CRITICAL THINKING PHIL 1010
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Critical Thinking This page intentionally left blank Critical Thinking The Art of Argument George W Rainbolt Georgia State University Sandra L Dwyer Georgia State University i WADSWORTH I h CENGAGE Learningquot United States This is an electronic version of the print textbook Due to electronic rights restrictions some third party content may be suppressed Editori review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it For valuable information on pricing previous editions changes to current editions and alternate formats please visit WWWcengagecomhighered to search by ISBN author title or keyword for materials in your areas of interest I O h WADSWORTH CENGAGE Learningquot Critical Thinking The Art of Argument GeorgeW Rainbolt Sandra L Dwyer Publisher Clark Baxter Senior Sponsoring Editor Joann Kozyrev Development Editor Florence Kilgo Assistant Editor Joshua Duncan Media Editor Kimberly Apfelbaum Marketing Manager Mark T Haynes Marketing Coordinator Josh Hendrick Marketing Communications Manager Laura Localio Associate Content Project Manager Sara Abbott Senior Art Director Jennifer Wahi Manufacturing Buyer Linda Hsu Senior Rights Acquisition Specialist Text Katie Huha Production Service Cadmus Communications Text Designer Roy Neuhaus Design Rights Acquisition Specialist Image Amanda Groszko Cover Designer Je Bane CMB Design Cover Image Getty Images Compositor KnowledgeWorks Global Limited Primed in Canada 12345671413121110 2012 Wadsworth Cengage Learning ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced transmitted stored or used In any form or by any means graphic electronic or mechanical Including but not limited to photocopying recording scanning digitizing taping Web distribution Information networks or Information storage and retrieval systems except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the prior written permission of the publisher For product Information and technology assistance contact us at Cengage Learning Customeramp Sales Support 18003549706 For permission to use material from this text or product submit all requests online at wwwcengagecompermissions Further permissions questions can be emailed to permissionrequestcengagecom Library of Congress Control Number 2010932169 ISBN13 9780495501572 ISBN10 0495501573 Wadsworth 20 Channel Center Street Boston MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe Including Singapore the United Kingdom Australia Mexico Brazil and Japan Locate your local office at internationalcengagecom region Cengage Learning products are represented In Canada by Nelson Education Ltd For your course and learning solutions visitwwwcengagecom Purchase any of our products atyour local college store or at our preferred online store wwwCengageBraincom Brief Contents Introduction Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10 Preface xvii How to Use This Book 1 Critical Thinking and Arguments 4 What Makes a Good Argument 42 Premises and Conclusions 86 Language 116 Propositional Arguments 146 Categorical Arguments 174 Analogical Arguments 228 Statistical Arguments 258 Causal Arguments 294 Moral Arguments 342 vi Brief Contents Answers to Selected Exercises 374 Reference Guide 410 Fallacies 410 Guides 411 Habits of Critical Thinkers 411 Index Including Key Concepts and Technical Terms 412 Summary Guide for Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Arguments 415 List of Citations 424 Contents PREFACE xvii How to Use This Book 1 Critical Thinking and Arguments 4 What Is Critical Thinking 5 What Is an Argument 7 Statements 7 Statements and Sentences 8 Why Think Critically 13 Finding Arguments 13 The First Three Steps 13 Look for an Attempt to Convince 13 Find the Conclusion 13 Find the Premises 14 Complicating Factors 16 Indicator Words Are Imperfect Guides 16 Sentence Order 16 Conclusions and Premises Not in Declarative Form 16 Unstated Premises and Unstated Conclusions 19 viii Contents Things That Are Not Arguments 23 Assertions 23 Descriptions 23 Questions and Instructions 24 Explanations 24 Putting Arguments into Standard Form 31 Diagramming Arguments 39 Chapter Summary 40 Guide Finding and Standardizing Arguments 41 What Makes a Good Argument 42 The Two Characteristics of a Good Argument 43 True Premises 47 Audience 47 The Problem of Ignorance 49 Proper Form 51 Deductive and Inductive Arguments 55 Guide Terms Used in Logic Philosophy and Math to Refer to Good and Bad Arguments 59 Relevance 63 Dependent and Independent Premises 65 Arguing about Arguments 69 Fallacies and Relevance 70 Fallacy Easy Target 71 Fallacy Appeal to Popularity 72 Fallacy Appeal to Novelty or Tradition 73 Contents x Fallacy Ad Hominem 76 Fallacy Appeal to Ignorance 78 Fallacy Begging the Question 78 Chapter Summary 83 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Arguments 83 Premises and Conclusions 86 Three Kinds of Premises 87 Empirical Statements 87 De nition of Empirical Statements 87 Testimonial Empirical Statements 90 Definitional Statements 93 Statements by Experts 97 Appropriate Credentials 98 Reliability 98 Lack of Bias 98 Appropriate Area of Expertise 100 Fallacy Inappropriate Expertise 101 Expert Consensus 101 Guide Proper Citation of Experts 102 Premises and the Internet 103 A Common Mistake 104 Conclusions 108 Strength of Conclusions 108 Scope of Conclusions 109 Chapter Summary 115 x Contents Identifying Definitions 117 Extension and Intension 117 Guide Definitions and Quotation Marks 118 Genus and Species 119 Dictionary Definitions 120 Guide Dictionaries 122 Technical Definitions 123 Evaluating Definitions 128 Correct Extension 128 Correct Intension 130 Persuasive Definitions 131 Language and Clarity 133 Ambiguity 134 Fallacy Equivocation 134 Vagueness 136 Language and Emotion 139 Fallacy Appeal to Emotions 140 Euphemism 141 Rhetorical Devices 141 Chapter Summary 145 Propositional Arguments 146 Identifying Propositional Statements 147 Negations 148 Disjunctions 150 Conjunctions 152 Conditionals 154 Conditionals Some Complications 155 Contents xi Guide Negation Disjunction Conjunction and Conditional Indicator Words 156 Evaluating Propositional Arguments 159 Denying a Disjunct 159 Fallacy Affirming an Inclusive Disjunct 160 Affirming an Exclusive Disjunct 162 Fallacy False Dichotomy 163 Affirming the Antecedent 165 Fallacy Denying the Antecedent 166 Denying the Consequent 167 Fallacy Affirming the Consequent 167 TriConditional 168 Chapter Summary 171 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Propositional Arguments 171 Categorical Arguments 174 Identifying Categorical Statements 175 The Four Standard Categorical Statement Forms 175 Universal Affirmative All G1 Are G2 178 Categorical Statements Important Details 179 Venn Diagrams 179 Empty Categories 180 Category Variables 182 Complex Categories 183 Universal Negative All G1 Are Not G2 184 Particular Affirmative Some G1 Are G2 186 Particular Negative Some G1 Are Not G2 187 l39l39l valuating Categorical Arguments with One Premise 190 Contradiction 190 Fallacy Confusing a Contrary and a Contradictory 192 Conversion 194 Contents xi Distribution 195 Complements 197 Contraposition 197 Obversion 198 Guide Some Valid Categorical Argument Forms with One Premise 200 Evaluating Categorical Arguments with Two Premises 202 Identifying Categorical Syllogisms 202 Evaluating Categorical Syllogisms The Test Method 207 Guide Validity of Categorical Syllogisms The Test Method 208 The Equal Negatives Test 208 The Quantity Test 208 The Distributed Conclusion Test 209 The Distributed Middle Category Test 210 Guide Doing the Distributed Conclusion Test 210 Evaluating Categorical Syllogisms The Venn Method 211 Guide Validity of Categorical Syllogisms Venn Method 215 Chapter Summary 225 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Categorical Arguments 226 Analogical Arguments 228 Identifying Analogical Arguments 229 The Form of Analogies 230 Illustrative Analogies 233 Uses of Analogies 238 Logical Analogies 240 Refutation by Logical Analogy 240 Evaluating Analogical Arguments 244 The True Premises Test 244 The Proper Form Test 247 Analogies Consistency and False Beliefs 250 Contents xiii Chapter Summary 254 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Analogical Arguments 255 Statistical Arguments 258 Descriptive Statistics 259 The Many Meanings of quotAveragequot 260 Mean 261 WeightedMean 261 Made 262 Midrange 262 Median 262 Outliers and Resistance 263 Standard Deviation 268 Distributions 269 Regressions 273 Identifying Statistical Arguments 275 Parts of a Statistical Argument 276 Statistical Arguments and Analogical Arguments 278 Evaluating Statistical Arguments 281 The True Premises Test 281 The Proper Form Test 281 Guideline 1 Size 282 Guideline 2 Variety 282 Sampling Techniques 283 Statistical Fallacies 286 Fallacy Hasty Generalization 286 Fallacy Biased Sample 286 Fallacy Biased Questions 287 Chapter Summary 291 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Statistical Arguments 292 xiv Contents Causal Arguments 294 The Many Meanings of quotCausequot 295 Cause as Necessary Condition 296 Cause as Sufficient Condition 298 Cause as Necessary and Sufficient Condition 298 Contributory Cause 298 Primary Cause 299 Remote and Proximate Causes 299 Identifying Causal Arguments 302 The Form of a Causal Argument 302 Evaluating Causal Arguments 306 Premise 1 Correlation 306 Binary and Scalar Features 306 Binary Correlation 307 Scalar Correlation 307 Establishing Correlations Mill39s Methods 310 The Method of Agreement 310 The Method of Difference 310 The Joint Method of Agreement and Difference 311 The Method of Scalar Variation 311 Correlation Is Not Causation 312 Fallacy Hasty Cause 313 Fallacy Causal Slippery Slope 314 Premise 2 Causation and Time 316 Fallacy Post Hoc 317 Premise 3 ThirdParty Causation 318 Causal Arguments by Elimination 319 Premise 4 Coincidental Correlation 320 Contents xv The Scientific Method 326 Step 1 Identify the Question to Be Answered 326 Step 2 Formulate a Tentative Theory 327 Step 3 Check for Correlations 327 Step 4 If Necessary Formulate a New Theory 328 Step 5 Check for Reverse Causation ThirdParty Causation and Coincidental Correlation 329 Step 6 Develop New Questions 329 An Example of the Scientific Method 329 Chapter Summary 338 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Causal Arguments 339 Moral Arguments 342 Identifying Moral Arguments 343 Values Often Overlooked Presuppositions 344 The Nature of Moral Arguments 348 Moral Arguments and Truth 348 Moral Arguments Emotion and SelfInterest 349 Evaluating Moral Arguments 351 Consequentialist Moral Arguments 353 What Sorts of Consequences Are MoraIIy Important 353 Who Is MoraIIy Important 356 What s the Correct Amount of the MoraIIy Important Consequences 357 Deontic Moral Arguments 359 Universalizability 360 Cooperation 362 Aretaic Moral Arguments 365 Moral Conflict 367 A Final Thought 369 Chapter Summary 370 Guide Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Moral Arguments 371 xv Contents Answers to Selected Exercises 374 Reference Guide 410 Fallacies 410 Guides 411 Habits of Critical Thinkers 411 Index Including Key Concepts and Technical Terms 412 Summary Guide for Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Arguments 415 List of Citations 424 The following additional chapters are available for inclusion in custom versions of Critical Thinking The Art of Argument Custom Chapter A Propositional Arguments in a Formal Language Custom Chapter B Aristotelian Categorical Arguments Custom Chapter C Success in College More Than Critical Thinking Custom Chapter D Critical Thinking Across The Disciplines Contact your Cengage Learning representative for more information Preface I Why Critical Thinking The Art of Argument In 2006 we faced the task of choosing the textbook for Phil 1010 Critical Thinking At Georgia State University Phil 1010 is a core curriculum course taken by more than 3000 students a year and taught almost exclusively by graduate students During our textbook search we identi ed two challenges that our textbook must meet First we needed a book that would help stu dents acquire skills quickly Georgia State students take Critical Thinking because the course is required They are under pressure to quickly acquire the skills needed to complete their courses for graduation and they do best if it is clear to them that the course and the required book are helping prepare them for college classes and the rest of their life Second we wanted our Critical Thinking instructors many of whom are in their rst year of teaching to be able to trust the book to explain the fundamentals clearly and accurately so that they do not have to defend oversimpli cations and omissions In short we needed a textbook that was accessible easy for students to read and understand relevant to students lives both in and out of the class room and rigorous did not oversimplify the material None of the existing textbooks that we reviewed met all of these crite ria so we wrote Critical Thinking The Art of Argument Over the course of three years the book was tested with more than 10000 students and more than fty instructors We revised the book three times in light of classroom feedback and then based on reviewer feedback we revised it further before issuing this rst edition Throughout this process we focused on maintain ing the rigor that has made the text a success at Georgia State For the four semesters prior to the introduction of the new textbook 26 of students in Critical Thinking earned an unsatisfactory grade ie a D a W or an F but in the four semesters after the introduction of the new book only 212 of students in the course earned an unsatisfactory grade Through this process we also re ned our own understanding of what we meant by rigor The right balance needs to be achieved between two xviii Preface extremes lengthy complicated explanations and oversimpli ed incomplete presentations Rigorous does not mean overly complex and incomprehen sible On the other hand every teacher has had the experience of presenting a simpli ed de nition or explanation to a class of students only to have a good student raise a hand and ask quotBut what about or say quotBut that doesn t make sense ifll Extensive class testing and several development reviews have helped us craft test and clarify explanations and examples to ensure that they are rigorous relevant and accessible I What You Will Find in Critical Thinking The Art of Argument Critical Thinking The Art of Argument introduces all major types of argu ments Its focus on accessibility and rigor particularly enhances the presen tation of analogical statistical and causal arguments The book s informal conversational style and relevant reallife examples from students lives in class online with friends or at home are proven tools that facilitate comprehension without sacri cing accuracy or thoroughness In addition extensive sets of exercises emphasize application over memorization and help meet the goal of offering a complete approachable presentation of the essentials of critical thinking Critical Thinking The Art of Argument has unique features to help students learn and help instructors teach Consistent Focus on Arguments Students learn best when they are shown patterns and know what to expect To provide this consistency we use an innovative twopart test for a good argument the true premises test and the proper form test for all types of arguments Stu dents sometimes struggle to see the overarching commonalities across the range of arguments found in good reasoning When we started using our bookwith the consistent use of the twopart test students were able to see these patterns clearly and this problem was solved Distinctive Semiformal Method for Standardizing Arguments Students need to focus on argument form in order to grasp the funda mental point that arguments can have a proper formal structure inde pendent of the truth or falsity of their premises On the other hand the complexity and abstraction of formal symbolic language intimidates some students We have adopted an easytounderstand semiformal method of standardizing arguments Consider for example the case of Affirming the Antecedent aka Modus Ponens discussed in Chapter Five The purely formal approach can be too disconnected from meaning for students to understand UPDQ Arguments presented in ordinary language are more comfortable for students 1 If Coke has calories then it provides energy 2 Coke has calories Therefore 3 Coke provides energy However when arguments are presented only in ordinary language stu dents cannot see the argument s logical form They are often unable to recognize which form the particular example illustrates Our semiformal method bridges the student s need for meaning and the requirement to focus on form by using a combination of letters as variables such as 1 for one statement and S2 for another statement and common words instead of symbols like this 1 If 81 then 82 2 81 Therefore 3 52 Testing of the book revealed that retaining the use of common words for the key parts of arguments such as if then and therefore allows stu dents to see an argument s logical form more easily The use of SI and S2 as variables reminds students that affirming the antecedent expresses a relation ship between statements This semiformal method illustrates the concept of logical form while maintaining a visible connection to ordinary speech The book avoids both extremes what can be the confusing novelty of purely symbolic standardizations and the inadequate representation of logical form in arguments expressed completely in ordinary language Semiformal Method39s Unified Focus on Every Argument Form To further our goal of showing students the commonalities of all arguments we use the semiformal method of notation to present the logical form for all of the major types of arguments As an example look at the treatment of form in Ad Hominem Fallacy Chapter Two and Causal Arguments Chapter Nine The Form of the Ad Hominem Fallacy 1 Person H asserts statement S 2 There is something objectionable about Person H Therefore 3 Statement S is false The Form of Causal Arguments 1 Event E1 is correlated with event E2 2 E2 is not the cause of El 3 There is no event E3 that is the cause of El and E2 4 El and E2 are not coincidentally correlated Therefore 5 E1 is a cause of E2 Preface xx Preface XX This uni ed focus on form combined with the consistent use of the twopart test for a good argument lead our students to better comprehend the fact that arguments can have a proper formal structure independent of the truth or fal sity of their premises Informal Conversational Style of Language This style facilitates comprehension and makes the content accessible to all students at all levels and from all backgrounds For example we use contrac tions to make the writing style more accessible and we address the students directly in the second person Fallacies in Context The study of fallacies is only useful when students learn to identify falla cious arguments and to avoid resorting to fallacies in their own arguments When students study fallacies in a single chapter for example they tend to focus on memorizing the names of the fallacies rather than really being able to distinguish a fallacious argument from a good one To better contrast fal lacies with properly formed arguments of the same type Critical Thinking The Art of Argument introduces each fallacy alongside good arguments of the same type eg causal fallacies are discussed in the chapter on causal arguments propositional fallacies are in the chapter on propositional argu ments etc Exercises Require Application Not Merely Memorization Critical thinkers must know how to identify and analyze arguments not merely de ne terms Learning the art of argument requires practice and applicationirecitation of technical de nitions does not contribute to the development of this skill For this reason we crafted all of our exercises to avoid mere memorization We chose exercises like this one Call me Ishmael This sentence is l a statement a question a command d an exclamation 0291 l l l l instead of an exercise that requires memorization like this one A statement is l a sentence that makes a claim that can be either true or false a sentence that asks for information a question or command a speech Before we started using this book we found that many students could for example spit back the de nition of an argument but could not identify one in a passage In addition to offering invaluable practice exercises that require application help students overcome this problem Unique Pedagogical Aids 0 Learning Outcomes While they are now a key feature of higher education learning outcomes are rarely explicitly listed for students Each chapter of Critical Thinking The Art ofArgument begins with a list of ve practical learning outcomes speci c things students should be able to do after studying the chapter 0 Key Concepts Points fundamental to a student s success these concepts are visually enhanced and included in the margin This presentation helps highlight their importance and facilitates reviewing for exams 0 Habits of a Critical Thinker Critical thinking is a skill and like all skills it requires habits of mind in addition to content knowledge Special boxes throughout the text point to the habits required to be a good critical thinker Examples include being inquisitive being attentive to detail and being bold 0 Technical Terms One barrier to college students learning is the fact that different disciplines use different words for the same thing or the same word for different things Technical Terms notes throughout the text explain these differences For example one Technical Terms note explains different uses of the word valid 0 Connections The pages in a book have to be numbered sequentially l 2 3 etc But critical thinking is more like a web of topics than a line of topics The Connections feature shows students the weblike nature of critical thinking by referring them to discussions of related matters elsewhere in the text 0 Guides These tools are stepbystep instructions that tell students how to perform important tasks For example the end of Chapter One presents a guide for nding and standardizing arguments and this guide is included at the end of relevant chapters updated with speci c comments keyed to each type of argument 0 Reference Guide Found at the end of the book the Reference Guide allows students to nd material quickly It contains alphabetical lists of Key Concepts Guides Fallacies and Technical Terms It also includes all the argument forms discussed in the book I Additional Resources to Critical Thinking The Art of Argument Critical Thinking The Art of Argument is more than a textbook It is a com plete coursedelivery package that includes 0 Aplia This online solution helps students stay on top of their coursework with regularly scheduled homework assignments Interactive tools and content further increase engagement and comprehension The Aplia assigmnents match the language style and structure of the textbook allowing students to apply what they learn in the text directly to their homework 0 PowerPoint presentations for each chapter XX Preface Preface XX 0 A test bank of multiplechoice questions that can be used on quizzes and tests Sample essays written by actual college students While some texts provide sample essays written by professors or found in the news media none includes texts written by students Thus no other text provides students with models they can use when writing their own essays Sample essays written by academics from across the disciplines These can be used either as prompts for writing assignments or prompts for class discussions I Acknowledgements Martin Carrier Lauren Adamson Kathryn McClymond and the University of Bielefeld generously provided me with visiting scholar status and there fore with the time to nish this book Corbin and Ioseph Rainbolt provided helpful distractions and unbeknownst to them several examples Madeline Zavodny read the entire manuscript multiple times and provided voluminous and enlightening comments She also did more than her share of child care and put up with a grumpy husband My debts to her are greater than I can say Bises Iolie GWR I thank George Rainbolt and Madeline Zavodny for the friendship they showed me when I was ill that helped