Chapter 10 Air Pollution
Chapter 10 Air Pollution ENVI 1020 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cory Garfunkel on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVI 1020 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Robert F. Holm in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Environmental Science in Science at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
Chapter 10 Air Pollution Atmosphere Lower to Upper o Troposphere ground to tropopause 0 011 miles up 75 of our air Where weather occurs Unstable air leads to mixing Decreasing Temperature w altitude Human Inputs 000 I Nitrogen amp Sulfur C02 methane from power generation and clearing forests o Stratosphere troposphere to stratopause o Nacreous clouds harbor environment where chlorinebased chemical reactions lead to ozone depletion 1130 miles up quotGoodquot Ozone which filters 99 of solar and cosmic UV radiation Increasing Temperature w altitude Air Pollution Definition Presence of 1 or more chemicals in atmosphere in quantities amp duration that cause harm to humans or other forms of life or materials 0 Sources 0 Fixed buildings amp mobile cars planes 0 Pollutants CO Carbon Monoxide SOx Sulfur Oxides 03 quotBad Ozone NOx Nitrogen Oxides VOC Volatile Organic Compounds 0 SPM Suspended Particulate Matter I Particulate fugitive dust amp aerosols 0 Electric Utilities gt 60 of 02 emissions 0 Agriculture gt 80 of NH3 Ammonia emissions Primary Pollutants 0 CO C02 502 NOx Most hydrocarbons amp SPM s Secondary Pollutants 0 S03 HN03 Nitric Acid H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid H202 Hydrogen Peroxide O3 PAN s Peroxyacyl Nitrates Most NO39 amp SO4239 Salts o Formed through interaction of primary pollutants with 1 or more atmospheric components sunlight plays a big role 0 Major Air Pollution Problems 0 Photochemical Smog smoke fog from Cars amp Industry I More common in urban areas w sunny warm dry climates I NOx amp hydrocarbon vapors I Main harmful ingredient in smog is 03 I Brown cloud over area more common in valleys 0 Industrial Smog from coal burning Burning coal releases 02 H2504 SPM C02 Mercury lead CO and a whole bunch of other harmful pollutants Developed vs Developing Countries 0 Air pollution control in Europe and USA 0 China India Ukraine amp E Europe have few if any air quality regulations 0 Acid deposition from coal amp cars in urban areas 502 amp NO emissions from fixed amp mobile sources released into atmosphere where they form acidic precipitation lower than pure rain s pH of 56 0 Acid rain 0 Soils amp lakes vary in ability to buffer or remove excess acidity o Conifers hit especially hard Regional air pollution issue 0 Midwest coal burning power plants HZSO4 a problem 0 Emissions carried eastward by wind effects seen in New England Leaching of nutrients into groundwater release of metal ions trees more exposed amp dying more often Between 19902000 25 decline in NOx emissions from all sources 502 emissions down 54 0 Thanks to Clean Air Interstate Rule of 2005 0 Ozone Depletion Good 03 in Stratosphere Chlorofluorocarbons CFC s attacking 039CIO Oz ClO O Cl Oz Cl attacks 03 again cycle repeats Cancer amp Cataract increase 0 1 03 depletion92 increase in nonmalignant skin cancer 0 More Surface bad Og lung cancer etc 0 Agriculture problems Halons used in fire suppression CFC s Methyl Chloroform Methyl Bromide now outlawed Now HCFC s declining HFC s HC s H20 terpenes He NH3 nonhalogen aerosol propellants are being used Montreal Protocol 1989 amp subsequent amendments for CFC amp HCFC emissions Over a one year period 20062007 30 decrease in size of Earth s stratospheric 03 hole should be all good in 3940 years 0 Thermal Inversion layer of warm air settles over cooler air near ground warm air holds down cool air amp prevents pollutants from rising amp scattering o Donora PA 1948 20 deaths 7000 hospitalized due to extreme smog 0 London UK in 1950 s had similar incident 0 Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution 200000570000 deathsyear 0 20000 deathsyear in US alone O I Particulates amp 03 biggest problem I Major sources coal burning amp cars Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution I 2800000 deathsyear I Developing countries burning wood inside for cooking and warmth I Asbestos formaldehyde and other chemicals also a problem 0 Clean Air Acts of 1970 1977 1990 O 0000 EPA Environmental Protection Agency establish National Ambient Air Quality Standards I 7 pollutants regulated o SPM SOx CO NOx VOC 03 Lead Prevention of Significant Deterioration Some states have more stringent regulations than federal levels National Emission Standards require EPA to regulate many toxic air pollutants Air Quality Monitors I Natural ex lichen in Olympic National Park in Washington I ManMade equipment Success of Clean Air Acts I 6 of 7 pollutants have decreased 0 N02 has slightly increased because there s more cars on the road I 1996 study showed costs from 19701990 equaled 436 Billion compared to projected savings of 527146 Trillion in health benefits I 107 Million Americans live in areas that exceed least 1 air pollutant standard
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