NUTR CH.5 - THE LIPIDS
NUTR CH.5 - THE LIPIDS NUTR 214 - 01
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NUTR 214 - 01
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samone Hodges on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 214 - 01 at Radford University taught by Rachel Werkheiser in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Radford University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
NUTRITION Li ids m CHAPTER 5 FATS OILS PHOSPHOLIPIDS AND STEROLS Diet moderate in fats 0 Lipids necessaryvaluable 0 Can harm health 3 classes 0 triglycerides 0 phospholipids phosphorous O sterols cholesterol Chief storage form of energy 0 Provides energy for body to work 0 Adipose tissue 39 Secretes hormones 0 Fat storage efficiency Purposes of fat 0 Shock absorbers insulation cell membrane 0 Transport Useful in food 0 Concentrated calorie storage 0 Fat soluble nutrients Vitamins fatty acids fat rich lt carbohydrate rich Continued 0 Sensory qualities 0 Satiety feeling of fullness slows food movement I Benefits diabetics slows the time it takes for nutrients to get into bloodstream Triglyceride fatty acidsglycerol saturated v unsaturated fatty acids Saturated O Carries max possible hydrogen atoms 0 Unsaturated O Lacks some hydrogen atoms 0 Melting point 0 More unsaturated more liquid 0 Fat hardness O Softer healthier oil V butter 0 Sources of fatty acids 0 Fish fish oils Vegetable oils Animal fats saturated Vegetable oils monounsaturated rich in omega6 polyunsaturated O O O O Flaxseed fish oil rich in Omega3 Phospholipids and Sterols 0 Phospholipids O Glycerol 2 fatty acids phosphorous molecule I Soluble in water amp fat Ex mayonnaise never separates Vinegar oil eggs 0 Emulcifier keeps fat dispersed in water lecithin in egg yolk I Sterols 0 Rings of carbon side chains of carbon hydrogen oxygen attached 0 Cholesterol in body I Bile important to fat digestion 0 Plant sterols LIPIDS IN THE BODY 0 Nothing but starch digested in mouth I Fats starts digesting O Stomach kindof 0 Small intestine I Bile I Pancreas Process p x Food is chewed then swallowed into the stomach 2 Droplets of fat separate from the watery components little fat digestion here empties into small intestine 3 Small intestines majority of digestion here faces how to thoroughly mix fats which are separated Lipids in body continued 0 Absorption 0 Fatty acids split from glycerol I Bile shuttles lipids across mucus layer I Efficiency of absorption process 0 Speed of digestion 0 Transport of fats 0 Transfer from place to place as lipoproteins 0 Major LPS 0 Fat not used stored as triglyceride put into fat depots 0 More energy breakdown of triglycerides I After glycerol runs out I Releases fatty acids into blood DIETARY FAT CHOLESTEROL AND HEALTH 0 Heart and artery disease 1 Saturated amp trans fat switch to trans fats 2 Beneficial fats trans fats 3 Refined carbohydrate not healthy to go low fat high carb 4 Not just a man s disease I Obesity 0 Overconsumption of calories RECOMMENDED INTAKE LIPIDS 0 Fat 0 DRI 2035 daily energy 0 Less than 10 of that from saturated fat 0 NO transfat 0 US compared 0 30 daily energy good 0 11 of that from saturated fat too high too little fat is bad LIPOPROTEINS MOVEMENT IN THE BODY liver 0 Types 0 Chylomicrons 0 Very lowdensity lipoproteins VLDL 0 Low density LDL 0 High density HDL carries cholesterol away from body cells disposal carries cholesterol amp triglyceride to body cells 0 LDLHDL difference 0 Size and density 0 Delivering and scavenging 0 In ammation 0 Heart attack risk 0 Cholesterol testing 0 Less LDL more HDL good LDL lousy cholesterol HDL healthy cholesterol Heart disease risk prevention 0 High HDL 0 Low LDL Blood cholesterol effected by saturated fats not solely cholesterol foods DIETARY CHOLESTEROL GUIDELINE 0 300 Mgday 0 sources 0 eggs chicken beef in moderation RECOMMENDATIONS APPLIED 0 Heart disease prevention amp suggestions 0 Lower LDL trim saturated trans fat 0 Raise HDL increase physical activity ESSENTIAL POLYUNSATURARED FATTY ACIDS Linoleic amp linolenic acid 0 Regulate bodily functions eicosanoids 0 Serve as raw material that body makes other things out of 1 Linoleic a Omega6 fatty acid b Arachidonic acid 2 Linolenic a Omega3 fatty acid b DHA amp EPA i Regulates heartbeats blood pressure reducing blood clot formation reducing in ammation ii Prevent Heart disease OMEGA3 FATTY ACIDS 0 Seafood 0 Special populations critical need for EPA and DHA I Children pregnant lactating women also more susceptible to toxins mercury 0 Omega3 enriched food recommendations 0 8 12 oz per week 0 young children 36 oz seafood a week 0 pregnant women 812 oz a week 0 Mercury toxin I Tilefish shark swordfish king mackerel 0 Meats O Pasture fed higher omega3 content 0 Omega3 and omega6 nuts and seeds EFFECTS OF PROCESSING UNSATURATED FATS 0 Hydrogenation 0 Oxygen damage of unsaturated oils 0 Hydrogenation of oils 0 Benefits 0 Makes spreading easier 0 Easy to handlestore 0 Replace lost nutrients extending shelf life refrigeration chemical preservative FORMATION FATTY ACIDS Polyunsaturated fats change chemical structure 0 Essential fat 0 20 of calories from unsaturated fat 0 replace instead of adding 0 be careful W Visible amp inVisible fats FATS PROTEIN FOODS four categories meat limit intake 57 ozday 0 choose low fat meats 0 ground turkey chicken White meats over beef 0 milk milk products hidden fats Whole grains can have added fats red meats higher in fat than white meat ground poultry may have added skin for moisture ground options may be healthier but lower fat content still detrimental
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