me continue doing the work I love including nishing this book I thank Anne Owens for critiquing and com menting on the manuscript and above all for doing it with gentleness and humor that sustained me during chemotherapy SLD We would like to thank the members of the Board of Consultants not only for the ne pieces that are part of the ancillaries but also for their detailed comments Laura Paluki Blake Assistant Director Cooperative Institutional Research Program CIRP Russell Blyth Associate Professor of Mathematics Saint Louis University Rebecca Bordt Associate Professor and Chair of Sociology 81 Anthropology DePauw University Gregory Brack Associate Professor of Counseling and Psychological Services Georgia State University Nelson de Jesus Professor of French Oberlin College Nickitas I Demos Andrew C and Eula C Family Associate Professor of Composition Georgia State University Donald Edwards Regents Professor of Biology Georgia State University Paula Eubanks Associate Professor of Art Georgia State University Doug Falen Assistant Professor of Anthropology Agnes Scott College William Fritz Professor of Geology 81 Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs College of Staten Island CUNY Reina Hayaki Assistant Professor of Philosophy University of Nebraska Ted Ielen Professor of Political Science University of Nevada Las Vegas Kathryn McClymond Associate Professor and Chair of Religious Studies Georgia State University Marnie Mclnnes Professor of English and Women s Studies 81 Dean of Academic Life Depauw University Laurence Peck Assistant Professor of Philosophy Georgia Perimeter College John Schlotterbeck Professor of History Depauw University Paul Wiita Professor of Physics and Astronomy Georgia State University Madeline Zavodny Professor of Economics Agnes Scott College Janice Zinser Professor of French Oberlin College In several cases the comments were over ten singlespaced pages As this book ventures to say things about disciplines outside philosophy the Board saved us from many howlers The faculty members of Georgia State University Department of Philoso phy wrote many exercises They gave us many helpful comments graciously put up with a department chair who often did not give them the attention they deserved and pitched in to help an absent Coordinator of Graduate Teaching Many talented graduate students helped us with suggestions at every stage of the manuscript as well as helping with the bibliography permissions log and index They include Joseph Adams William Baird Brandi MartinezBedard Ryan Born Ngoc Bui Shane Callahan Nicolas Condom Theresa Creighton Timothy CrewsAnderson Angela Desaulniers Ian Dunkle Benjamin Fischer Jesse Gero Walter Glazer Cleo Grimaldi Andrew Hookom Maria Montello Jason Outlaw Paul Pfeilschiefter Cindy Phillips Joy Salvatore and Tracy Vanwagner We also thank Holly Adams Sarah Alexander Michael Augustin J Aaron Brown Steve Beighley Tyson Bittrich Michael Bolding Joseph Bullock Sean Bustard John Cadenhead Charles Carmichael Jeanelle Carda Grant Christopher Timothy Clewell Jason Craig Stephen Duncan Keith Fox Katherine Fulfer Melissa Garland Jodi GeeverOstrowsky Maria Gourova Daniel Griffin Steven Hager Ian Halloran Brent Hiatt Kyle Hirsch Matthew HudgensHaney Daniel lssler Lucas Keefer Eli Kelsey Katy Kramer Thomas Kersey Kathryn Kramer Richard Latta Jason Lesandrini Mary Leukam James Lorusso Ryan McWhorter Katherine Milby Raleigh Miller Sherry Morton Andrew Reagan John Rivernbark Bryan Russell Joseph Slade Kelly Smith Kenneth Smith Anais Stenson Melissa Strahm Hugh Thompson Paul Tulipana Brad Wissmueller and Jared Yarsevich We also thank the undergraduates who contributed suggestions during testing of the book including Sarah Bedzk Jennifer Buchanan Tibor Zsolt Nagy David Newey Mignonette Padmore and Samantha Vernon We thank the following reviewers for their helpful comments which contributed to improving many aspects of this edition Edward Abplanalp University of Nebraska at Omaha Rebecca G Addy University of Nebraska at Kearney Jennifer Altenhofel CSU Bakers eld Jami Anderson University of MichiganFlint Tim Black California State University Northridge Raymond Brown Keiser University xxiii Preface Preface XX V Timothy Burns Loyola Marymount University Christopher Caldwell Virginia State University Barbara Carlson Clark University Lee Carter Glendale Community College Iohn Casey Northeastern Illinois University Sherry Cisler Arizona State University West Campus Iames Cox Strayer University Margaret Crouch Eastern Michigan University Michelle Darnell Fayetteville State University Iames Donelan Franklin Pierce University L Sidney Fox California State University Long Beach Augustine Yaw FrimpongMansoh CSU Bakers eld John Gibson University of Louisville Lawrence Habermehl American International College Shahrokh Haghighi Cal State University Long Beach Richard Hall Fayetteville State University Courtney Hammond Cuyamaca College Steve Hiltz Southern Methodist University Ken Hochstetter College of Southern Nevada Elaine Hurst St Francis College Benjamin Hutchens Iames Madison University Polycarp Ikuenobe Kent State University Barbara King Chaffey College David Kite Champlain College Rory Kraft York College of Pennsylvania Emily Kulbacki Green River Community College Emilie Kutash Michael C LaBossiere Florida AampM University Sunita Lanka Hartnell College Iohn Ludes University of Nevada Las Vegas Teri May eld Washington State University Ioseph Monast Modesto Junior College Anne Morrissey California State University Chico Alan Nichols Georgia Highlands College Eric Parkinson Syracuse University Andrew Pavelich University of Houston Downtown Nenad Popovic Southern Methodist University Francesco Pupa Ioseph Rabbitt Indiana UniversitySouth Bend Reginald Raymer University of North Carolina Charlotte Lou Reich Cal State University San Bernardino Robin Roth CSU of Dominguez Hills Gregory Sadler Fayetteville State University Steven Schandler Chapman University Pat Shade Rhodes College Nick Sinigaglia Moreno Valley College Taggart Smith College of Technology Purdue University West Lafayette campus Iohn Sullins Sonoma State University Weimin Sun California State University Northridge xxv Preface Ruth Swissa Keiser University William Tell Gifford Truckee Meadows CC Iayne Tristan University of North Carolina at Charlotte Stuart Vyse Helmut Wautischer Sonoma State University Debra Welkley California State University Sacramento Andrew Wible Muskegon Community College Hugh Wilder The College of Charleston Linda Williams Kent State University Nancy M Williams Wofford College Lynn Wilson Strayer University Kerry Ybarra Fresno City College Marie G Zaccaria Georgia Perimeter College Finally we thank our editors at Wadsworth Worth Hawes Florence Kilgo and Joann Kozyrev for most of their latenight suggestions and all of their help with the production process George W Rainbolt Sandra L Dwyer Georgia State University This page intentionally left blank Introduction How to Use This Book Read this It will help you get better grades This book has some unusual features learning outcomes notes boxes and guides Getting to know these features and using them correctly will help you do well in this course Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes are things that your instructor wants you to learn In this book they are things you should be able to do But you39ll have to have some knowledge to do them Learning outcomes are an ideal place to begin when studying for tests or writing papers They often are larger tasks that require you to accomplish a series of smaller tasks and professors often put these sorts of larger tasks on tests and papers You39ll find a list of learning outcomes at the beginning of each chapter Here39s the learning outcome for this introduction After studying the material in this introduction you should be able to Correctly identify and use the learning outcomes comments boxes and guides found in this book 2 introduction Key Concept Key concepts are points that are fundamental to your success in this course and a place for you to begin when you39re studying I Key Concepts In the margins you will nd notes with the title Key Concept The feature included here in the margin is an example of a key concept It tells you that key concepts are especially important I Habits of a Critical Thinker Critical thinking is a skill Most skills require you to know some set of facts and also to have some good habits A good cook makes it a habit to wash his hands A good skier makes it a habit to check the weather report Certain habits are essential to being a good critical thinker and Habits of a Critical Thinker boxes point you to these habits Here s an example Habits of a Critical Thinker Studying on a Schedule One habitotcriticalthinkers who are collegestudents is studying on a scheduleYou probably know your schedule otclasses butyou might not have put togetheraschedule tortimeto study Studentswho get good grades usually set and sticlltto a schedule for studytimes ltyou don39t set aSide some timeto study other things can fill up your days until you are staring ata bunch of tests With no timeto study I Technical Terms As people learn more it becomes impossible for anyone to know everything about every subject That s why knowledge has been divided into areas often called disciplines or subjects Different disciplines use different words for the same thing or the same word for different things This is a challenge for college students Technical Terms boxes explain these differences Here s a Technical Terms note Technical Terms Category Theory ChapterSix discusses categorical logic in mathematics categorical logic is treated as a part otcategorytneory in a math classyou might nearan instructortalllt about the material in Chapter Six as categon theory I Connections The pages in a book have to be numbered linearly l 2 3 etc But critical thinking is more like a web of topics than a line of topics Connections com ments show you the weblike nature of critical thinking You will nd them introduction 3 where material in one chapter touches on the material in another chapter Connections notes are in blue Here s a Connections note Connections Tne webriike nature of critical tninking isaiso discussed in Cnapter Four I Guides Guides are stepbystep instructions that tell you how to perform some important task See the Guide on Finding and Standardizing Arguments in Chapter One on page 41 Finding and Standardizing Arguments Here s a review of the steps to nd and standardize an argument H Look for an attempt to convince Find the conclusion Find the premises 92 Review the following to make sure that you have correctly identi ed the conclusion and the premises imperfect indicator words sentence order premises andor conclusion not in declarative form and unstated premises andor conclusion U1 Review the following to make sure that you haven t incorrectly identi ed something as a premise or a conclusion when in fact it isn t part of an argument assertions questions instructions descriptions and explanations I Reference Guide The Reference Guide at the end of the book allows you to nd material quickly It contains alphabetical lists of Key Concepts Guides Fallacies and Technical Terms Knowing and correctly using the features of this book will help you get a bet ter grade in your class It will also help you with something more important than a good grade thinking critically Critical Thinking and Arguments Call me Ishmael Some years agonevermind how long preciselyihaving little or no money in mypurse and nothing particular to interest me on shorel thought I would sail about a little and see the watery part of the world Herman Melville Moby Dick 2008 1 The peculiar evil ofsilencing the expression of an opinion is that it is robbing the human race those who dissent from the opinion still more than those who hold it If the opinion is right they are deprived ofthe opportunity ofexchanging error for truth If wrong theyose whatis almost as great a bene t the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth produced by its collision with error John Stuart Mill On Liberty 1999 59 60 material omitted and punctuation modernized Learning Outcomes After studying the material in this chapter you should be able to 1 Identify arguments 2 Identify the conclusion and premises of arguments 3 Distinguish arguments from explanations 4 Put arguments into standard form 5 Identify unstated premises and subarguments What is Critical Thinking 5 There is no substitute for critical thinking Critical thinking is the skill of making decisions based on good reasons Learning to think critically is one of the most valuable skills you can acquire because its reflective analytical and evaluative aspects can be brought to bear on any problem or issue Critical thinking has led people to create ideas and inventions that make life today dramatically better than it was in the past When you give reasons for what you believe you make arguments In this way critical thinking is linked to arguments The two passages on the previous page were both written in the middle of the 1800s The rst is quite famous The second while less well known is a central document in the discussion of free speech The rst passage doesn t make an argument The second passage makes an argument in favor of freedom of speech In this book we ll focus on passages like the second one We ll work on identifying arguments and on determining whether arguments are good or bad I What Is Critical Thinking Suppose that a professor in an economics course asks you to write a paper about whether gas prices will rise or fall over the next six months How should you decide what you believe One option would be to flip a coin Heads you decide to believe that gas prices will rise Tails you decide to believe that gas prices will fall Another option would be to consult an astrologer and believe what the stars tell you Neither of these is an example of critical thinking To use critical thinking skills to write your paper about gas prices you d need to look for good reasons to think that gas prices will rise and for good reasons to think that gas prices will fall Then you d need to determine which reasons are better When you provide reasons for believing something you make an argument Here s an argument for the view that gas prices will rise Over the next six months China will have an increased demand for gas and other petroleum products So the price of gas will rise Here s an argument for the view that gas prices will fall Over the next six months Saudi Arabia will increase oil production So gas prices will fall Unlike someone who ips a coin to decide what to believe about gas prices someone who considers arguments is beginning to think critically Critical thinking is the skill of correctly evaluating arguments made by oth ers and composing good arguments of your own Arguments can be about Key Concept Critical thinking is the skill of correctly evaluating arguments made by others and composing good arguments of yourown 6 Chapter 1 Criticallninking andArguments any subject For this reason critical thinking is an important skill You should use it in every college course you take and throughout the rest of your life Many skills other than critical thinking are important The ability to quickly and correctly multiply is an essential life skill but it isn t critical thinking The ability to safely handle equipment in a chemistry lab is essen tial for doing well in chemistry classes but it isn t a critical thinking skill neither are reading writing study artistic interpersonal or time manage ment skills Critical thinking isn t knowing facts Knowing facts is important in all college courses You won t do well in history if you think that the United States has existed for 5 million years You won t do well in accounting if you don t know a debit from a credit Knowing facts is also vital outside of class Lots of people have lost lots of money because they didn t know important facts about their investments For centuries lack of knowledge about germs caused countless deaths But you can fail a course and make serious mistakes in life even when you know lots of facts If you can t think critically the facts you know are just floating around in your head You must use critical thinking skills to understand facts to put them into context and to see how they re connected to each other Habits of a Critical Thinker Self Re ection ltyou look backattne lltey Concept note above you39ll seetnat tne skill orcrltlcal tninking includes composing good arguments ofyour own Finding tne strengtns and flaws in tne arguments made by otners tnougnt into my nead lfso doestnat person nave anytning to gain from my naving tnis tnougnt Am l prone totnese sorts ottnougnts even tnougn l snouldn39t be7A seltrre ective person mlgnt discover is usually easier tnan making arguments otyour own Good crltlcal tninkers compose tneir own arguments sublect tnem to critical analysis and use wnattney39ve learned from tnls critical analysis to compose new and betterarguments Evaluating your own arguments is part of being seltrreflective Good critical tnlnkers know tneir own tnougnts lney stop and ask tnemselves Vlnat am l tninking7quotlney evaluate tneir own arguments You don39t know your own tnougnts unless you tnink about tneml Seliareflectivetninkers tninkabout wnere tneir tnougnts come from Did someone else puttnis tnat snetends to seetne downside oftnings ltsne is aware ottnat blas sne nas tne opportunity to combat it Seltare ective tninkerstninkaboutwnattney are doing Witn tneir tnougntsAm l tninking about an argument am l Wisning am l noplng am l dreaming Justasa seltrreflectivetninker is aware otwnattne sources of ner tnougnts tend to be sne is aware of wnat snetends to do witn ner tnougntsAm l really arguing witn someone trying to annoysomeone or snowing ott7Am l using arguments to nlde from a difficult discusSion I What Is an Argument An argument is an attempt to provide reasons for thinking that some belief is true All arguments have two parts The rst part is the reasons and the second part is the belief that those reasons are intended to support The reasons are the premises and the belief being supported is the conclusion Look back at our rst argument about rising and falling gas prices The premise is 1 Over the next six months China will have an increased demand for gas and other petroleum products The conclusion is 2 Over the next six months the price of gas will rise The premise provides a reason for thinking that the conclusion is true In this book an argument is an attempt to provide reasons for thinking that some belief is true When you hear someone say I had an argument with my husband last night the word argument refers to a verbal ght This text isn t using argument that way Statements Premises and conclusions are both statements A statement is a sentence that makes a claim that can be either true or false Every argument is composed of two or more statements The conclusion is the statement that the argument is intended to support The premises are the statements that are intended to support the conclusion In other words conclusions are statements that are supported and premises are statements that are supporting Conclusion Premise Premise Dave Newman 0 What ls an Argument 7 Key Concept An argument is an attempt to provide reasons for thinking that some belief is true The reasons are the premises and the belief being supported is the conclusion Key Concept A statement is a sentence that makes a claim that can be either true or false The conclusion is the statement that the argument is intended to support The premises are the statements that are intended to support the conclusion Premises support conclusions Chapter 1 E o The solar system Key Concept Premises and conclusions must be statements and every statement is either true or false Criticallninking andArguments Premises and conclusions must be statements and every statement is either true or false A sentence that is neither true nor false can t be a statement and can t be part of a wellformed argument Here are four sentences 1 Read the chapter about the planets in our solar system 2 There are at least eight planets in our solar system 3 There are at least twenty planets in our solar system 4 How many planets are in our solar system Sentence 1 gives an instruction It s a perfectly good sentence But because it gives an instruction it can t be true and it can t be false Sentence 4 is a ques tion Questions can t be true and they can t be false Questions and instructions aren t statements Sentences 2 and 3 are declarative sentences Sentence 2 is true Sentence 3 is false Sentences 2 and 3 are both statements an argument includes sentences that aren t statements then it isn t a wellformed argument But people often use nondeclarative sentences in a way that indicates they want to make an argument In these cases the sentences can be restated as declarative sentences Connections Later in this cnapteryou39ll see now to paraphrase nonideclaratiye sentences into statements Technical Term Truth Value in some fields you39ll find discussrons oftne trutniyaluequot ofa statement This is a technical way of indicating whether a statement is true or false The trutniyalue of this statement is Tquot is another way of saying that the statement is true The trutnryalue oftnis statement is F is another way of saying that the statement is false in advanced courses you may come across discusSions in which you39ll consider trutnryalues besrdes quottruequot and false Statements and Sentences Don t confuse statements with sentences Whether a string of words is a sentence is determined by rules of grammar Whether a string of words is a statement is determined by whether it makes a claim that can be true or false What is an Argument7 9 As just noted only one kind of sentence a declarative sentence can be true se e sentence can contain two or more statements Heres an example of one sentence that contains two statements a Because so much of modern medicine depends on chemistry it is es sential that students who intend to enter the health professions have some understanding of basic chemistry Bettelheiin 2007 2 It contains this statement Much of modern medicine depends on chemistry and this one too It is essential that students who intend to enter the health professions have some understanding of basic chemistry The rst statement is a premise and the second statement is a conclusion You must distinguish sentences from statements to be able to discern premr ises and conclusions If you thought that sentence a was a single statement you wouldnt be able to see that its an argument Two or more sentences may contain only one statement For example Key Concept authors sometimes repeat a central point The following passage contains One sentence cari eight declarative sentences but only seven statements contain two or more Weather in uences our everyday activities our jobs and ourl1ealtl1 ancl Statemems TWO or more comfort There are few other aspects of our physical environment that sememes may comam H Ore I n 1 call the weed only one statement er On January 25 2000 North Carolina and nearby states experienced a recordrbreaking winter storm In September of that year Hurricane Floyd brought ooding rains damaging winds and rough seas to a large portion of the Atlantic Seaboard More than 25 million people evacuated their homes These memorable weather events serve to illustrate the fact that the United States has the greatest variety of weather of any country in the world Weather clearly in uences our lives a great deal So there is a need for increased awareness and understanding of our atmosphere and its behavior Lutgens 2004 4 italics added and material omitted The importance of critical thinking in chemistn isvividly illustrated in the life and work of the English chemist Rosalind Franklin 09204958 lishe hadn39t died of ovarian cancer she would have won the Nobel Prize in conjunction with James Watson and Francis Crick iortheir work on discovering the structure of DNA Nobel Prizes are not awarded posthumously Franklin39s work contributed to our understanding of the molecular structure of DNA RNAViiuses coal and graphite You can see Franklin39s paper on DNA in theiournal Nature l953 at httpwwwnaturecomnaturedna50archivehtml Plum Pesezitler Chapter 1 Cntreal annkrng and Arguments The two sentences in italics