conclusions The Scientific Method is a valuable safeguard that helps to protect the scientific community and society at a large against flawed reasoning The Scientific Method involves a process of generating ideas and testing them by making research observations 0 Theory a set of concepts and propositions designed to organize describe and explain an existing set of observations A theory generates specific predictions a hypothesis about what will hold true if we observe a phenomenon 0 Hypothesis a theoretical prediction about some aspect of experience Gathering Data Basic Fact Finding Strategies 0 Reliability the extent to which a measuring instrument yields consistent results both over time temp9ra and across observers ir1terrratser 0 Validity the extent to which a measuring instrument accurately reflects what the researchers intended to measure However reliability by itself does not guarantee validity Sef Report Methodologies Three common procedures that developmentalists use to gather information and test hypotheses are interviews questionnaires and the clinical method All of these methods differ in the way to which the investigator treats individual participants alike Interviews and Questionnaires Researchers will ask the child or the child s parents a series of questions pertaining to such aspects of development as the child s behavior feelings beliefs or characteristic methods of thinking Collecting data via a questignnaire involves putting questions on paper and asking participants to respond to them in writing whereas jnteryjeyvs require participants to respond orally to the investigator39s queries 0 Structured interview or structure questionnaire a technique in which all participants are asked the same questions in precisely the same order so that the responses of different participants can be compared 0 Diary Study a questionnaire method in which participants write answers to specified questions in a diary or notebook either at predetermined times or when prompted by an electronic pagen o Usually used on adolescents or young adults 0 Diary studies have proved invaluable for investigating a host of issues that may be difficult to study in other ways issues such as growth of moodiness and negativity as children transition into adolescence Neither of these approaches can be used with very young children who cannot read or comprehend speech very well Investigators must also hope that the answers they receive are honest and accurate Investigators must also be careful to ensure that participants of all ages interpret questions in the same way Finally researchers who interview both developing children and their parents may have trouble determining which set of reports is more accurate if the children39s descriptions of their own behaviors differ from that of their parents Despite the shortcomings structured interviews and questionnaires can be good methods of obtaining large amounts of useful information in a short period of time Both are useful when the investigator emphasizes to participants that their responses will be confidential The Clinical Method 0 Clinical Method a type of interview in which a participant39s response to each question or problem determines what the investigator will ask next o After the participant responds the investigator usually asks a second question or introduces a new task to clarify the participant39s original answer I Each answer determines what he or she is asked next o Jean Piaget This method is often useful for gathering large amounts of information in relatively brief periods This strategy s flexibility is also an advantage by asking follow up questions that are tailored to the participant39s original answers it is possible to obtain a rich understanding of the meaning of those answers However it may be difficult to directly compare the answers of participants who are asked different questions This raises the possibility that the examiner39s preexisting theoretical biases may affect the follow up question Observational Methodologies 0 Naturalistic observation a method in which the scientist tests hypotheses by observing people as they engage in everyday activities in their natural habitats o One strength is the ease with which it can be applied to infants and toddlers o Another strength is that it illustrates how people behave in everyday life Weakness of naturalistic is that behaviors occur so infrequently or are socially undesirable that they are unlikely to be witnessed by an unknown observer Secondly many events are happening at the same time in a natural setting and any of them may affect peope s behavior Finally the mere presence of an observer can sometimes make people behave differently than they normally would 0 Observer influence the tendency of participants to react to an observer39s presence by behaving in unnatural ways o Videotaping their participants from a concealed location or spending time in the setting before collecting real data so the individuals will grow more accustomed to their presence and behave more naturally 0 Structured observation an observational method in which the investigator attempts to elicit the behavior or interest and observes participant39s responses in a laboratory o Ensure that every participant in the sample is exposed to the same eliciting stimuli and has an equal opportunity to perform the target behavior o Disadvantage is that participants may not always respond in a contrived lab setting as they would in everyday life 0 Case study a research method in which the investigator gathers extensive information about the life of an individual and then tests developmental hypotheses by analyzing the events of the person39s life history 0 Ethnography a method in which the researcher seeks to understand the unique values traditions and social processes of a culture of subculture by living with its members and making extensive observations and notes 0 Psychophysiological methods methods that measure the relationships between physiological processes and aspects of children39s physical cognitive social or emotional behaviordevelopment TABLE 21 ON PAGE 19 LISTS ALL OF THESE METHODS IN DETAIL Detecting Relationships Correlational Experimental and Cross Cultural Designs Once researchers have decided what they want to study they must devise a research plan that permits them to identify relationships among events and behaviors and to specify the causes of these relationships The Correlational Design 0 Correlational Design a type of research that indicates the strength of associations among variables though correlated variables are systematically related these relationships are not necessarily causal o Determines whether two or more variables of interest are meaningfully related o No attempts are made to structure or manipulate the participant39s environment 0 CanrI9tirJs2J9atethat9nethingltas4 esan9ther 0 Correlation coefficient a numerical index ranging from 100 to 100 describing the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables o The absolute value of r tells us the strer1gth of the relationship o The sign of r indicated the directjor1 of the relationship Experimental Design 0 Experimental design a research design in which the investigator introduces some change in the participant39s environment and then measures its effect of that change on the participant39s behavior o Provides a precise assessment of the causeandeffect relationship that may exist between two variables 0 Independent variable the aspect of the environment that an experimenter modifies or manipulates in order to measure its impact on behavior o The