Chapter 1 Notes: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving
Chapter 1 Notes: Matter, Measurement, and Problem Solving Chem 105
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Masterson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 105 at Washington State University taught by Z Heiden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Chem 105 Notes Sections 1518 August 27 2015 1 Energy a fundamental part of physical and chemical change apem th g Energy the capacity to do work Work the action of a force through distance Kinetic energy the energy associate with motion Potential energy the energy associated with its position or composition Thermal energy energy associated with the temperature of an object Law of conservation of energy energy is neither created nor destroyed The tendency of systems with high potential energy to change in a way that lowers their potential energy 2 The units of measurement a b C T39D39LthrDQ m 3 Sig g a b an Units standard quantities used to specify measurements Metric system and the English system Scientist use the international system of units SI Meter standard unit of length i Slightly longer than a yard 1 yard36 inches 1 meter 3937 inches Kilogram standard unit of mass Second standard unit of time Kelvin standard unit of temperature Mass a measure of the quantity of matter within an object Weight measure of the gravitational pull on its matter Fahrenheit F freezes at 32 boils at 212 Celsius C freezes at 0 and boils at 100 Kelvin K freezes at 273 boils at 373 Absolute zero 459F 273C 0K CF3218 KC27315 F18C32 pre x multipliers on page 17 Derived unit combination of other units Volume is a measure of space See page 18 for common units and their equivalents rules all nonzero are signi cant interior digits are signi cant Leading zeros are not signi cant Trailing zeros i Always signi cant if after a decimal zeroes before a decimal point after a nonzero number are always signi cant ii 1200 ambiguous vs 1200 Is four sig gs Accuracy refers to how close the measure value is to the actual value Precision refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are e Random error error that has equal probability of being too high or too low f Systemic error error that tends toward being either too high or too low 4 Solving chemical problems 5 Supplemental Class Notes aWorksheet one will be done in lap and answers written in lab notebook and turned in at end of lab b Get familiar with stoich 6 Memorize all the SI pre xes 7 Extensive properties depend on the amount of substance mass volume 8ntensive properties depend only on the substance color melting point 9Osmium is the most dense 10
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