make the same statement In looking for argu ments you can t simply count the sentences to nd the statements Technical Terms Arguments Claims Statements Propositions Statements are also called proposrtrons Some textbooks use tne term Carm to refer to arguments and statements Otner books use alarm to refer to tne conclusron otan argument EXERCISE 11 A Which of the following sentences would not typically express a statement Explain why The answers for starred exercises can be found at the end of the book WN N991 Oxygen is an element Why do fools fall in love Title of a song by Frankie Lymon 81 the Teenagers The earth revolves around the sun The moon revolves around the sun quotStop in the name of love Title of a song by Diana Ross and the Supremes Eat ve portions of vegetables every day Comets are made of frozen gases and dust Pure oxygen rarely occurs naturally on Earth How long do you think it will rain Go Tigers Many children use a blanket as a comfort device I hate broccoli How many times have I told you to clean your room The peculiar evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is that it is robbing the human race those who dissent from the opinion still more than those who hold it Mill 1999 59760 material omitted and punctuation modernized 15 quotCall me Ishmael Melville 2008 1 B a For each sentence indicate whether it makes a statement or not b For each sentence that isn t a statement describe what it does Iack Let s go up the hill Iill That s a bad idea Iack Why Iill It s a very steep hill Tack I don t care about that Frankie Lymon amp the Teenagers Why do fools fall in love Why Do Fools Fall in Love and Other Hits Rhino Flashback 2003 1956 CD 39Diana Ross and the Supremes Stop in the name of love Diana Ross and the SupremesiThe Ultimate Collection Motown 1997 1965 CD Whatlsan Argument 11 Iill But I ve a heart condition lack I don t care about that either Iill Well I see that you re a heartless human being lack To the contrary I ve a very healthy heart Iill But you don t care at all about my heart lack If you have a heart condition you should get a good cardiologist to care for it Iill You re making stupid jokes about my heart condition Are you some kind of ierk or what C How many statements are found in each of the following sentences 1 Stefan walked to the store bought a newspaper and then went to a cafe to read it 2 Mercury is composed mostly of hot gases 3 How many times must I play the fool a You break it you bought it The internet and cell phones have revolutionized the way people communicate Back to Black Title of an Amy Winehouse album Would you like soup or salad with that He ll have either soup or salad omyom Ask not what your country can do for youiask what you can do for your country Kennedy 1961 The Cherokees believed that they had a sacred duty to avenge the deaths of fallen comrades and so war parties formed quickly following a death Perdue 2005 3 One of the striking differences between a cat and a lie is that a cat has only nine lives Twain 1999 30 12 While I know myself as a creation of God lam also obligated to realize and remember that everyone else and eVerything else are also God s creation Angelou 1994 34 While government should not be in the business of limiting speech an institution such as a university should have the freedom to restrict the speech of anyone at any time who utilizes resources within the jurisdiction of the institution Shermer 2000 13 H O H H H W P There is good reason why it is considered important to be able to listen to another person why we have to listenifor we do not have to learn to interrupt which comes naturally Yakubinsky 1997 249 It does not matter whether a man prospers as an individual if his country is destroyed he is lost with it but if he meets with misfortune he is far safer in a fortunate country than he would be otherwise Thucydides 1993 52753 H 01 D Which of the following sentences are not likely to be the premise of any argument Explain 1 Many people in the United States own a car 2 Freedom is the most important value 3 Hanggliding is more dangerous than walking on a beach Winehouse Amy Back to Black Republic 2007 CD E Chapter 1 D lb I gt HOCWNF H 02 HH 01h Crltmal Thmkmg and Arguments Give me liberty or give me death Henry 1999 232 Democracy is the best form of government Communism was an evil system Evil will win if good people don t ght against it Back to Black Title of an Amy Winehouse album Abortion should be legal Abortion should be illegal How far until the next exit Everyone should take an economics course quotIt is considered important to be able to listen to another person Yakubinsky 1997 249 Glovernment should not be in the business of limiting speech Shermer 2000 13 The Cherokees believed that they had a sacred duty to avenge the deaths of fallen comrades Perdue 2005 3 Which of the following sentences are not likely to be the conclusion of an argument Explain 1 03quot 01 V D IH 92 99 D IH 01h Al Gore was the real winner in the presidential election of 2000 The economic policies of George W Bush helped the country Thomas Jefferson was the best American President in history Bill Clinton lied many times to the American public Please don t say bad things about any President of the United States Grass is usually green Many people like ice cream How many times have you tried to reboot this computer Elementary students should learn a foreign language You should invest in exchangetraded funds You really should watch the Super Bowl tonight quotCall me Ishmael Melville 2008 1 It is considered important to be able to listen to another person Yakubinsky 1997 249 Glovernment should not be in the business of limiting speech Shermer 2000 13 The Cherokees believed that they had a sacred duty to avenge the deaths of fallen comrades Perdue 2005 3 Why Think Critically In our gas price example why is it better to consider arguments instead of ipping a coin or consulting an astrologer It would be faster to ip a coin and it might be more fun to visit an astrologer The answer is that if there s a good argument for a belief that belief is more likely to be true Good arguments give you evidence for the truth of the conclusion If you carefully examine the arguments concerning gas prices and base your be lief about gas prices on those arguments you re more likely to have a true belief about gas prices than if you ip a coin or consult an astrologer Having true beliefs is better than having false beliefs Perhaps the least interesting reason that true beliefs are better than false ones is that you ll get better grades If you re taking a geology course and you have false beliefs about the rock formations you re studying you probably won t do well on your geology tests When you reveal false beliefs on an exam your instructor will give you a lower grade and your college career could be on the rocks Another reason why you re better off with true beliefs is that false beliefs are often expensive We hope that you didn t have many false beliefs about the college you chose to attend because if you did you re probably unhappy at that college If you are so unhappy that you decide to transfer it will cost you time and money But the best reason to have true beliefs is that you want to understand the world you live in A person who has lots of false beliefs loses touch with reality I Finding Arguments Here s the bottom line when it comes to nding arguments you must nd a set of statements the premises that someone claims support another statement the conclusion One reason critical thinking is the art of argument is that nd ing arguments isn t a mechanical process It isn t like nding the answer to a long division problem But some guidelines and indicator words can help The First Three Steps When you re trying to determine whether a text contains an argument fol low these three steps Students often make the mistake of skipping the rst step Don t fall into that trap Step 1 Look for an Attempt to Convince As you read or listen to someone ask yourself whether the author speaker wants to convince you that something is true If so you have a good indication that there s an argument People only try to convince other people of things that the other people don t already believe You ve probably never seen an argument for the view that grass is green Arguments are responses to disagreement When people disagree they ll often try to convince each other to change their minds Step 2 Find the Conclusion The next step is to look for a conclusion Look for the author s main point That will be the argument s conclusion Conclusions are usually easier to nd than premises and nding the conclusion will help you nd premises Why Thinllt Critically Key Concept Good arguments give you evidence for the truth of the conclusion 14 Chapter 1 Criticailhinking andArguments Some words are commonly used to point to conclusions We ve listed some below Conclusion Indicator Words so therefore thus consequently then accordingly as a result for these reasons it follows that miplies that means that which entails that accordingly indicates that in fact shows that serves to show that so we see that it is clear that the point is demonstrates it is likely that it must be that as a consequence Step 3 Find the Premises Key Concept The first three steps for finding arguments ment Here are some words that often point to premises Premise Indicator Words since because for based on follows from as shown b as indicated by reason may be inferred from given that on account of due to is clear from granted that for the reason assuming that seeing that on the grounds that hence proves that we infer that we can show in short suggests that in conclusion is evidence that After nding the conclusion ask yourself why the arguer believes that con clusion Statements answering that question will be the premises of the argu as inasmuch as derived from suppose that insofar as owing to Habits of a Critical Thinker Curiosity Critical thinkers are inteiiectuaiiy curious As a critical thinker you want to have true beliefs and seek out good argumentsto decide what to believe Rather than passweiy receiving beliefs that hape pen to come your Way you Wonder about things seek out interesting problems and attempt to find new things EXERCISE 12 arguments about those problems Of course no one is curious abouteverythingSome are curious about the history of baseball and others aren39t But a critie cai thinker is curious about many different things enjoys examining arguments and Wantsto iearn A In the discussion between lack and ill in Exercise 11 B nd all the arguments and identify the premises and conclusion of each argument B In each of the following passages a determine whether or not an argument is present b if an argument is present identify the premises and the conclusion 1 Exchangetraded funds result in lower capital gains and so in lower taxes For this rea son they should be considered by investors in higher tax brackets Fmdmg Arguments 15 N Every time you hang out with him you feel miserable So you shouldn t go out with him 02 I ve seen 1000 swans and all of them are white Therefore most swans are white a Given that gas prices will rise and the housmg market will continue to slump the United States will surely fall into a recession next year 5 Due to higher carbondioxide emissions and increased atmospheric particulates global temperatures will rise over the coming century G If you eat too much you ll gain weight I You say that all famous philosophers are men But look at Mary Wollenstonecrafti she s a famous philosopher so some famous philosophers are women so 1 bet that he s at Starbucks because I ve seen him there most days at about this time The survey was given to 146 thirteenyearolds selected at random from the list of thirteenyearold students enrolled at West Junior High School 10 Why don t you try the tai nam You ll like it It s my favorite kind of Vietnamese noodles 0 H H Ask not what your country can do for youiask what you can do for your country Kennedy 1961 12 One of the striking differences between a cat and a lie is that a cat has only nine lives Twain 1999 30 The Cherokees believed that they had a sacred duty to avenge the deaths of fallen comrades and so war parties formed quickly following a death Perdue 2005 3 H W H a It was the best of times it was the worst of times it was the age of wisdom it was the age of foolishness it was the epoch of belief it was the epoch of incredulity it was the season of Light it was the season of Darkness it was the spring of hope it was the winter of despair we had everything before us we had nothing before us we were all going direct to Heaven we were all going direct the other way There were a king with a large jaw and a queen with a plain face on the throne of England there were a king with a large jaw and a queen with a fair face on the throne of France In both countries it was clearer than crystal to the lords of the State that things in general were settled for ever It was the year of Our Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy ve Dickens 1922 1 material omitted Although I believe that a table is really of the same color all over the parts that re ect the light look much brighter than the other parts and some parts look white because of the reflected light 1 know that if 1 move the parts that reflect light will be different so that the apparent distribution of colours on the table will change It follows that if several people are looking at the table at the same moment no two of them will see exactly the same distribution of colours because no two can see it from exactly the same point of view and any change in the point of view makes some change in the way the light is re ected Russell 1912 879 H 01 C Redo the questions in Exercises 11 D and E in light of the fact that arguments are re sponses to quot that 39 tend to be statements about which people disagree and premises tend to be statements about which people agree 16 Chapter 1 Critical Thinking and Arguments Complicating Factors The three simple steps discussed above are too simple You need to know about some complications Indicator Words Are Imperfect Guides The rst complication is that someone can write an argument using no indicator words and someone can use indicator words without making an argument Look again at this argument Over the next six months China will have an increased demand for gas and other petroleum products So the price of gas will rise So is the only indicator word in this passage Here s the argument rewritten without this word Over the next six months China will have an increased demand for gas and other petroleum products The price of gas will certainly rise Arguments that contain no indicator words aren t that common But they do exist and you need to watch out for them Passages that aren t arguments are frequently lled with indicator words Here s a perfectly appropriate use of since that isn t an argument My car has been in the shop since last Tuesday Here s an example of because occurring outside an argument My car has been in the shop since last Tuesday because the mechanic keeps breaking it In this example the person with the car in the shop isn t trying to convince us that her car is in the shop This person is only explaining why the car has been in the shop for so long Sentence Order The second complicating factor is that the order in which sentences and statements are made by the arguer doesn t determine whether a statement is a premise or a conclusion People often speak or write in the order in which things occur to them or in an order that they take to be an effective style In fact passages in which the premises are listed rst and the conclusion is listed last aren t that common Conclusions and Premises Not in Declarative Form The third complicating factor is that some statements aren t in declarative form As we saw above only statements can be parts of an argument not all sentences are statements and wellformed arguments contain only declarative sentences But people can use sentences that aren t declarative to assert statements Let s look at an argument that contains statements not in declarative form To understand it you ll need some background information In the late 1800s Captain Albert Dreyfus a Iewish officer in the French army was accused of passing secret documents to the Germans He was convicted and sentenced to a long prison term Investigations by Colonel Picquart revealed that the documents were actually passed to the Germans by another officer Major Esterhazy A key piece of evidence indica 39 that were secretly shown to the judges in Dreyfus trial This is a simpli ed description of the Dreyfus affair The Dreyfus affair became a political scandal and Emile Zola published a letter to the President of the French Republic entitled T accuse I Accusei in which he argued that Picquart was correct and that Dreyfus was innocent Many of his arguments were made with nonrdeclarative sentences Heres one of them a Some have gone as far as to claim that Picquart was a forger that he forged the telegram to ruin Esterhazy b But good God why c For what reason d Give me a motive e Was he too paid by the Iews Zola 1898 1 translated by the authors of this book Weve added the letters aHe to help refer to the sentences Zola wrote His point his conclusion is clear He wants to convince you that Picquart didnt Li p rhgv lrland e are interrogatives questions and sentence d is an imperative an order Although Zola used three interrogatives and an imperative his point can be made with declarative sentences 1 Picquart had no reason to forge the telegram to ruin Esterhazy Therefore 2 Picquart didnt forge the telegram Finding Arguments 17 Emile Zola 8404902 was the author of many works including a twentyevolume set of novels aboutthe lifeand troubles of ve generations of two French families These novelstrace many problems caused bythe industrial Revolution but the J39accuse letter did more to ignite public argument aboutlustice religious persecution and their relation to the state than any of his novels Zola was convicted of libel iorthe letter Both Dreyfus and Zola were pardoned but not acquitted l lVlany think that Zola39s letter led to the French lawsthat separated church and state You can get inexpensive editions onola39s works including The Human Beast TheThree Cities Trilogy The Fat and the Thin and more 18 Chapter 1 CHUCai Thinking and Arguments EXERCISE 13 A In each of the following passages a determine whether or not an argument is present b if an argument is present identify the premises and the conclusion 1 2 02 y 9 H O H H wt H N H 02 Don t go out with him Every time you hang out with him you feel miserable How can anyone support gun control Look at all the lives that have been saved because someone had a gun And then there s the economic bene ts of gun sales Do you want people who make guns to lose their jobs The car slid off the road because the road was wet and the car s tires were improperly inflated The war in Iraq was a serious mistake Why don t people save for retirement I m puzzled by this Perhaps they fail to under stand how long they re likely to live Or perhaps they think they ll earn more money later in life Another possibility is that it seems too complicated to save Murata has more experience and better communication skills than Johnson We should hire Murata In 2010 a survey of 1000 college students found that 87 of them preferred instant messaging to email The vast majority of college students prefer instant messaging to email Under the statute criminalizing the manufacture and distribution of cocaine 21 U S C 841 and the relevant Federal Sentencing Guidelines a drug trafficker dealing in crack cocaine is subject to the same sentence as one dealing in 100 times more powder co caine Petitioner Kimbrough pleaded guilty to four offenses conspiracy to distribute crack and powder possession with intent to distribute more than 50 grams of crack possession with intent to distribute powder and possession of a rearm in furtherance of a drugtrafficking offense Kimbrough 2007 1 As America s youth have grown fatter and the number with adult diabetes continues to rise there is one obvious way to help Public schools should stop selling students so much unhealthy food New York Times Iunking Fat Foods in Schools 2007 A26 The idea that the law is what the words that constitute it mean is of course too simple Most words are open to multiple interpretations To say that laws are what their words mean would be to leave the meaning of most laws unacceptably ambiguous Scalla 1997 vii Racism is not merely an attitude or set of beliefs it also sustains or proposes to establish a racial order a permanent group hierarchy Frederickson 2002 6 material omitted While government should not be in the business of limiting speech an institution such as a university should have the freedom to restrict the speech of anyone at any time who utilizes resources within the jurisdiction of the institution Shermer 2000 13 It is a stark reality that the black communities are becoming more and more economi cally depressed 1n Iune 1966 the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported on the deteriorated condition of black people in this country In 1948 the jobless rate of nonwhite males between the ages of fourteen and nineteen was 76 percent In 1965 it was 226 percent The corresponding gures for unemployed white male teenagers were 83 percent in 1948 and 118 percent in 1965 Ture 1967 18719 14 Finding Arguments The following passage is about one species of male earwig a winged insect with two penises Writing in the Journal of Morphology Yoshitaka Kamimura describes his investi gations of the private life of the doubly endowed male of the earwig species Labidura riparia He shows that this earwig has a strong preference for its right penis nearly 90 of eldcollected and laboratoryreared males hold their intromittent organs ie their penises in the rightready state right side extended backwards ready to mate when not mating as well as when in agrante delicto Curiously the earwig s two penises are morphologically indistinguishable and fully functional They connect to equivalent testes and individuals with an injured or experimentally ablated right penis readily revert to using the left one This rightready asymmetry is therefore largelyiif not en tirelyibehavioural ie the asymmetry is not determined by differences in the penises and how well they workll Palmer 2006 6907691 During the rst World War I believed implicitly all the Allied propaganda against Germany and fully accepted the alleged sole war guilt of Germany I was not awakened to a consciousness of the error of my ways until the publication of the striking articles on the truth about 1914 by Professor Sidney B Fay which were printed in the lead ing American historical journal American Historical Review in 192071921 Barnes 19 1972 2 material omitted Unstated Premises and Unstated Conclusions The fourth complicating factor is that sometimes conclusions and premises aren t stated at all Look back at the quote from Zola He doesn t state his conclusion The interrogatives and imperatives are Zola s way of expressing the premise of his argument But he never says that Picquart didn t forge the telegram Instead he says a Some have gone as far as to claim that Picquart was a forger that he forged the telegram to ruin Esterhazy when the author doesn t explicitly state the argument s conclusion Unstated conclusions are fairly common You should suspect that a con clusion is unstated when you nd that someone is trying to convince you that some view is true or false but she never explicitly states the view The author will often do what Zola did and make it clear that she disagrees with something that another person said Unstated conclusions don t usually cause much trouble If you ask yourself whether the author is trying to con vince you of something you should be able to determine whether a passage contains an unstated conclusion or doesn t contain an argument at all Unstated premises are more difficult An unstated premise occurs when an author 1 believes that a statement is true 2 intends for this statement to be a premise of an argument but 3 doesn t include any sentence declara tive or nondeclarative that asserts the statement You usually can t ask the author if she believes that a certain statement is true and if she intends for this