treatments 0 Dependent variable the aspect of behavior that is measured in an experiment and assumed to be under the control of the independent variable o The response 0 Confounding variable some factor other than the independent variable that if not controlled by the experimenter could explain any differences across treatment conditions in participants performance on the dependent variable o A preexisting factor that affects the results 0 Experimental control steps taken by the experimenter to ensure that all extraneous factors that could influence the dependent variable are roughly equivalent in each experimental condition and to ensure that observed changes in the dependent variable were indeed caused by manipulation of the independent variable 0 Random assignment a control technique in which participants are assigned to experimental conditions through an unbiased procedure so that the members of the groups are not systematically different from one another o Each research participant has an equal probability of being expose to each experimental treatment o Assignment is accomplished by an unbiased procedure such as the flip of a coin 0 Ecological validity the state affairs in which the findings of one s research are an accurate representation of processes that occur in the natural environment The Field Experiment 0 Field Experiment an experiment that takes place in a naturalistic setting Natural or Quasi Experiment 0 Natural experiment a study in which the investigator measures the impact of some naturally occurring event that is assumed to affect people39s lives o Observe the consequences of a natural event that participants have experienced o Do not control the independent variable nor do they randomly assign participants to experimental treatments TABLE 13 ON PAGE 24 HAS DETAILED LIST OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS Cross Cutura Design 0 Crosscultural comparison a study that compares the behavior andor development of people from different cultural or subcultural backgrounds o Allow the investigator to determine whether conclusions drawn about the development of children from one social context also characterize children growing up in other societies or those from different ethnic or socioeconomic backgrounds within the same society o Guards against the overgeneralization of research findings and is the only way to determine whether there are truly quotuniversas in human development o Looking for differences instead of similarities Research Strategies and Studying Development Allow us to make inferences about how people change over time Research Designs for Studying Development Researchers hope to determine how people develop or change over time The Cross Sectiona Design 0 Cross sectiona design a research design in which subjects from different age groups are studied at the same point in time o The participants come from different cohorts 0 Cohort a group of people of the same age who are exposed to similar cultural environments and historical events as they are growing up 0 Cohort effects an agerelated difference among cohorts that is attributable to culturalhistorical differences in cohorts growingup experiences rather than to true developmental change Longitudinal Design 0 Longitudinal design a research design in which one group of subjects is studied repeatedly over a period of months or years o Can assess stability of various attributes for each person in the sample o Can also identify normative developmental trends and processes by looking for commonalities o Helps investigators understand individual differences in development o Can be costly and timeconsuming 0 Practice effect changes in participants natural responses as a result of repeated testing o Can threaten the validity of longitudinal studies 0 Selective attrition nonrandom loss of participants during a study that results in a nonrepresentative sample 0 Nonrepresentative sample a subgroup that differs in important ways from the larger group or population to which it belongs 0 Crossgenerational problem the fact that longterm changes in the environment may limit conclusions of a longitudinal project to that generation of children who were growing up while the study was in process o Children in one cohort are likely to have different kinds of experiences than children from other eras SequenUalDe gn 0 Sequential design a research design in which subjects from different age groups are studied repeatedly over a period of months or years shorter than a longitudinal study o Allows us to determine whether cohort effects are influencing our results by comparing the logical reasoning of sameaged children who were born in different years o Allows us to make both longitudinal and cross sectiona comparisons in the same study o More efficient than standard longitudinal designs Microgenetic Design 0 Microgenetic Design children are observed extensively over a limited time period when a development change is thought to occur o Behavior is monitored as it is changing TABLE 14 ON PAGE 33 Ethical Considerations in Developmental Research Research ethics the standards of conduct that investigators are ethically bound to honor in order to protect their research participants from physical or psychological harm 0 Informed consent the right of research participants to receive a simple explanation of all aspects of research that may affect their willingness to participate 0 Benefitstorisks ratio a comparison of the possible benefits of a study for advancing knowledge and optimizing life conditions versus its costs to participants in terms of inconvenience and possible harm 0 Confidentiality the right of participants to concealment of their identity with respect to the data they provide 0 Protection from harm the right of research participants to be protected from physical or psychological harm Themes in the Study of Human Development NatureNurture Theme Is human development primarily the result of nature biological forces or nurture environmental forces 0 Naturenurture issue the debate among developmental theorists about the relative importance of biological predispositions nature and environment nurture as determinants of human development ActivePassive Theme Are children curious active creatures who largely determine how agents of society treat them Or are they passive souls on whom society fixes its stamp 0 Activepassive theme a debate among developmental theorists about whether children are active contributors to their own development or rather passive recipients of environmental in uence ContinuityDiscontinuity Issue 0 A debate among theorists about whether developmental changes are quantitative and continuous or qualitative and discontinuous stagelike 0 Quantitative change an incremental change in degree without sudden transformations 0 Qualitative change a change in kind that make individuals fundamentally different than they were before 0 Developmental stage a distinct phase within a larger sequence of development a period characterized by particular set of abilities motives behaviors or emotions that occur together and form a coherent pattern 0 Discontinuity theorists claim this is how we progress The Holistic Nature of Development Theme To what extent is development a holist process versus a segmented separate process The question is whether different aspects of human development such as cognition personality social development biological development and so forth are interrelated and influence each other as the child matures 0 Eclectics those who borrow from many theories in their attempts to predict and explain human development