statement to be part of her argument That can make it hard to determine if a premise is unstated He doesn t directly express his conclusion An unstated conclusion occurs Key Concept An unstated conclusion occurs when the author doesn39t explicitly state the arguments conclusion Key Concept The three characteristics of an unstated premise 20 Chapter 1 CHUCB Thinking and Arguments Technical Term Enthymeme Arguments thh an unstated premise oran unstated conclwon are enthymemes Suppose that you found the following in a reading for a class As part of their study Dr Frederick s research group is considering giving the drug miconazole to a group of children But they shouldn t do this because miconazole always has serious side effects that harm children It causes vomiting bloody stools and severe abdominal cramping Let s call this argument quotargument A The author s conclusion and one premise are clear Al Miconazole harms children by causing vomiting bloody stools and severe abdominal cramping Therefore A3 Dr Frederick s research group should not give miconazole to a group of children missing premise A2 People should not do things that harm children Is it likely that the author of argument A believes that A2 is true Is it likely that the author intends for A2 to be part of the argument The answer to both questions is yes A2 is something that ahnost everyone believes The author probably thought that A2 was so obvious that it didn t need to be stated A2 is also a necessary logical link between A1 and A3 It would be appropriate to attribute an unstated premise A2 to the author of this argument Look at this argument This argument is missing a step Al by itself doesn t support A3 Here s the A review of laws regulating gun ownership and use in Britain reveals that those laws are much more restrictive than the laws regulating gun own ership and use found in most US jurisdictions The number of deaths and injuries per capita involving guns is much lower in Britain than in the United States It seems clear that more restrictive laws would reduce deaths and injuries in the United States Let s call this argument B It has two stated premises and a conclusion Bl Laws regulating gun ownership and use in Britain are much more restrictive than the laws regulating gun ownership and use found in most US jurisdictions B2 The number of deaths and injuries per capita involving guns is much lower in Britain than in the United States Therefore B4 More restrictive laws regulating gun ownership and use would re duce deaths and injuries in the United States You might thinkthat this argument is missing a step It might be this premise B3 There are no other differences between Britain and the United States that can explain the lower rate of deaths and injuries involving guns in Britain FindingArguments Is it likely that the author intends for B3 to be part of the argument B3 is a controversial statement Some people believe B3 is true Others believe it s false The author of argument B was probably not assuming that everyone would agree that B3 is true The author probably failed to notice that B3 was a needed step in the argument It wouldn t be appropriate to attribute B3 to this author as an unstated premise Here are two guidelines for nding unstated premises 1 An unstated premise must be a logically necessary step between the premises and the conclusion 2 An unstated premise must be something that the author and almost everyone else thinks is true One way of considering the matter of unstated premises is to imagine yourself asking the author Did you intend this statement as an unstated premise in your argument Then imagine what you think the author s re sponse would be If it would be Of course Everyone knows that s true the statement is probably an unstated premise If it would be quotHmm I hadn t thought of that the statement is probably not an unstated premise EXERCISE 14 A Each of the following arguments may contain an unstated premise andor an unstat ed conclusion Lf one is present identify the unstated premise andor the unstated conclusion 1 N 02 U1 Households that have guns are signi cantly more likely to have deaths due to suicide Therefore people shouldn t keep guns in their mes Households that have guns are signi cantly less likely to be victmis of crime There fore people should keep guns in their A singlepayer health care system would raise costs A singlepayer health care sys tem would reduce the quality of care A singlepayer health care system is unAmeri can Note A singlepayer health care system is one in which one agency usually the government functions either as the sole insurance company or the sole provider of health care France and Germany have singlepayer health care systems They spend less on health care than the United States have a longer life expectancy and have lower infant mor tality rates It s clear what the United States should do Either Willa took Bio 101 or Chem 101 And she didn t take both 1 think she took Chem 101 She graduated so she must have completed her academic residency requirements 21 22 Chapter 1 H H H H H CHUCaj Thinking and Arguments 7 China s economy is likely to explode over the next ten years They re making the tran 0 sition from an agrarian society to an industrial society and previous societies that went through this transition saw stunning economic progress Well the precipitate isn t calcium It must be sodium The 2008 presidential election has fundamentally shifted but it hasn t been be cause of events in Iowa and New Hampshire It s because of events everywhere else In Washington the National Intelligence Estimate was released suggesting the next president will not face an imminent nuclear showdown with Iran In Iraq the surge and tribal revolts produce increasing stability In Pakistan the streets have not ex ploded In the Middle East the Arabs and Palestinians stumble toward some sort of peace process In Venezuela a referendum set President Hugo Chavez back on his heels The world still has its problems but it no longer seems to be building to ward some larger crisis The atmosphere of fear and conflict has at least temporarily abated With the change in conditions the election of 2008 is beginning to feel like a postwar election Brooks 2007 A33 I don t know anybody who likes to lose money but as an investor it s something that simply has to be accepted because only with risk comes excess return Sonders 2007 Romeo Let s elope Iuliet Are you crazy Romeo What s the problem Iuliet Our families are the problem Einstein They d kill us for eloping Romeo Einstein doesn t get born for another couple of centuries Kindly restrict your remarks to this century please Iuliet Well our families would kill us in this century Is that good enough for you Romeo Very persuasive Fossils of amphibians have been found in Antarctica This shows that the world as a whole must have been much warmer in the past than it is today Since the early l990s astronomers have found several objects of comparable size to Pluto in an outer region of the Solar System called the Kuiper Belt Some astrono mers have long argued that Pluto would be better categorised alongside this popula tion of small icy worlds The critical blow for Pluto came with the discovery three years ago of an object currently designated 2003 UB313 After being measured with the Hubble Space Telescope it was shown to be some 3000 km 1864 miles in di ameter it is bigger than Pluto 2003 UB3 13 will now join Pluto in the new category of dwarf planet along with the biggest asteroid in the Solar System Ceres BBC 2006 The following passage is from the travel journals of an Englishman who was visiting France in 1787 The palace of Versailles one of the objects of which report had given me the great est expectation is not in the least striking I view it without emotion the impression it makes is nothing What can compensate for the want of unity From whatever point viewed it appears as an assemblage of buildings a splendid quarter of a town but not a ne edi ce Dawson 1967 8 Things That Are Not Arguments 15 The postwar consumer group has market strength due to its size and affluence This is a group where 70 percent of its members are in full or parttime employment Previous studies have found that mature women continue to be fashion conscious Furthermore mature women who responded to our survey were interested in the activity of clothes shopping but became frustrated by highstreet retailers lack of attention to this sector of the market An increasing number of fashion retailers are trying to target the younger market which is in decline At the same time the opportunity exists to satisfy the afflu ent mature market which seeks speci c design details in garments lndependent retailers or department stores are supplying these clothes Birtwistle 2005 462 material omitted 23 I Things That Are Not Arguments Finding arguments is easier if you re aware of things that aren t arguments assertions descriptions questions instructions and explanations Assertions A single statement can t be an argument It could be an important and true statement It could be part of an argument But a single statement can t be an argument because an argument must have at least two statements a premise and a conclusion Connections it one statement is both a premise and the conclusion in the same argument the argu ment commits the fallacy of begging the question Chapter Two discusses this taiiacy If you said a Everyone should take a philosophy class you d have made an assertion not an argument If you added Philosophy helps your critical thinking skills and your ability to gure out the structure of complex issues then the statement a would become a conclusion of an argument If instead you were to have adde So Paul should take a philosophy course this semester then statement a would be a premise in an argument Many passages are lists of assertions that don t form an argument Descriptions are examples of assertions Descriptions A description is intended to give the reader a mental image of something You can describe physical things activities feelings sounds emotions and tastes Descriptions can be beautiful true and important But they can t be arguments Here s a beautiful description from Charlotte Bronte s Jane Eyre 24 Chapter 1 Critical Thinking and Arguments Two wax candles stood lighted on the table and two on the mantelpiece Halfreclined on a couch appeared jetty eyebrows his square forehead made squarer by the hoiizontal sweep of his black hair I recognised his decisivenose more remarkable for character than iawiyes all three were very 39 and no mistake broad chested and thin anked though neither mll nor graceful Bronte 1908 115 material omitted Questions and Instructions Above you saw that because questions and instruc7 tions are neither true nor false they cant be state a passage is that the author is making an argument even though the sentences aren tin declarative form g E Explanations There are two different kinds of explanations ex Decammg a liquid from planations of how to do something and explanations of why something is a 501i true As an example of how to do something heres an explanation of how to decant a liquid from a solid Prepare clean and dry 1 a container with a small spout 2 an empty con tainer and 3 a stirring rod Pour the liquidrsolidmixture into e container 39 a small spout If you are ecanting mor you can comfortably holdup at one time do the ecanting in batches Place the stirring rod one to three centimeters above the empty container Ta e the container with the liquidrsolid mixture and holdit so that the spout rests gently against the s 39 39 rod Slowly tilt the container wi e 39qui rsoi mixture so that liquid slowly swirls own e stirring ro into the empty container The 39 39 ro should stay at the spout of the container so that itkeeps any of the solid particles om going into e container wi e 39quid Do not attempt to remove all the liquid from the liquidrsolid mixture Explanations of how to do something are rarely confused with arguments But explanations of why something is true are often confused with argue ments From this point on explanation will refer only to explanations of why something is true lanations are often confused with arguments because theyre similar in several Ways They both use declarative statements In an explanation Things That Are Not Arguments the statement of what s to be explained is the explanandum The statements that do the explaining are the explanans The explanandum is often mistaken for the conclusion of an argument and the explanans are often mistaken for premises They both use the same indicator words The premise indicator words can be used to indicate explanans and the conclusion indicator words can be used to indicate explananda They re both concerned with truth But they re concerned with truth in different ways An argument is an attempt to show that some statement is true An explanation is an attempt to tell some one why a statement is true An explanation assumes that we all agree that the explanandum is true An argument assumes that someone doesn t agree that the conclusion is true Look back at the two statements about the car be ing in the shop since last Tuesday Page 16 Both are examples of explanations Argument Explanation facts Ciriilrzed to Claimed to p shed light on Accept fact It s also hard to distinguish arguments from explanations because people argue about explanations One famous case of this concerns the extinction of the dinosaurs Here s a review of this debate from the Web pages of the University of California at Berkeley s Museum of Paleontology Two main camps exist in paleontology today each having a different view of what killed the dinosaurs The major sides of the schism can be broken down into intrinsic gradualists and quotextrinsic catastrophists The Intrinsic Gruduulists Those scientists falling into this category beheve that the ultimate cause of the extinction was intrinsic meaning of an Earthly nature and gradual taking some time to occur several million years Two main hypotheses exist today 1 Volcanjsm We are quite certain that at the end of the Cretaceous period there was increased volcanic activity Over a period of several million years this increased volcanism could have created enough dust and soot to block out sunlight producing the climatic change In India during the Late Cretaceous huge volcanic eruptions were spewing forth floods of lava 2 Plate Tectonics Major changes in the organization of the continental plates continental drift were occurring The oceans were receding from the land A less mild climate would have been the result and this would have taken a long time Note that these two above hypotheses are inextricably tied together volca nism can t occur Without the action of plate tectonics and vice versa If the extinction was intrinsic and gradual both processes probably played a role Key Concept In an explanation the statement of what39s to be explained is the explanandum The statements that do the explaining are the explanans 25 26 Chapter 1 Critical Thinking and Arguments The Extrinsic Cutastrnplu39sts This side of the controversy holds that the ultimate cause of the ex tinction was extrinsic meaning of an extraterrestrial nature and cata strophic meaning fairly sudden and punctuated The main hypothesis was proposed in 1980 by among others Luis and Walter Alvarez of the University of California at Berkeley The Alvarez Hypothesis The original hypothesis is the basis for sev eral subsequent variations on the theme that a large extraterrestrial ob ject collided with the Earth its impact throwing up enough dust to cause the climatic change Hutchinson 2006 material omitted Intrinsic gradualists and extrinsic catastrophists are both proposing an expla nation of why the dinosaurs are extinct They don t disagree about whether dinosaurs are extinct The disagreement occurs because people defend two different proposed explanations They each provide arguments to support their preferred explanation of the extinction of the dinosaurs Extrinsic cata strophists might make the following argument I The extinction of the dinosaurs was swift 2 Volcanism and plate tectonics can t explain the swiftness of the extinction of the dinosaurs Therefore 3 Intrinsic gradualism is false Intrinsic gradualists might make the following argument I If a large extraterrestrial object had collided with the Earth it would have left a large crater 2 There s no such crater Therefore 3 Extrinsic catastrophism is false The two sides in this debate are arguing about explanations The texts you might read about this issue intersperse arguments and explanations This makes it difficult to distinguish the arguments from the explanations The key point to keep in mind is the presence or absence of agreement If there s no disagreement as to whether a statement is true that statement probably isn t the conclusion of an argument If there s disagreement as to whether a statement is true it s probably the conclusion of an argument Habits of a Critical Thinker Intellectual Courage Critical thinkers aren39t afraid to question their own beliefs and the beliefs of others it might require inteii iectuai courage foryou to consider debates about the extinction of the dinosaurs vegetarianism or the eXisr tence ofGodYour family and friends might have strong Views about these issues and you might worn about the loss oftheirsupport ifou were to come to have differr ent Views it might feel safer just to avoid these issues A critical thinker has the courage to take these risks and seekthe truth even when the truth is uncomfortable Hutchinson Iohn uWhat Killed the Dinosaursquot 1994 DinoBuzz Current Topics Concerning Dinosaurs L quot quot 39 Oct 2006 Copyright 199472006 by the r x Regents ofthe University of California all rights reserved Things That Are Not Arguments EXERCISE 15 27 A Find the arguments in the discussions below Identify the premises and the conclusion of each argument 1 lack and Jill N Iack Let s climb up that beanstalk Iill Stupid idea Iack Why Iill Don t you know that there s a mean giant at the top of the beanstalk Iack No way Where d you hear that Iill I read about it in a book Iack What did it say in the book Iill There was some moron named Iack who climbed up a beanstalk and came face to face with a giant The giant went after him and lack had to scramble down the beanstalk to save his life Iack That s a totally different Tack Iill Yeah but it might be the same beanstalk Iack I hadn t thought of that Let s get out of here Two emergency room physicians Dr Diagnosis Dr D and Dr Misdiagnosis Dr M Dr M The patient is having a heart attack We must immediately open the blocked arteries Dr D Don t do that The patient is not having a heart attack It s simply indigestion Dr M But the patient is having severe chest pain and there s a history of heart attacks in his family Dr D Indeed But look closely at the receipt that fell out of his pocket And then in spect his hands Dr M What are you talking about Dr D it s a receipt from Ioe s Greasy Fried Chicken Shack and it shows that he ordered ve portions of SuperDuper Deep Fat Totally Greasy chicken wings And his hands have enough grease on them to lubricate every car in California B Determine whether each of the following passages contains an argument an assertion a question a command or a description if the passage contains an argument identify the premises and conclusion 1 2 01502 5 Look we need to take 1285 instead of 175 At this time of day 75 is always a mess and I read in the newspaper this morning that they were repaving part of I 75 today The patient presents with fever sweating and a cough but claims that she has no pain in the throat or the ears Your car is pulling right but the tires look ok think one of your tie rods is bent Get thee to a nunnery Shakespeare Hamlet Act 3 Sc 1 Oh you gods why do you make us love your goodly gifts and snatch them straight awayll Shakespeare Pericles Act 3 Sc 1 Your mother was a hamster and your father smelt of elderberriesll Monty Python and the Holy Grail i975 Chapter 1 so 0 O H N W a U39I The following passage is about a study CHUCB Thinking and Arguments It is often said that brown sugar is a healthier option than white sugar In reality brown sugar is most often ordinary table sugar that is turned brown by the remtroduc tion of molasses Normally molasses is separated and removed when sugar is created Because of its molasses content brown sugar does contain certain minerals But these minerals are present in only minuscule amounts Nutritionally brown sugar and white sugar are not much different O Connor 2007 D5 material omitted All genuine political theories presuppose man to be evil This can be easily documented in the works of every speci c political thinker Schmitt 1996 61 material omitted The following passage is about the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs It speaks of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma the Spanish conquistador Cortes and the legendary Aztec godKing Queutzalcoatl who had been driven from his throne and had vowed to return some day tezuma was said to believe that Cortes was Queutzalcoatl There is no reason to doubt the good faith of the authors of these accounts it is clear that they believed this version Nonetheless the same may not have been true of Moctezuma and his re lations The Spaniards appeared for the rst time in 1517 whereas Queutzalcoatl was supposed to have returned in a OneReed year of the Aztec calendar in 1519 Todorov 1995 22723 material omitted quotIn a few days Mr Bingley returned Mr Bennet s visit and sat about ten minutes with him in his library He had entertained hopes of being admitted to a sight of the young ladies of whose beauty he had heard much but he saw only the father The ladies were somewhat more fortunate for they had the advantage of ascertaining from an upper window that he wore a blue coat and rode a black horse Austen 1981 7 ln perpetratmg a revolution there are two requirements someone or something to re volt against and someone to actually show up to do the revolting Dress is usually causal and both parties may be exible about the time and place In the Chinese revolution of 1650 neither party showed up and the deposit on the hall was forfeited Allen 1991 69 material omitted quotDreams are not to be likened to the unregulated sounds that rise from a musical instru ment struck by the blow of some external force instead of by a player s hand they are not meaningless they are not absurd On the contrary they are psychical mental phenom ena of complete validityiful llments of wishes Freud 1969 155 material omitted The growth and intensi cation of serfdom was a major tendency in Russian history At the end of the nineteenth century thirtyfour million people out of a population of thirtysix millions were reckoned as serfs Chamberlain 1965 5 material omitted Background information Amphibians are coldblooded They draw all the heat they need to live from their environment New fossilized remains of an amphibian which roamed the Earth more than 245 million years ago have been discovered in Antarctica suggesting that its climate during much of the Triassic the epoch when dinosaurs and the rst primitive mammals emerged was remarkably warm The 60cm 24inch piece of skull was dug out from thick sandstone at Fremouw Peak in the Transantarctic Mountains just six degrees away from the South Pole The mixed team of EuropeanAmerican paleontologists has assessed the creature as a Parotosuchus a Zm 65ftlong giant crocodilelike predator but it was rather related to modern salamanders that lived 40 million years before the rst dinosaurs appeared inhabiting lakes and rivers Anitei 2007 J J A I I I I I I 39 h I Malinowski Things ThatMe NotArguments 29 quotMalinowski s famous study of Melanesian sexual beliefs and practices provides evidence that sexual jealousy really does have a genetic rather than a purely cultural explanation The tribe that he studied did not believe in physiological paternity they thought the only function of sexual intercourse was to enlarge the vagina so that spirits could implant the fetus in the womb Nevertheless men were as jealous as in societies in which the male role in procreation is understood Posner 1992 97798 material omitted C Determine whether each of the following passages contains an argument an explanation or neither an argument nor an explanation if it contains an argument identify the premises and the conclusion If it contains an explanation identify the explanans and explananduin 1 We should decrease class sizes in our elementary schools Students do better when classes are smaller 2 He s getting fat and it s easy to see why He never exercises he has donuts for breakfast every morning and hamburgers for dinner every night 3 The drop in his grades wasn t caused by the divorce of his parents because that occurred before he was two There must be some other cause of the problem 4 You can see from the deformation of the right foot that it was broken and healed very badly This dinosaur could barely walk That s why she died 5 Thirtyseven times sixtyfour is 2428 6 Help 7 You might be surprised to learn that when you turn your car your front wheels are not pointing in the same direction For a car to turn smoothly each wheel must follow a different circle Since the inside wheel is following a circle with a smaller radius it is actually making a tighter turn than the outside wheel Howstuffworkscom 2007 8 The Cherokees believed that they had a sacred duty to avenge the deaths of fallen com rades and so war parties formed quickly following a death Perdue 2005 3 9 quotStocks fell yesterday led by nancial services stocks on concerns that the economy s expansion will erode due to troubles in the mortgage industry New York Times Fi nancial Shares Lead Market Lower 2007 C13 10 The following passage comes from a nineteenth century decision of the US Supreme Court The case involved a dispute in which the state of Georgia sought to impose its laws on the Cherokee tribe if it be true that the Cherokee nation has rights this is not the tribunal in which those rights are to be asserted if it be true that wrongs have been in icted and that still greater are to be apprehended this is not the tribunal which can redress the past or prevent the future Cherokee Nation 1831 20 11 Why don t humans have fur Because fur is a great place to be a bug Fur helps keep an animal warm but it is also a breeding ground for ticks lice and other parasites Think about all the fleas on a dog Humans did not need fur for warmth because they can build shelters use re and make clothes So humans with less fur gradually replaced those with more in a classic example of Darwin s natural selection 12 Historians have noted the Protestant origins of many of the early scientists The Pu ritan preachers insisted that the universe was lawabiding The Protestant Reverend George Hakewili published a book in 1627 that argued that scienti c observation was more important than traditional authority It was man s duty to study the universe and nd out its laws HiLl 1966 92 30 Chapter 1 13 a U39I CHUCal Thinking and Arguments The following passage comes from an address of Martin Luther King Ir In it he speaks to other clergyman about the war in Vietnam I knew that America would never invest the necessary funds or energies in rehabili tation of its poor so long as adventures like Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube So lwas increasingly compelled to see the war as an enemy of the poor and to attack it as such King 1991 23233 There is good reason why it is considered important to be able to listen to another per son why we have to listenifor we do not have to learn to interrupt which comes natu rally Interrupting is generally considered impolite Here indispensable social norms not rooted in the organism s natural inclinations are motivated and determined by propriety and politeness Yakubinsky 1997 249 material omitted The Pope has the power to excommunicate any member of the Catholic Church Ex communication expels a person from the Church and according to Roman Catholic belief there is no salvation outside of the Church Following is an excerpt from the Papal announcement excommunicating Martin Luther Our decrees which follow are passed against Martin and others who follow him in the obstinacy of his depraved and damnable purpose as also against those who defend and protect him with a military bodyguard and do not fear to support him with their own resources or in any other way On all these we decree the sentences of excommunication of anathema of privation of dignitaries honors and property on them and their descendants and these and the other sentences censures and punishments which are in icted by canon law on heretics we decree to have fallen on allof these men to their damnation Rupp 1970 65 material omitted D Constructing arguments Read the following passages and then in each case construct two arguments that support opposing explanations 1 N In recent years researchers have discovered tantalizing evidence that antidepressants combat depression by promoting neurogenesis the growth of new neurons in the brain The evidence derives from several striking observations One is that stressed monke s grow fewer new cells in the hippocampus region of the brain than their healthy counter parts do Secondly most depression treatments from drugs such as Prozac to a type of pow erful magnetic stimulation increase new neuron growth by up to 75 percent in rodents An in the most telling study to date scientists from Columbia University and Yale University directed radiation at the hippocampi of mice to prevent neurogenesis When given fluoxetine also known as Prozac the mice exhibited none of the behavioral changes normally associated with the drug if neurogenesis is required to kick depres sion as the result suggested maybe its loss sends the mind into a tailspin lt s a very ap pealing idea comments Eric Nestler of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas It provides a mechanism to explain why many cases of depression are chronic and progressive It would also explain why Prozac takes a few weeks to exert its effects The growth of neurons from stem cells takes a few weeks as well But the details nag at some researchers Fritz Henn of Brookhaven National Labo ratory says he was captivated by the idea early on I thought it was a good target for a nal common pathway underlying all forms of depression But when Henn and his colleagues randomly shocked the feet of miceia treatment that is known to erode neurogenesisinot all of the animals became depressed That experiment made me leery he says When neurogenesis is abridged by other means such as irradiation the animals do not all go on to show signs of depression Minkel 2006 A recent scienti c theory is known as quotstring theory It says that everything is made of incredibly tiny loops of energy that vibrate in ten or eleven dimensions These tiny loops Putting Arguments into Standard Form or strings can explain all of the four basic physical forces gravity electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces No other theory can explain all of the forces But a startling discovery had led some scientists to reject string theory In 1998 astronomers discovered that all of the galaxies in the universe are ying away from one another at an accelerating rate This contradicted the prevailing view that the galaxies are ying away from one another but at a slower and slower rate A previously unknown form of energy was needed to explain the discovery which scientists called quotdark energy An explanation of the problem that dark energy poses for string theory and the response of string theorists are given in the passage below Read the passage and then based on the information contained in it construct two arguments one that could be given by an antistring theorist and another that could be given by a string theorist Simple calculations suggested this energy should be enormous but in fact the energy is much smaller Ideally string theory should account for why dark energy is so much weaker than it could be The only explanation string theory proponents have come up with is an unpalatable one to many physicists assume that string theory is capable of describing a large number of different universes each with its own dark energy and note that one of those universes is bound to look like ours Skeptics see the landscape as an abandonment of centuriesold scienti c practice in which a successful theory is one that ultimately describes only one universe the one we see around us In their eyes string theorists are in the undesirable position of having to change the rules of science to make their theory work Minkel 2006 material omitted 31 I Putting Arguments into Standard Form Because arguments can be hard to follow it s useful to put them into standard form To put an argument into standard form you 1 put all the statements into declarative sentences and replace all pronouns with nouns 2 insert any unstated premises and any unstated conclusion 3 number each statement 4 place the premises before their conclusion and 5 indicate conclusions with the word therefore Here s an example of the format of the standardization of a simple argument 1 This is the rst premise 2 This is the second premise 3 This is the third premise Therefore 4 This is the conclusion Let s agree to put brackets around the numbers of unstated premises and conclusions Premise 3 above is unstated Suppose you came across the following passage in an editorial from a business magazine you were studying in a Finance course Where is the stock market headed Some think we are in the middle of a sustained bull market My view is that stock market prices will go down this coming quarter because if interest rates go up stock market prices will go down and the Federal Reserve has indicated that interest rates will rise Key Concept How to standardize arguments 32 Chapter 1 An imaginary sample of a stock graph Criticai Thinking and Arguments Following the rst of the three steps for nding arguments you begin by looking for an attempt to convince The word because is a premise indicator The phrase my View is another sign that the passage contains a point that s controversial You also rely on your background knowledge that people frequently disagree about whether stock prices will rise or fall This passage contains an argument The second step is to nd the conclusion The main point of this passage is the statement that stock market prices will go down this coming quarter You need to put this conclusion into a declarative sentence C Stock market prices will fall this coming quarter The third step is to nd the premises Two of them are clear P If interest rates rise stock market prices will fall P Interest rates will rise Your rst draft of a standardization of this argument might look like this 1 If interest rates rise stock market prices will fall 2 Interest rates will rise Therefore 3 Stock market prices will fall this coming quarter Standardizing isn t rearranging the phrases you nd in a text When you stan dardize you should edit the phrases you nd to make the argument clearer Here s another way that critical thinking is an art not a mechanical process In this example the author uses the phrases will go down and will rise The standardization changes will go down to will fall to make the con trast between rising and fallmgprices clearer You temporarily assign C to the conclusion You can t put a number in place of the C yet because you don t yet know how many premises there ll be For this same reason you tem porarily assign P to each premise You have to read and reread the passage You have to carefully note the relationships between the Various sentences in the passage This standardization omits material The two sentences Where is the stock market headed and Some think we are in the middle of a sustained bull market FSM Fictitious Stock Market Index Apr 2009Jan 2010 2010 FSM Index Apr July Oct Jan Time PuttingArguments into Standard Form 33 aren t in the standardization They re omitted because they aren t part of the argu ment The rst sentence is a question used to introduce the topic and the second sentence sets up the argument by pointing to views that the author doesn t share What about the phrase quotthe Federal Reserve has indicated that What is the function of this phrase It supports the view that interest rates will rise You ve discovered that this passage contains two arguments The one you ve just discovered can be standardized like this I The Federal Reserve has indicated that interest rates will rise Therefore 2 Interest rates will rise The conclusion of this argument is the rst premise of the other argument in the passage You can put the standardizations together like this I The Federal Reserve has indicated that interest rates will rise Therefore 2 Interest rates will rise 3 If interest rates rise stock market prices will fall Therefore 4 Stock market prices will fall this coming quarter The passage contains two arguments The rst argument has I as its premise and 2 as its conclusion The second argument has 2 and 3 as its premises and 4 as its conclusion Statement 2 is the conclusion of one argument and a premise in another argument When the conclusion of one argument is the premise of another argument the two arguments are linked arguments Argu ments that are used to support premises of the main argument are called subar guments In the example above the argument composed of statements I and 2 is a subargument The argument composed of statements 2 3 and 4 is the main argument Any number of arguments could be linked together For example the author of the argument above might have presented a subargu ment for l and a subargument for 3 In that case there would have been four linked arguments the main argument and three subarguments Technical Terms Complex Arguments Simple Arguments Linked arguments are sometimes called complex arguments Unlinked arguments are sometimes called simple arguments Here s an example of the format of the standardization of an argument that contains subarguments I This is the rst premise of the rst subargument 2 This is the second premise of the rst subargument Therefore 3 This is the conclusion of the rst subargument and the rst premise of the main argument 4 This is the rst premise of the second subargument Therefore 5 This is the conclusion of the second subargument and the second premise of the main argument Therefore 6 This is the conclusion of the main argument Key Concept When the conclusion of one argument is the premise of another argument the two arguments are linked arguments Key Concept Arguments that are used to support premises of the main argument are called subarguments 34 Chapter 1 Cntma Thmkmg and Arguments This example has two subarguments and a main argument The rst subargu ment has two premises 1 and 2 and its conclusion is 3 The second subar gument has one premise 4 and its conclusion is 5 The main argument has two premises 3 and 5 and its conclusion is 6 Let s agree to put blank lines between arguments to help you see the main argument and the subarguments Here s an example of linked arguments One popular theory of manage ment is the stockholder theory This theory holds that the only job of Chief Executive Officers CEOs of publicly traded corporations is to maximize value for stockholders R Edward Freeman 1997 argues against the stockholder theory He thinks that CEOs should take into account anyone who is a stake holder of their corporation Here s a standardization of his main argument Stakeholders include any groups who are vital to the success of the corporation 2 Stockholders employees and customers are vital to the success of the corporation Therefore 3 Stockholders r and are J 4 Corporations have a responsibility to all stakeholders 5 The job of the CEO is to act on behalf of the corporation Therefore 6 The job of the CEO is to take all stakeholders into account when making decisions on behalf of the corporation Statements 1 2 and 3 form a subargument Statements 3 4 5 and 6 orm the main argument Freeman knows that stockholder theorists are likely to reject premise 4 and he uses linked arguments to defend this premise Freeman attempts to support 4 by pointing to the laws which address the interests of the groups named in premise 3 Here s a standardization of two arguments Freeman uses to defend premise 4 P There are labor laws that give employees the right to unionize P There are civil rights and equal pay laws that put constraints on hir ing practices Therefore C Some laws support the interests of employees against corporations P There are laws that hold manufacturing corporations liable for damage by their products even when they have exercised all care in production and even when the product was misused by the customer Therefore C Some laws support the interests of customers against corporations You can combine the conclusions of the above two subarguments to get P Some laws support the interests of employees against corporations P Some laws support the interests of customers against corporations Therefore C Some laws support the interests of employees and customers against corporations PuttmgArguments mto Standard Form 35 You can put all the arguments together like this 1 Stakeholders include any groups who are vital to the success of the corporation 2 Owners employees and customers are vital to the success of the corporation Therefore 3 Owners p and are 1 4 There are labor laws that give employees the right to unionize 5 There are civil rights and equal pay laws that put constraints on hiring 6 Some laws support the interests of employees against corporations 7 There are laws that hold manufacturing corporations liable for damage by their products even when they have exercised all care in production and even when the product was misused by the customer Therefore 8 Some laws support the interests of customers against corporations Therefore 9 Some laws support the interests of employees and customers against corporations From premises 6 and 8 Therefore 10 Corporations have a responsibility to all stakeholders 11 The job of the CEO is to act on behalf of the corporation Therefore 12 The job of the CEO is to take all stakeholders into account when making decisions on behalf of the corporation Freeman s main conclusion 12 is supported by premises 3 10 and 11 He uses ve subarguments to defend these premises Premises 1 and 2 support 3 Statements 4 and 5 support 6 and statement 7 supports 8 Statements 6 and 8 are then used to support 9 and 9 is used to support 10 This argu ment has a pretty complex structure And believe it or not we have simpli ed Freeman s argument Let s look at the passage from Iohn Stuart Mill s On Liberty that you saw at the beginning of this chapter The peculiar evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is that it is robbing the human race those who dissent from the opinion still more than those who hold it If the opinion is right they are deprived of the opportunity of exchanging error for truth If wrong they lose what is almost as great a bene t the clearer perception and livelier impression of truth produced by its collision with error Once again you follow the three rst steps outlined above The rst step is to look for an attempt to convince Mill is arguing for freedom of speech He s trying to convince you that silencing the expression of an opinion is evil This makes your second step nd the conclusion easy His conclusion is C No one should silence the expression of an opinion 36 Chapter 1 CHUCB Thinking and Arguments The third step is to nd the premises The structure of the premises in this pas sage is complex Mill divides the matter into two cases when the silenced opin ion is true right and when the silenced is false wrong One premise is P If someone suppresses a true opinion people who don t know this opinion lose the opportunity to learn it and another is P If someone suppresses a false opinion people who know the truth lose the opportunity to gain a greater appreciation of the truth by comparing it to a false opinion We ve rewritten Mill s words to make them clearer For example we ve re placed his if wrong with if someone suppresses a false opinion You im prove clarity by replacing the pronouns in the original text with the noun or noun phrase to which the pronoun refers Making these sorts of changes to Mill s wording gives you this rst draft of a standardization of Mill s argument P If someone suppresses a true opinion people who don t know this opinion lose the opportunity to learn it P If someone suppresses a false opinion people who know the truth lose the opportunity to gain a greater appreciation of the truth by comparing it to a false opinion Therefore C No one should silence the expression of an opinion As you review this you might notice a missing step What if an opinion isn t true or false Mill assumes that P All opinions are either true or false This is a classic case of an unstated premise If you were to ask Mill Are all opinions either true or false he d respond quotOf course Here s the nal standardization of the argument 1 All opinions are either true or false 2 If someone suppresses a true opinion people who don t know this opinion lose the opportunity to learn it If someone suppresses a false opinion people who know the truth lose the opportunity to gain a greater appreciation of the truth by comparing it to a false opinion Therefore 4 No one should silence the expression of an opinion 3 Any argument can be correctly standardized in different ways If the word opin ion in the standardization of Mill s argument above were replaced with the word view that would be an equally good standardization You could move and renumber premise l to be premise 3 without changing the quality of the standardization But some ways of standardizing an argument are much better than others A standardization of Mill s argument that omitted premise 2 would be seriously flawed If you made a mistake and thought that this sentence If wrong they lose what is almost as great a bene t the clearer percep tion and livelier impression of truth produced by its collision with error was the conclusion of Mill s argument you would produce a poor standardization Putting Arguments into Standard Form EXERCISE 16 37 A Find all the arguments in the discussions in Exercise 15 A and put them into standard form B For each passage in Exercises 15 B C and D determine which contains an argumentls and put the argument into standard form C Determine whether each of the following passages contains an arguments If the passage contains an argument or arguments put itthem into standard form it H O 1 2 If he goes to work he ll get very sick But he won t go to work so I don t think that he ll 02 01 G l 0 Don t cry Your toy dinosaur s around here somewhere You were playing with it in the kitch en less than an hour ago and you haven t been out of the house since then We ll nd it I got angry Then I told him quotListen 1 don t want kumquats lwant oranges get sick Why do you want to make me feel so bad Napoleon either lost at Waterloo or at Austerlitz There s a statue in honor of his vic tory at Austerlitz so he must have lost at Waterloo There is some red dirt on your shoe Iust opposite the Seymour Street Post Office they have taken up the pavement and thrown up some earth which lies in such a way that it is difficult to avoid treading in it in entering The earth is of this peculiar reddish tint which is found as far as I know nowhere else in the neighborhood You must have been to the post office Doyle 1890 12 Many people have the reasoning faculty but no one uses it in religious matters The best minds will tell you that when a man has begotten a child he is morally bound to tenderly care for it protect it from hurt shield it from disease clothe it feed it bear with its waywardness lay no hand upon it save in kindness and for its own good and never in any case in ict upon it a wanton cruelty God s treatment of his earthly children every day and every night is the exact opposite of all that yet those best minds warmly justify these crimes condone them excuse them and indignantly refuse to regard them as crimes at all when he commits them Twain 2007 88081 material omitted quotEarly in the morning of March 10 2003 after a raucous party that lasted into the small hours a groggy and hungover 20yearold named Ryan Holle lent his Chevrolet Metro to a friend That decision prosecutors later said was tantamount to murder The friend used the car to drive three men to the Pensacola home of a marijuana dealer aiming to steal a safe The burglary turned violent and one of the men killed the dealer s 18yearold daugh ter by beating her head in with a shotgun he found in the home Mr Holle was a mile and a half away but that did not matter He was convicted of murder under a distinctively American legal doctrine that makes accomplices as liable as the actual killer for murders committed during felonies like burglaries rapes and robberies Liptak 2007 Al Peter Singer thinks that the suffering of nonhuman animals is as morally important as our own suffering He claims that there are no morally relevant differences between some nonhuman animals and some severely mentally impaired human beings lf the re ective communicative emotional or social abilities of such impaired humans are not any greater than that of a pig or a primate then we must treat all these beings in similar ways Feinberg 2002 546 material omitte The following passage was written by an economist and it concerns the question of whether the United States could produce more goods than it is currently producing The US economy currently holds very little excess capacity The official data show that capacity utilization in manufacturing now stands at 824 percent up from 38 Chapter 1 H H CHUCB Thinking and Arguments a cyclical low of 739 Although these gures suggest ample excess capacity the im pression is misleading Most US manufacturing excess capacity resides in obsolete or noncompetitive plants and equipment Kaufman 2007 24 The following comes from a speech made by Malcolm X in 1964 1964 threatens to be the most explosive year America has ever witnessed Why It s also a political year The year when all of the white political crooks will be back in your and my community with their false promises building up our hopes for a letdown with their trickery and their treachery 1t can only lead to one thing an explosion Breitman 1965 25 material omitted My pulse is throbbing like a war drum 1 want to slaughter somethingigive pain give death to what 1 do not know But the piece ends The men of the orchestra wipe their lips and rest their ngers I creep slowly to the veneer we call civilization with the last tone and nd the white friend sitting motionless in his seat smoking calmly Good music they have here he remarks drumming the table with his ngertips Music The great blobs of purple and red emotion have not touched him He has only heard what I felt He is far away and 1 see him dimly across the ocean and the conti nent that have fallen between us He is so pale with his whiteness and 1 am so colored Hurston 2000 116 The study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sesame oil in hypertensive patients Thirtytwo male and 18 female patients aged 35 to 60 years old were supplied sesame oil and instructed to use it as the only edible oil for 45 days Blood pressure anthropometry lipid pro le lipid peroxidation and enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants were mea sured at baseline and after 45 days of sesame oil substitution Substitution of sesame oil brought down systolic and diastolic blood pressure to normal The same patients were asked to withdraw sesame oil consumption for another 45 days and the measurements were repeated at the end of the withdrawal period Withdrawal of sesame oil substitution brought back the initial blood pressure values The results suggested that sesame oil as edible oil lowered blood pressure decreased lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant status in hypertensive patients Sankar 2006 19 material omitted Several years have now elapsed since 1 rst became aware that 1 had accepted even from my youth many false opinions for true and that consequently what 1 afterward based on such principles was highly doubtful and from that time 1was convinced of the necessity of undertaking once in my life to rid myself of all the opinions I had ad opted and of commencing anew the work of building from the foundation if I desired to establish a rm and abiding superstructure in the sciences But as this enterprise ap peared to me to be one of great magnitude 1waited until 1 had attained an age so mature as to leave me no hope that at any stage of life more advanced 1 should be better able to execute my design On this account 1 have delayed so long that 1 should henceforth consider 1 was doing wrong were 1 still to consume in deliberation any of the time that now remains for action Today then since 1 have opportunely freed my mind from all cares and am happily disturbed by no passions and since 1 am in the secure possession of leisure in a peaceable retirement 1will at length apply myself earnestly and freely to the general overthrow of all my former opinions Descartes 1913 21 Under federal law the maximum prison term for a felon convicted of possessing a rearm is ordinarily 10 years If the offender s prior criminal record includes at least three convic tions for violent felonies federal law mandates a minimum term of 15 years However Congress amended the law in 1986 to exclude from quali cation for enhanced sentencing any conviction which has been expunged or set aside or for which a person has been par doned or has had civil rights ie rights to vote hold office and serve on a jury restored Diagramming Arguments 39 Mr Logan pleaded guilty to being a felon in possession of a rearm and received a 15year sentence the mandatory minimum under ACCA In imposing this sentence the court took account of three Wisconsin misdemeanor battery convictions none of them revoking any of Logan s civil rights Logan challenged his sentence on the ground that his statecourt convictions fell within the civil rights restored exemption added in 1986 Rights retained Logan claimed should be treated the same as rights revoked but later restored The exemption added in the 1986 does not cover the case of an offender who retained civil rights at all times The ordinary meaning of the word restored igiving back something that has been taken awaygdoes not include retention of something never lost Moreover the context in which restored appears in the text of the law counsels adherence to the word s ordinary meaning In the text of the law the words civil rights restored appear in the company of expunged set aside and pardoned Each of those terms describes a measure by which the government relieves an of fender of some or all of the consequences of his conviction Logan 2007 1 material omitted I Diagramming Arguments One can take a standardized argument and make a kind of picture that repre Key Concept sents the structure of the argument These pictures are argument diagrams One can take 3 Let s look again at this standardization standardized argument I The Federal Reserve has indicated that interest rates will rise and make a kind of Therefore picture that represents 2 Interest rates will rise the structure of the argument These pictures are argument diagrams 3 If interest rates rise stock market prices will fall Therefore 4 Stock market prices will fall this coming quarter Here s the diagram of these arguments Q Q 3 Q In a diagram each statement is represented by a number in a circle A line of inference from a premise to the conclusion is represented by a line with an arrow pointing to the conclusion A conclusion is touched by the point of an arrow In a set of linked arguments like this one the diagram will always include more than one conclusion and at least one circle will have an arrow pointing to it and an arrow pointing away from it 40 Chapter 1 CriticalThmkmg andArguments EXERCISE 17 A Diagram the other arguments that are standardized in this chapter B Diagram the arguments you standardized in Exercise 16 Chapter Summary Critical thinking is the skill of correctly evalu ating the arguments made by others and com posing good arguments of your own A person thinks critically when she bases her beliefs on good arguments n argument is an attempt to provide rea sons for thinking that some belief is true The reasons are premises and the belief the reasons are intended to support is the conclusion Both premises and conclusions are statements But not all statements are parts of an argument For an argument to be present there must be an at tempt to convince Indicator words are helpful but imperfect guides Some arguments present premises and conclusions in nondeclarative forms Some arguments have unstated premises andor conclusions Some passages contain two or more arguments linked together called subarguments and the main argument Recognizing these complications will help you distinguish arguments from groups of state ments that aren t arguments such as descrip tions and explanations It can be hard to distinguish arguments from explanations Explanations and arguments use many of the same indicator words Ulti mately the difference between the two is based on whether there s an attempt to convince If there s no disagreement about the truth of a statement there s usually no argument for that statement rguments can be standardized in order to clarify them In a standardization premises and conclusions are numbered Premises and subarguments are listed rst The word therefore is used to indicate each conclusion Blank lines are used to indicate the difference between a subargument and a main argument Brackets are used to indicate unstated premises and conclusions Diagramming is a second method of clarifying the relations between arguments and subarguments Arrows and lines graphically depict the relations between the premises conclusions and sub and main arguments ChapterSummary 41 Finding and Standardizing Arguments Here s a review of the steps to nd and standardize an argument 1 Lookfor anattempt to convince Find the conclusion Find the premises damp Review the following to make sure that you have correctly identi ed the conclusion and the premises imperfect indicator words sentence order premises andor conclusion not in declarative form and unstated premises andor conclusion Review the following to make sure that you haven t incorrectly identi ed something as a premise or a conclusion when in fact it isn t part of an argument assertions questions instructions descriptions and explanations Rewrite the premises and the conclusion as declarative sentences Make sure that each premise and the conclusion is a grammatically correct declarative sentence Rewrite the premises and conclusion as necessary to make them clearer but don t change the mean ing of the passage Remove pronouns from the sentences and replace them with nouns or noun phrases U1 9 l Review any phrases you have omitted to be sure that they aren t premises or a conclusion Number the premises and the conclusion Put around the number of an unstated premise or conclusion Place premises before their conclusion and insert Therefore between the premises and the conclusion Use blank lines to indicate subarguments Compare your standardization to the original passage to make sure that you haven t omitted any arguments found in the passage and to be sure that you have correCtly iden ti ed the premises and the conclusion so 0 42 What Makes a Good Argument The Catholic Church holds that it is not admissible to ordain women to the priesthood for veryfundamental reasons These reasons include the example recorded in the Sacred Scriptures of Christ choosing his Apostles only from among men the constant practice of the Church which has imitated Christin choosing onlym en and her living teaching authority which has consistently held that the exclusion of women from the priesthood is in accordance with God s plan for his Church Pope Paul VI quotResponse to the Letter of His Grace the Most Reverend Dr FD Coggan Archbishop of Canterbury concerning the Ordination of Women to the Priesthoodquot 1976 599 Learning Outcomes After studying the material in this chapter you should be able to 1 Produce examples of each of the following kinds of arguments arguments that pass the true premises test arguments that fail the true premises test arguments that pass the proper form test and arguments that fail the proper form test 2 Produce examples of deductive and inductive arguments 3 Produce examples to illustrate the difference between a valid argument and a sound argument as well as the difference between a strong argument and a cogent argument 4 Produce examples to illustrate the differences between relevant premises and irrelevant premises 5 Use the true premises test and the proper form test to evaluate simple arguments TneTwo Characterrstrcs ota Good Argument 43 Critical thinkers choose beliefs based on good arguments But what is a good argument Is Pope Paul s argument on the previous page a good argu ment After studying the material in this chapter you should be able to tell Determining whether an argument is a good argument is a complex matter The rest of this book will be devoted to distinguishing good argu ments from bad ones As you will see in later chapters there are different kinds of arguments and they have to be evaluated in different ways But all good arguments share some common features These features are the focus of this chapter I The Two Characteristics of a Good Argument All good arguments share two characteristics 1 The argument s premises are true 2 The argument has a proper form These characteristics can be used as tests for determining whether an argu ment is a good argument First check to see if the argument s premises are Key Concept true Second check to see if the argument has a proper form Let s call the The two characteristics rst test the true premises test and the second test the proper form test of a good argument If an argument passes both tests it s a good argument True premises Properform Good argument Here s a good argument about the philosopher Socrates 1 Socrates was a human being 2 All human beings are mortal Therefore 3 Socrates was mortal Both premises are true Socrates was a human being and all human beings are mortal The argument has a proper form the truth of these two premises is a good reason to think that the conclusion is true An argument is bad when it fails one or both of the tests Here s an argu ment that fails the true premises test 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 40000 sh and all of them had two ns Therefore 2 All sh have two ns 44 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Key Concept When performing the proper form test you assume or pretend that all the premises are true The premise of this argument is false We ve probably seen at least 40000 sh in our lives We ve been to many sh markets and several aquariums But most of the sh we ve seen have had more than two ns This argument passes the proper form test Pretend that it was true that we d seen more than 40000 sh and all of them had two ns In that case we d have good grounds for thinking that all sh had two ns If the premises were true they would provide a good reason to think that the conclusion was true This illustrates an important point about the proper form test when performing the proper form test you assume or pretend that all the premises are true Here s an argument that fails the proper form test 1 All roses are plants 2 All roses have thorns Therefore 3 All plants have thorns This argument passes the true premises test Roses are plants and they ve got thorns But the fact that one kind of plant has thorns doesn t mean that all plants have thorns Here s an example of an argument that fails both tests 1 All roses are plants 2 All roses eat meat Therefore 3 All plants eat meat The second premise is false Roses don t eat meat The argument fails the true premises test Now let s see if this argument passes the proper form test Your rst step is to assume or pretend that both premises are true In this case the rst premise really is true but you have to pretend that the second premise is true You pretend that roses eat meat But when you assume that roses are plants and pretend that roses eat meat you see that the two premises don t provide good grounds for the conclusion Even if it were true that roses were plants and that roses ate meat this wouldn t demonstrate that all plants eat meat This argument fails the proper form test Now you can see another reason why critical thinking is the art of argu ment The mastery of any art any skill takes practice Talent a desire to know loving family members and other kinds of luck all help but without regular practice no one would excel at any art To master the art of argument you need to practice pretending that premises are true even when you know they aren t A bad argument can have a true conclusion Suppose that a person makes the following silly argument 1 Over the next six months my sister will drive more than she has in the past six months Therefore 2 Over the next six months the price of gas will rise Let s assume that over the next six months gas prices rise 2 turns out to be true That doesn t mean that 1 and 2 form a good argument The person TheTwo Characte stms ofa Good Argument 45 who made this argument just got lucky The conclusion of the argument hap pened to be true even though the premise of the argument doesn t provide a good reason for the conclusion We ve written as if passing or failing the true premises test and the proper form test was like passing or failing a course that had only two possible grades P for passing and F for failing In reality the true premises test and proper form test are like grades on a 07100 scale There are many passing scores you can pass with a 93 an 85 or a 72 and many failing scores you can fail with a 50 a 33 or a 22 Some passing arguments are better than other passing arguments and some failing arguments are worse than other failing arguments An argument s nal grade will depend on its score on both tests You shouldn t try to actually assign grades to arguments This is just an il lustrative analogy EXERCISE 21 A Which of the following arguments pass the true premises test Which pass the proper form test Explain N 02 01 G 1 1 Oxygen is an element essential for life on Earth as we know it Therefore 2 if oxygen were to Vanish from the Earth s atmosphere life as we know it would cease 1 All birds can fly 2 Penguins are birds Therefore 3 Penguins can y 1 All cars are blue 2 All pigs have wings Therefore 3 All buses have three wheels 1 Elephants are mammals 2 Dogs are mammals Therefore 3 Elephants are dogs 1 Many types of plastic can be recycled 2 Many types of glass can be recycled Therefore 3 Many types of paper can be recycled 1 Julia Roberts is either a man or a woman 2 ulia Roberts is a man Therefore 3 ulia Roberts isn t a woman 46 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument 7 1 Everyone likes pizza 2 Everyone who likes pizza buys it regularly Therefore 3 Pizza sales will rise over the next six months 8 llf you drop wood into water it oats unless it s held underwater by a heavy o ject 2 Trees are made of wood Therefore 3When trees fall into water they oat unless they re held underwater by a heavy object 9 l The discovery of antibiotics increased life expectancy 2 Antibiotics have no effect on viruses Therefore 3 There must be some causes of reduced life expectancy besides viruses 10 1 All cars have three wheels 2 Everything with three wheels is blue Therefore 3 All cars are blue 11 1 If you walk on the lines in the sidewalk you will be eaten by bears 2 Sometime in the next week someone will walk on the lines in the sidewalk Therefore 3 Sometime in the next week someone will be eaten by bears 12 l l have seen 4000 houses and every last one of them was purple Therefore 2 All houses are purple 13 l I have seen 4000 ducks and every last one of them had webbed feet Therefore 2 All ducks have webbed feet 14 1 Many people like candy 2 Many people like cats Therefore 3 Many people like going to the movies 15 l lf you walk to the store you will get a latte 2 You did not get a latte Therefore 3 You did not walk to the store B Use the examples in 21 A above as models for these exercises 1 Compose an argument that fails only the true premises test 2 Compose an argument that fails only the proper form test 3 Compose an argument that fails both the true premises test and the proper form test 4 Compose an argument that fails neither the true premises test nor the proper form test I True Premises When is a premise true Truth has puzzled scholars for centuries Fortunately we can focus on a simple theory of truth A statement is true when what it says about the world is accurate A statement is false when what it says about the world is inaccurate The statement All roses are plants is true because what it says about the world is accurate Roses are in fact plants The statement All roses eat meat is false because what it says about the world isn t accurate Roses don t eat meat Statements are attempts to describe the world When a statement suc ceeds in correctly describing the world it s true When it fails to correctly describe the world it s false Connections Chapter Ohe hotesthat all statemehts are either true or false Audience All arguments have an audience The audience of an argument is the group that the person making the argument wishes to convince A premise can be true even though no one in the audience knows that it s true Look at this statement about transfatty acids an ingredient found in some processed 00 s Transfatty acids contribute to heart disease Suppose that someone said this in 1965 At that time no one knew whether this statement was true It wasn t until the 1990s that scientists learned that this statement is true Suppose that in 1965 someone offered the following argument 1 Transfatty acids contribute to heart disease 2 Children should not be given foods that contribute to heart disease Therefore 3 Children should not be given foods that contain transfatty acids Is this a good argument Let s assume that the second premise is true Then this argument is a good argument Even in 1965 the premises were true and they provided good grounds for the conclusion But in 1965 no one in the au dience for this argument knew that premise 1 was true This means that in 1965 no one knew that this was a good argument It was only in the 1990s that premise 1 was shown to be true and therefore people came to see that the ar gument above is a good argument Because a premise can be true even though no one knows that it s true an argument can be a good argument even though no one knows that it s a good argument True Premises 47 Key Concept A statement is true when what it says about the world is accurate Key Concept The audience of an argument is the group that the person making the argument wishes to convince 48 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argumeht7 Asteroid beits Suppose that you were writing an essay in an astronomy class Your class is studying our solar system In such a class the statement There is a belt of asteroids between Mars and Iupiter might be a statement that everyone in the class knows On the other hand if you were in a psychology class this same statement might be one that fewer people know When youre composing your own arguments you should use premises that your audience knows Carolyn Spellmam Shoemaker Astrohomer Carolyn Spellman Shoemaker i9297stiii staregazihg has discovered 800 asteroidsas weii as discoverihg more comets thah ahy other astrohomer 32 as of 2002 She studied history ahd poiiticai sciehce ih coiiege but decided to study the stars begihhihg ih i980 atthe Paiomar Obsenatory ih Sari Diego Caiiforhia She was research professor ofastrohomy at Northerh Arizoha Uhiversity Her bestekhowri work is ih deveiopihg photographic techhiques for the detectioh of fastemovihg asteroids Her mostsighificahtdiscovew made with her husbahd piahetary geoiogist Eugehe ahd feiiow astrohomer David Levy was of the CometShoemakereLevy 9 which coiiided With Jupiter ih i994 munewni Damiwi Sn man Shnemaier True Premises EXERCISE 22 A For each of the following statements indicate an audience that is hkely to know that the statement is true and an audience that isn t likely to know that the statement is true H W bWNt I OCWVOU I H N 01h In 1900 William Iwas the Emperor of Germany Each water molecule contains two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen In 2007 Dina Bowman published an article in The Journal of Sociology Between 1997 and 2007 standardized testing became more common in American elementary schools Football is a popular American sport The famous philosopher Rene Descartes was born in France and died in Sweden Two plus two equals four The two tests for a good argument are the true premises test and the proper form test Hyat Custovic is 5 6 tall All matter exhibits wavelike properties This is a version of the de Broglie hypothesis a fundamental theory of physics The speed of a computer processor of a given price doubles approximately every two years This statement is often called Moore s Law Buy landithey aren t making any more of it This statement has been attributed to many people including Will Rogers and Mark Twam Outside of a dog a book is a man s best friend Inside of a dog it is too dark to read Attributed to Groucho Marx Source unknown This quote contains two statements The US Census occurs every ten years TRPML3 is a member of the TRPML subfamily of the transient receptor potential 49 cation channel superfamily Kim 2007 36138 B List ve things that you know that your instructor is unlikely to know Then do the same thing for one of your best friends The Problem of Ignorance The problem of ignorance is that you don t know everything The problem makes it hard to answer this question When can you assume a premise If you had complete knowledge you could assume a premise when it was true and not assume it when it was false But because of the problem of ignorance this strategy won t work Another effect of the problem of ignorance is that sometimes you don t know what you don t know Think about that last sentence for a moment Sometimes you think that you know something but you don t You might remember being sure of something only to discover that you were wrong On the other hand sometimes you do know what you don t know For ex ample because you read it in a reputable newspaper you might know that the President of France was taken to the hospital But you might not have read any news of his condition since then In this case you know what you don t know You know that you aren t uptodate on the President s medical condition Key Concept The problem of ignorance is that you don39t know everything 50 Chapter 2 wnat Makesa Good Argument Recognizing Your Own Ignorance No one knows eyerytnrng Do you know aii tne foie iowrng now tne screen on your ceii pnone works wny eiectrrcrty doesn39t passtnrougn piastrc aii about tne US tax code You may not iiketo admit tnat you don39t know sometnrng But a probiem doesn39t go away rfyou refuse to acknowiedge rt Untri you acknowiedge your rgnoranceyou can39t workto reduce rt wnen you don39t naye knowiedge tne best course of action is simpiy to admit it ifyou don39t naye enougn knowiedge to teii wnetnera premrse rn an argument is true or faise you snouid admrt tnat wnen eyaiuatrng arguments be prepared to Habits of a Critical Thinker admrt tnat you can39t compieteiy carry out tne true premrses test wnen someone asks you a quesr tron you snouid remember tnat i don39t know is aiways a possibie response in fact rt may be tne most frequent correct answer to questions Don39t be afraid to say i don39t know Admrssron ofyour rgnorance usuaiiy isn39t an admrssron of fariure it snows tnat you naye a correct appreciation ofyour own ignorance ittakes practrceto recognize your own ignorance it39s often nard to admrt tnatyou don39t know some tnrng Butyou39ii get betterat rt wrtn practiceinrs is anotnerpartoftne art ofargument There s no complete cure for ignorance but you can do things that re duce your ignorance First you can avoid basing your beliefs on arguments with improper forms Basing your beliefs on an argument with an improper form usually increases your ignorance Second as just noted in the Habits of a Critical Thinker box above you can recognize your ignorance Third you can follow some guidelines that minimize the chance that you ll assume false premises Connections Cnapter inree drscusses some gurdeirnes for assumrng premrses Habits of a Critical Thinker Not Jumping to Conclusions it39s easy to iump to conciusrons especraiiy to conr ciusrons tnat are crrticai of others Suppose that a student at a unryersrty iocated rn tne mrddie oftne downtown ofa maior metropoirtan area writes a ietter to tne edrtor oftne student newspaper coma piarning about tne iack of parking Tne student wrrtrng tne ietterasserts tnat tne unryersrty admrnrstratron rs a buncn of rdiots for not recognrzing tnrs probiem and buiidrng more parkrng decks Tne ietter contains no evidence tnat tne autnor nas done any researcn on tne rssue Researcn mrgnt naye reyeaied nowtne ratro of parkrng spots to students at tne unryersrty compares to tne ratro at otner universities tne cost ofacqurrrng iand rn tne center ofa iarge crty wnat eise might be done wrtn tne iarge sums of money it wouid taketo constructa parkrng deck and otner reasons wny tne unryersrty nasn39t buiit more parkrng decks But our rmagrnary student didn39t iook rnto tnrs He jumped to a conciusion Remembertne probiem of rgnorance and eyaiuate arguments oniy after you39ve done adequate researcn and carefuiiy consrdered eyerytnrng you know about tne srtuatron EXERCISE 23 Proper Form 51 A Write ve questions to indicate ve things that you don t know that you wish you knew B List ve things that you know that you don t know C Brie y describe three actual cases in your life in which you thought that you knew some thing but it turned out that you didn t know what you thought you knew I Proper Form An argument has a proper form when I f the premises were true they would provide support for the conclusion Proper form is a matter of the logical relationship between the premises and the conclusion of the logical form of the argument What is the logical form of an argument To answer this question let s begin with the notion of what a form is You ve used variables in your math classes A variable represents a num ber but it can represent any number Think about the mathematical formula 2XXX This tells you that two times any number is equal to that number added to itself You can put any number in place of the X 2 times 2 equals 4 and 2 plus 2 also equals 4 2 X 2 2 Z 2 times 10 equals 20 and 10 plus 10 also equals 20 2 X 10 10 10 Why is 2X X X called a formula Because it s a form a shape of a mathematical equation This formula expresses a relationship between 2X and X X and holds no matter what value you put in for X Logical form is like mathematical form Logical form expresses a relation ship that holds between the premises and the conclusion This relationship holds even if the subject discussed in the premises changes Let s look at the argument about sh mentioned above 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 40000 sh and all of them had two ns Therefore 2 All sh have two ns Let s follow the mathematical model and use variables that stand for parts of this argument 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 40000 X and all of them had y Therefore 2 All X have y Key Concept An argument has a proper form when ifthe premises were true they would provide support for the conclusion 52 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Using Variables reveals the logical form of the argument If you put in fish for X and two finsll for the premise of this argument is false But if you put in gills for instead of fins then you have this argument 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 40000 sh and all of them had gills Therefore 2 All sh have gills Now the premise is true and the argument passes both the true premises test and the proper form test Only the gills argumentpasses the trueprem ises test Both the ns argument and the gills argument pass the proper form test Let s look again at the argument about roses 1t fails the proper form test I Y 1 All roses are plants 2 All roses have thorns Therefore 3 All plants have thorns This argument is about groups of things Roses plants and things with thorns are all groups Let s use G1 to stand for the group roses G2 to stand for the group plants and G3 to stand for the group things with thornsll You can then put this argument into the following form a 1 All G1 are G2 2 All G1 are G3 Therefore 3 All G2 are G3 Here s another argument with form a 1 All Germans are Americans 2 All Germans are people with large feet Therefore 3 All Americans are people with large feet In this case G1 Germans G2 Americans and G3 people with large feet This argument fails the true premises test It also fails the proper form test It has the same form as the argument about roses which also fails the proper form test Any argument that has form a fails the proper form test Form a is an improper form The notion of logical form is so important that you should look at an other example 1 If Anne goes to the cafe she will get a latte 2 Anne will go to the cafe Therefore 3 Anne will get a latte Does this argument pass the true premises test You don t know You don t know who Anne is You don t know whether she likes lattes Here s another argument with the same form Proper Form 53 I If Bill Clinton became President of the United States he received more electoral votes than his opponent 2 Bill Clinton became President of the United States Therefore 3 Bill Clinton received more electoral votes than his opponent This argument passes the true premises test You have one argument that may or may not pass the true premises test and one that does pass the true premises test But both arguments have the same logical form In this case the logical form of the argument refers to statements Let s use SI and S2 as variables Here s the logical form of the two arguments above b 1 If S1 then S2 2 Si Therefore 3 2 In the rst argument with form b the variables are used as follows SI Anne goes to the cafe S2 Anne gets a latte In the second argument with form b the variables are used like this SI Bill Clinton became President of the United States S2 Bill Clinton received more electoral votes than his opponent Form b is a proper form Both the Anne argument and the Bill Clinton argu ment pass the proper form test But the Anne argument fails the true prem ises test while the Bill Clinton argument passes the true premises test EXERCISE 24 A Call the following argument forms A B C and D A IAll G1 are G2 B IAllGI are G2 2 All G1 are G3 1 All G2 are G3 Therefore Therefore 3 All G2 are G3 3 All G1 are G3 C 1IfSI then 82 D 11fSl then 52 2 SI 2 82 Therefore Therefore 3 2 3 SI Identify the form of each argument In some cases the form of the argument is neither A B C nor D In that case indicate quotother form 1 I All dogs are mammals 2 All mammals are things with hair Therefore 3 All dogs are things with hair Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument N W a 01 G a so 0 O H N 1 If that s a car then I m a donkey 2 I m a donkey Therefore 3 That s a car 1 All children are humans 2 All humans are mammals Therefore 3 All children are mammals 1 All men are humans 2 All men are under eighteen years of age Therefore 3 All women are under eighteen years of age l lf you throw a match on that gas it will burn 2 You will throw a match on that gas Therefore 3 It will burn 1 All houses are made of wood 2 All houses are made of stone Therefore 3 Everything made of wood is made of stone 1 If he gets in trouble he ll call his Mom 2 He won t get in trouble Therefore 3 He won t call his Mom 1 Some computers are PCs 2 All PCs aren t Macintoshes Therefore 3 Some computers aren t Macintoshes 1 She s either at the grocery store or at the mall 2 She isn t at the mall Therefore 3 She s at the grocery store 1 All cows are pigs 2 All pigs are ducks Therefore 3 All cows are ducks 1 George is a human 2 All humans are mammals Therefore 3 George is a mammal l lf you jump from the Empire State Building you will die 2 You will jump from the Empire State Building Therefore 3 You will die 13 1 If you are human you will die 2 You will die Therefore 3 You are human 14 1 All pigs are things that have wings 2 All pigs are things that love country music Therefore I 3 All things that have wings are things that love country music 15 1 Cell phones have replaced many cameras 2 Cameras all use lm Therefore 3 Cell phones all use lm Proper Form 55 Deductive and Inductive Arguments Arguments have two types of forms deductive and inductive A deductive argument claims that the truth of the premises shows that the conclusion must be true An inductive argument claims that the truth of the premises shows that the conclusion is likely to be true Technical Terms Deduction and induction Some disciplines define deductive and inductive arguments in terms ofthe genera alitv and specificity ofthe statements ln these fields deduction is said to be from general to specific and inductive from specific to general Deduction is sometimes used to refer generally to the process of reasoning ln other cases deduction is used to refer to the act of taking something away from something else You39ve probably heard oftax deductions ln some cases the phrase inductive arguments is used to refer to what this boollt calls statistical argumentsquot Chapter Eight discusses this type ofargue ment ln mathematics one type of proof is called mathematical inductionquot ln a proofbv mathematical induction the demonstration ofthevaliditv ofa law concerning all the positive integers is provided by provmg that the law holds for the integer l and that if it holds for an arbitrarily chosen positive integer llt it must hold forthe integer llt l Mathematical induction is an example ofder ductive reasoning lnduction can also refer to a ceremony to officially install a person in some position the process bvwhich an electrical conductor becomes electrified the movement of a mixture ofair and gas from the carburetor ofa car into the piston chamber ofthe car39s engine and to a process that embryonic cells undergo as they become the various different kinds of cells found in an adult organism Key Concept A deductive argument claims that the truth of the premises shows that the conclusion must be true An inductive argument claims that the truth of the premises shows that the conclusion is likely to be true 56 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Deductive Forms The argument above about Anne and her lattes is a deductive argument Pre tend that you know that it s true that 1 1f Anne goes to the cafe Anne will get a latte Pretend that you also know that it s true that 2 Anne will go to the cafe In that case it s certain that 3 Anne will get a latte 1f Anne didn t get a latte you know that one of the premises is false Either she didn t go to the cafe or it isn t true that if Anne goes to the cafe she ll get a latte This argument has a proper deductive form Any argument with the form b 1 If 81 then 82 2 81 Therefore 3 2 is a deductive argument with a proper form Here s another proper deductive form 1 Either 1 or 2 2 Not 82 Therefore 3 81 Here s an example of an argument with this form 1 Either Margaret is outside or she is in the kitchen 2 Margaret is not in the kitchen Therefore 3 Margaret is outside As with the argument about Anne and her latte you don t know whether the premises of this argument are true or false because you don t know who Marga ret is or what she is doing But you do know that this argument has a proper de ductive form As you look at this form you ll see that no matter what you put in for 1 and 82 if both premises were true the conclusion would have to be true You ve already seen some arguments with improper deductive forms Remember the argument about roses 1 All roses are plants 2 All roses have thorns Therefore 3 All plants have thorns The form of this argument looks like this a 1 All G1 are G2 2 All G1 are G3 Therefore 3 All G2 are G3 As you saw above the truth of the premises of an argument with this form doesnt guarantee that the conclusion is true Inductive Forms T t l 12 39 J 39 f 39 1 J L J T L t t L lets use X to refer to things and F to refer to features of those things 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 40000 X and all of them had F Therefore 2 All X have P Think about this example of the above form 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 40000 swans and all of 39 e Therefore 2 All swans are white Forty thousand swans is a lot of swans If someone had seen 40000 swans and all of them were white that person would have good reason to think that all swans were white But good reason isn t certainty It would still be possible that theres a black swan out there In arguments with this form the truth of her 39 A L L of L I Butan am m N has aproper inductive form s an example of an improper inductive form 1 The authors of this textbook have seen at least 4 X and all of them had F Therefore 2 All X have P If weve seen only four swans that isnt enough evidence to draw a conclu sion about the color of all swans 39 alT nke John Latham naturallsts that all swans were whlte Proper Form 57 John Latham l 7404837 a Brltlsh naturallst has been called the quotgrandfatherquot of Australlan ornlthologv Hedlscovered and named many Australlan blrds lncludlng the emu Latham mlght be best known for havlng tlrstdeserlbed ln l790 a large waterblrd that was ln fact a black swan Cygnus atratus lt had been assumed by European 58 Chapter 2 wnat Makes a Good Argument Here s another inductive argument form It concerns events Let s use E to refer to events 1 Many times in the past when E1 occurred E2 usually occurred shortly thereafter Therefore 2 1n the future if E1 occurs E2 will probably occur shortly thereafter This form is found in the following argument regarding how to start a car 1 Many times in the past when people have turned the key in their car s ignition it has almost always started the car Therefore 2 1n the future if you turn the key in a car s ignition it will probably start the car This argument has a proper inductive form but the truth of the premises doesn t show that the conclusion must be true Even the most reliable car will fail to start every now and then But turning the key in the ignition is a good way to start a car Given the inductive evidence you have it would be weird for you to try to start your car by bouncing up and down in the seat Here s an improper inductive argument form 1 Yesterday when E1 occurred E2 occurred shortly thereafter Therefore 2 1n the future if E1 occurs E2 will probably occur shortly thereafter And here s an example of an argument with this form 1 Yesterday 1 had a ham sandwich for lunch and when 1 got back to the office my boss told me that 1 was getting a raise Therefore 2 Tomorrow if 1 have a ham sandwich for lunch I ll get another raise This argument fails the proper form test That something happened one time in the past isn t a good reason to think that it will happen again in the future Connections Deductrve arguments can be drvrded rnto at least two groups proposrtronal and categorrcal Cnapter Frve focuses on proposrtronal arguments Cnapter er consrders categorrcal arguments lnductlve arguments can be drvlded lnto at least tnree groups analogrcal statrstrcal and causal Gnaper Seven drscusses analogrcal arguments Cnapi ter Ergnt looks at statrstrcal arguments and Cnapter Nrne consrders causal arguments Thus far this book has been using the words good argument bad argu ment proper form and improper form But more speci c words are used in philosophy logic and math courses A deductive argument that passes the proper form test is called a valid argument A deductive argument that fails the proper form test is called an invalid argument An inductive argument that passes the proper form test is called a strong argument An inductive argument that fails the proper form test is called a weak argument Because all deductive arguments claim that if the premises are true then the conclusion must be true they re all either valid or invalid An argument can t be almost valid or somewhat valid Deductive validity is not a matter of degree But inductive arguments claim that whenever all the premises are true the conclusion is likely to also be true Thus inductive arguments can be stron ger or weaker You evaluate the form of inductive arguments in degrees of like lihood from extremely weak premises offer not much evidence at all through degrees of probable strength to high degrees of strength to ahnost certain prem ises offer extremely good evidence Inductive strength is a matter of degree Philosophers and logicians have given special names for deductive argu ments that pass both tests of a good argument and for inductive arguments that pass both tests of a good argument A valid deductive argument that also has all true premises is called a sound argument A strong inductive argu ment that has all true premises is called a cogent argument I Proper form l 393 Good argument Valid deductive form I IEI Sound argument lStrong inductive form l 39339 aka Good inductive argument Cogent argument True premises True premises Good deductive argument aka True premises Proper Form 59 Terms Used in Logic Philosophy and Math to Refer to Good and Bad Arguments No Name All True Premises No Name Valid Strong Proper Form Invalid Weak Sound Cogent Proper Form AND All True Premises Unsound No Name No Name Not Cogent Technical Terms Valid Strong Sound Cogent The terms yalid strong sound and cogent are used in many different ways lh many cases valid means legally recognizedquot Your driver39s license may be valid or invalid in other cases it means meeting certain conditionsquot lfyour bank requires that yourATM PlN be SlX characters and you attemptto enter a PlN With fiyeyou may get a messagethat says lnyalld PlNquot Strong ofteh refersto physical strength Souhdquot often refers to what you hearahd quotcogentquot is often used to indicate that reasoning is good 60 Chapter 2 wnat Makes a Good Argument EXERCISE 25 Technical Terms Test Validity Content Validity Criterion Validity Construct Validity and Reliability A great deal of researcn ln soclal sclences concerns tne analysls oftests and testlng procedures Test analysts frequently use tne terms test yalldltyquot content yalldltyquot crlterlon yalldltyquot construct yalldltyquot and rellablllty Soclal sclentlsts and edur catlonal researcners use tne word yalld ln a way tnat ls dlfferent from tne loglcal concept ofyalldlty used ln tnls text Ayalld test ls a test tnat ls an accurate and useful measure ofwnat lt seeks to measure lfyou were looklng to nlre an accountant and you gave all tne appllcants a test to determlne tnelr knowledge of cakerbaklng procedures your test wouldn39t be yalld lts results wouldn39t be a useful measure oftne appllcants39 abllltles as accountants Test yalldlty ls usually broken down lnto content yalldlty crlterlon yalldlty and constructyalldlty Tests are often constructed wltn questlons eacn ofwnlcn ls called a test ltem Eacn test ltem ls deslgned to test a certaln sklll or knowledge ofa certaln tnlng Wellrconstructed test ltemswlll test onlytnat spelelc sklll or ltem of knowl7 edge wnen all test ltems are well constructed tne test ls sald to naye content yalldlty Tests are sometlmes deslgned to act as predlctors of future performance of some klnd For example tne ACT and SAT tests are lntended to lndlcate wnlcn stu7 dents wlll do well ln college lfsubsequent researcn snows a test ls a good predlcr tor ofwnat lt was deslgned to predlct tnat test ls sald to naye crlterlon yalldlty Eyery test ls constructed on tne basls of a tneon about wnat39s belng tested wnen a test ls constructed so tnat lt matcnes lts underlylng tneory lt nas construct yalldlty Tneyalldlty ofa test ls often dlscussed ln conlunctlon wltn lts rellablllty Rellable tests naye slmllar outcomes wnen tney39re admlnlstered multlple tlmes lf groups of testrtakers take several forms of a test ln dlfferent places at dlfferent tlmes wltn slmllar results tne test ls sald to be rellable A rellable test ls one tnat glyes conslstent resultsA rellable test can be lnyalld lfyou developed a rellable test ofour potentlal accountants39 cakeibaklng abllltles tne test would glye tne same result lfan appllcanttook lt overand over agaln On tne otner nand an uni rellable test can39t be yalld lfa test glyes lnconslstent results lt can39t be an accurate measure ofwnat lt seeks to measure A In each of the following passages determine whether or not an argument is present if an argument is present state whether it is inductive or deductive and explain your answer 1 If that s a cow then I m a goat Oh it s a cow guess I m a goat 2 I called Toi and she said that she was at the library So ibet she s at the library 3 The syllabus said that the paper had to cite three sources You only cited one Be care ful You won t get the grade you want e H O H W H a 0 Proper Form Francis had pepperoni and mushrooms on her pizza It follows that she had pepperoni on her pizza That was a good talk 1 had never considered the way that one s emotions can affect one s moral judgments And the speaker was very clear too Where is Bret He s either in class or in the rec center He isn t here in class so he must be in the rec center Take one capsule orally three times a day for ten days Finish all this medication unless otherwise directed by your physician My son started talking when he was two years old This makes it obvious that all chil dren start speaking at that age Socrates was a human being All human beings are mortal Therefore Socrates was mortal quotReal people begin their lives as helpless infants and remain in a state of extreme asymmetrical dependency for anywhere from ten to twenty years At the other end of life those who are lucky enough to live on into old age are likely to encounter another period of extreme dependency which may itself continue in some form for as much as twenty years Nussbaum 2006 69770 material omitted 1 reasoned thus with myself 1 am wiser than this man for neither of us appears to know anything great and good but he fancies he knows something although he knows nothing whereas 1 as 1 do not know anything so 1 do not fancy I do in this tri ing particular then 1 appear to be wiser than he because 1 do not fancy I know what 1 do not know Plato 1897 19 In On the Heavens Book 11 Section 14 the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle dis cussed the shape of the Earth Here is a paraphrase of his claims The earth is either at or spherical 1f the earth is flat it does not project a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse If the earth is round it projects a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse The Earth projects a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse The earth is spherical In 1628 the English medical doctor William Harvey 157871657 published Exercitario Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguim39s in Ammahbus An Anatomical Exercise on the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals Harvey demonstrated that the blood is not produced by the liver as everyone until then had thought but rather circulates through the body Harvey proposed a number of arguments to support the conclusion that the blood circulates Look at the following paraphrase of Harvey s work Every time the heart pumps 16 of an ounce of blood goes through it and the heart beats 1000 times every half hour So the heart pumps 540 pounds of blood in a day The blood is either produced by the liver or it circulates But if the blood is produced by the liver the liver would have to produce 540 pounds of blood in a day which it does not do From this we can see that blood circulates Santiago Ramon y Cajal was born in May 1852 in the village of Petilla in the region of Aragon in northeast Spain His father was at that time the village surgeon later on in 1870 his father was appointed as Professor of Dissection at the Umversity of Zara goza Cajal was a rebellious teenager and his father apprenticed him for a while to a shoemaker and to a barber Cajal however had decided to become an artist His passion for drawing his sensitivity to visual esthetics and his talent in converting visual im ages into drawings remained the hallmarks of his future scienti c activity Finally en rolled in the medical school at Zaragoza as a young student Cajal seized by a graphic 61 62 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument mania was very fond of philosophy and gymnastics restless energetic shy and soli tary He graduated in medicine at the University of Zaragoza in 1873 Shortly after his degree he was drafted into the army and dispatched to Cuba at that time under Spanish rule as a medical officer Cajal returned to Spain very sick he had contracted malaria in Cuba and then tuberculosis and at the end of 1875 he started his academic career as Auxiliary Professor of Anatomy at the University of Zaragoza nobelprizeorg 2007 Santiago Ramon y Cajal won the 1906 Nobel Prize in Medicine quotFor Kant human dignity and our moral capacity are radically separate from the natu ral world The idea that we are at bottom split beings both rational persons and ani mal dwellers in the world of nature never ceases to influence Kant s way of thinking What s wrong with the split Quite a lot First it ignores the fact that our dignity just is the dignity of a certain sort of animal Second the split wrongly denies that aniinal ity itself can have a dignity Third it makes us think of the core of ourselves as self sufficient not in need of the gifts of fortune Fourth it makes us think of ourselves as atemporal We forget that the usual human life cycle brings with it periods of extreme dependency Nussbaum 20021887189 material omitted H 01 B For each of the following conclusions construct a a deductive argument that passes the proper form test and b an inductive argument that passes the proper form text Your argu ment doesn t have to pass the true premises test 1 The moon is made of green cheese 2 Martha Stewart is a good cook 3 It often rains in the Amazon jungle Most people prefer to eat in the company of other people 91h You should buy a new computer G My computer is gray t is 542 PM 8 My mother is a hamster N 0 The Atlanta Braves are a good baseball team 10 I like Coldplay 0 For the exercises in part A above standardize the argument if one is present 5 At the beginning of this chapter you encountered the following argument as an example of an argument that passes the proper form test 1 Socrates was a human being 2 All human beings are mortal Therefore 3 Socrates was mortal a Is this argument deductive or inductive argument b Think about the nature of the evidence you have for premise 2 Is this relevant to your deciding whether this argument is deductive or inductive c Create a linked argument by constructing a subargument that supports premise 2 Relevance 63 E The following argument doesn t pass the proper form test Demonstrate this clearly by using variables to illustrate its form and then constructing a more obviously invalid argu ment with the same form by substituting new phrases for those variables 1 Residents of the 4th Congressional District of our state will not be affected by the up coming tax hike 2 Residents who do not earn more than the minimum wage will not be affected by the upcoming tax hike Therefore 3 Residents of the 4th Congressional District of our state do not earn more than the mini m I Relevance Relevance is an essential part of the proper form test Premises are rele vant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provides some evi dence that the conclusion is true Premises are irrelevant when the truth of the premises provides no evidence that the conclusion is true When an argument has a proper form its premises are relevant to the conclusion When an argument has an improper form its premises are irrelevant to the conclusion Technical Term Non Sequitur An argument that contains a premise or premises that are irrelevant to the conclusion is sometimes said to contain a non sequitur Non sequitur39 is Latin for it doesn39t followquot Suppose you re studying with a friend and talking about topics to focus on for a geology test The test covers the rst ve chapters of the textbook You suggest studying sedimentary rocks because this topic is covered in Chapter Four You re making the following argument 1 The test covers Chapters 175 2 The topic of sedimentary rocks is in Chapter 4 Therefore 3 We should study sedimentary rocks Suppose your friend responds that he doesn t want to study sedimentary rocks because his brother thinks that sedimentary rocks are boring Your friend is making the following argument 1 My brother thinks that sedimentary rocks are boring Therefore 2 We shouldn t study sedimentary rocks This premise is irrelevant to the conclusion Whether or not this premise is true it doesn t provide a good reason to believe the conclusion Key Concept Premises are relevant to the conclusion when the truth of the premises provides some evidence that the conclusion is true Premises are irrelevant when the truth of the premises provides no evidence that the conclusion is true 64 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Relevance is a matter of degree The premise of an argument can be more or less relevant to its conclusion The more support a premise provides for a conclusion the more relevant it is to the conclusion Remember the metaphor of the grading of a test A completely irrelevant premise gets a very low grade maybe a 0 A premise that provides almost certain proof of a conclusion gets a high passing grade perhaps a 95 while a premise that provides only a bit of support for a conclusion just barely earns a passing grade say a 63 EXERCISE 26 A For each of the following pairs of statements indicate whether the rst statement is rel evant or irrelevant to the second statement 1 Krystal s losing weight Krystal s on a diet 2 Luke s a cruel and unfeeling person Luke s views about water conservation are false 3 Danica got good grades in art and music courses Danica would be a good airline pilot wt 1 Oosh failed his College Algebra course Oosh won t graduate on time 01 Wireless mice are more comfortable because they don t have a cord attached Wireless mice will last longer than corded mice The pipes are rusted and the roof needs to be replaced The house is in bad shape On the SAT Arica s scores ranked in the bottom 25th percentile Arica s likely to be a very nice person 8 Many country music fans hate NASCAR Sprint Cup Racing Many country music fans hate NASCAR Camping World Truck Racing 9 The moon s made of green cheese The moon is edible 10 On Monday the Federal Reserve announced plans to lend 60 billion to banks In ation is likely to fall over the next six mont s NF 11 Children from singleparent families tend to have lower academic achievement in high school Children from singleparent families tend to have lower incomes 12 Today CocaCola reported that case sales fell 2 in the rst quarter of 2005 CocaCola pro ts fell in the rst quarter of 2005 13 Researchers have trained chimpanzees to understand words spoken by humans and found that they can understand simple commands Chimpanzees may someday speak with humans Offspring of selffertilizing plants carry only the genes of their single parent and do not maintain enough variation for evolutionary exibility in the face of environmental change Self fertilization is a poor strategy for longterm survival Gould 1992 20 material omitted Background A pluton is a large mass of rock tens to hundreds of kilometers across usually roughly circular that was produced when magma rose from the center of the Earth but cooled and solidi ed before breaking through the surface When it cools it turns into granite A prominent positive magnetic anomaly spans the 100 km distance between Prince Edward Island and Cape Breton Island in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence Analysis of the magnetic anomaly led to the interpretation that it is produced by four separate ap proximately circular source bodies aligned along the northwesterly trend of the anomaly P H 01 Relevance 65 Seismic data physical property measurements and magnetic and gravity anomalies were used to further investigate the anomaly sources through forward modeling techniques Statement 1 The four source bodies have densities and magnetic susceptibilities com patible with granitic compositions Statement 2 The bodies are interpreted as plutons emplaced along the boundary between Ganderian composite terranes to the north and the Ganderian Brookvillei Bras d Or terrane to the south Cook 2007 1551 material omitted o One place where people offer arguments to in uence the beliefs of others is in court At torneys attempt to persuade juries of the guilt or innocence of people charged with a crime The relevance of each piece of evidence is important The following argument was made by Counselor Smart for the conclusion that the defendant Shifty McRogue is guilty of robbing a local bank For each premise decide whether it s relevant or irrelevant to the conclusion Give reasons for your answers 1 Several witnesses have con rmed that the defendant has been in desperate need of money ever since he lost his job at the cracker factory 2 And McRogue has the pro le of a criminal anyway since we know he has established a prior criminal record he served thirty days in jail just last year for driving under the in uence 3 Moreover I have an expert witness Dr Quack the famous phrenologist who will testify that McRogue has a predisposition to rob banks 4 In fact if found guilty this would be the defendant s third conviction under the state s three strikes legislation he would automatically serve the maximum sentence for his crime 5 Ever since his release from jail McRogue has been seen regularly in the company of Max Cheatem an exconvict who himself served time for armed robbery 6 Two weeks ago Max Cheatem lent McRogue his blue twodoor Fordia car of the same make model and color as the getaway vehicle used in the robbery 7 And nally the bank was held up by an assailant carrying a 22 pistol three days before the robbery the defendant purchased a 22 pistol Therefore 8 McRogue is guilty of robbing the bank Dependent and Independent Premises Premises can be relevant in two ways Let s look at two arguments The rst which you saw in Chapter One concerns employment law 1 There are labor laws that give employees the right to unionize 2 There are civil rights and equal pay laws that put constraints on hir ing practices Therefore 3 Some laws support the interests of employees against corporations The second is the argument above about studying for a test 1 The test covers Chapters 175 2 The topic of sedimentary rocks is in Chapter 4 Therefore 3 We should study sedimentary rocks 66 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Key Concept An independent premise is a premise that39s intended to provide some support for the arguments conclusion even when the rest ofthe argument s premises are removed A dependent premise is a premise that s intended to provide support for the arguments conclusion onlywhen combined with another premise in the argument In the rst argument if you remove either of the premises the other still provides some support for the conclusion The conclusion is that there are some laws that support employees The premises are two examples of such laws Removing one of the premises would do nothing more than reduce the number of examples In this case each premise supports the conclusion in dependently of the others 1 and 2 are examples of independent premises An independent premise is a premise that s intended to provide some support for the argument s conclusion even when the rest of the argument s premises are removed The premises in the argument about studying for the geology test are dependent premises A dependent premise is a premise that s intended to provide support for the argument s conclusion only when combined with another premise in the argument Premise 1 by itself doesn t provide any support for 3 1 The test covers Chapters 175 Therefore 3 We should study sedimentary rocks Premise 1 doesn t provide support for 3 unless it s combined with a premise about the contents of Chapters 175 The same is true of premise 2 2 The topic of sedimentary rocks is in Chapter 4 Therefore 3 We should study sedimentary rocks But together 1 and 2 are relevant to 3 l Conclusion I The difference between independent and dependent premises is important when you evaluate arguments because it means that you can t just look at premises individually to determine whether they re relevant to the con clusion It might be that you re examining an argument with dependent premises In that case if you look at each premise individually you could mistakenly conclude that the premises were irrelevant to the conclusion Relevahee 67 and therefore that the argument failed the proper form test When you think about the relevance of premises you have to take two steps First look at each premise by itself and see if it s relevant to the conclusion When you do this you re checking for the relevance of independent premises Second look at the premises as a group When you do this you re checking for the relevance of dependent premises Technical Terms Dependent and Independent Premises lh some cases authors use depehdeht premlse to reterto a premlse that39s true Ohly it ahother premlse lh the argumeht lS true The truth otthe depehdeht premlse depehds Oh the truth otthe other premlse lh the sehse that ltthe other premlse ls false so lS the depehdeht premlse lh thls sehse ah lhdepehdeht premlse lS a premlse whose truth lsh39t logleally related to the truth or falsity otthe other premlses lh the argumeht Technical Term Convergent Argument Ah argumeht that39s composed exclusively of lhdepehdeht premlses lS sometlmes called a COhvergeht argumehtquot EXERCISE 27 A in each of the following passages determine whether or not an argument is present If an ar gument is present standardize the argument Determine whether the premises are relevant to the conclusion if they re relevant determine whether they re independent premises or dependent premises 1 Socrates was a human being All human beings are mortal Therefore Socrates was mortal N Transfatty acids contribute to heart disease Children shouldn t be given foods that contribute to heart disease Therefore children shouldn t be given foods that contain transfatty acids Julia Roberts is either a man or a woman Julia Roberts is a man Therefore Julia Rob erts isn t a woman 02 a a If you walk on the lines in the sidewalk you ll be eaten by bears Sometime in the next week someone will walk on the lines in the sidewalk Therefore sometime in the next week someone will be eaten by bears U39I All cows are pigs All pigs are ducks Therefore all cows are ducks Reza didn t have a bump on his head If he d fallen he d have a bump on his head He didn t fall The coffee cup was still warm The newspaper was open on the dinning room table The microwave was heating up a frozen dinner The killer couldn t have gone far Many people think that air pollution is a serious problem And vehicle emissions are a signi cant cause of air pollution So it s clear that most people support laws requiring a reduction in the emissions produced by cars lwalked down the street through the cold crisp air A front had come through and the city air usually so full of city smells had a hint of the countryside in it The smell of the horses pulling the carriages in Central Park added to the countryfeel of the day 10 The rst survey indicated that 26 of likely voters favor Senator Smith A second survey taken a week later found that 23 of likely voters favored him It seems that Smith is likely to get about 25 of the vote in the primary 0 l so 0 68 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument H W H 01 a The Toyota has better gas mileage than the Honda The Toyota costs less and has a bet ter repair record I d say you should buy the Toyota Segregation of white and colored children in public schools has a detrimental effect upon the colored children The impact is greater when it has the sanction of the law for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the negro group A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn Segregation with the sanction of law therefore has a tendency to retard the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them of some of the bene ts they would receive in a racially integrated school system Brown V Board ofEducation 1954 495 Sarah a woman of twenty ve lively and engaging at the time of the rst interview is intelligent humorous and sad as she describes her experiences of selfdefeat Her selfdefeat is an unwanted pregnancy Pregnant again by the same man and confronting a second abortion she sees the hopelessness of the relationship Gilligan 1982 116 The Catholic Church holds that it is not admissible to ordain women to the priest hood for very fundamental reasons These reasons include the example recorded in the Sacred Scriptures of Christ choosing his Apostles only from among men the constant practice of the Church which has imitated Christ in choosing only men and her living teaching authority which has consistently held that the exclusion of women from the priesthood is in accordance with God s plan for his Church Pope Paul VI 1976 Atheists have solid reasons not to believe We don t need a divine being to explain the natural world and don t know why we should trust claims about humankind s divine origins because they are in religious texts Give 2001 A Space Odyssey a thousand years and who knows what might happen Porter 2007 A34 B Return to the passages found in Exercise 26 A if the passage contains an argument indi cate whether the premises of the argument are relevant and if they are whether they re dependent premises or dependent premises C Read the following conversation between the famous detective Sherlock Holmes and his friend Dr Watson from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle s novel The Sign of the Four Holmes leaned back luxuriously in his armchair and sending up thick blue wreaths from his pipe and said 1 see that you have been to the Wigmore Street PostOffice this morning and that when there you dispatched a telegram Right said Watson quotRight on both points But I confess that 1 don t see how you arrived at it It was a sudden impulse upon my part and 1 have mentioned it to no one It is simplicity itself Hohnes remarked chuckling at my surprise7 so absurdly simple that an explanation is superfluous Observation tells me that you have a little red dish dirt adhering to your instep ust opposite the Wigmore Street Office they have taken up the pavement and thrown up some earth which lies in such a way that it is difficult to avoid treading in it in entering The earth is of this peculiar reddish tint which is found as far as 1 know nowhere else in the neighborhood How then did you deduce the telegram Why of course I knew that you had not written a letter since I sat opposite to you all morning I see also in your open desk there that you have a sheet of stamps and a thick bundle of postcards What could you go into the postoffice for then but to send a tele gram Eliminate all other factors and the one which remains must be the truth Doyle 1890 12713 material omitted Argumg aboutArguments 69 Holmes presents two arguments in this passage Standardize each of them Determine whether they are inductive or deductive Determine whether the premises are relevant to the conclusion F P P using the true premises and proper form tests Assume that Sherlock Holmes ctional world is real and evaluate Holmes arguments I Arguing about Arguments When you claim that someone is making a bad argument you re either con structing an argument to show that someone else s argument fails the true premises test or constructing an argument to show that the other person s argument fails the proper form test Suppose that one person makes an argu ment and then another person argues that this argument fails the true prem ises test andor fails the proper form test In many cases the rst person will argue that the second person s argument against the rst person s argument is a bad argument Now there s a weird sentence Better read it again This can lead to an argumentative tennis match as the two people arguing make arguments for and against the various parts of their opponent s arguments Argumentative tennis matches are complex but exciting and participating in these tennis matches is an excellent way to improve your critical thinking skills Let s imagine an argumentative tennis match between Al who doesn t believe in God and Theresa who does Al offers the following argument 1 There is evil in the world 2 An allgood allknowing and allpowerful God would not allow evil to exist Therefore 3 There is no allgood allknowing and allpowerful God Theresa can respond in two ways She can offer a counter argument an argu ment that draws a conclusion opposed to Al s argument For example The resa could respond with the following argument 1 Some people have had mystical religious experiences 2 When people have mystical religious experiences they are experienc ing God Therefore 3 Some people have experienced God 4 If someone has experienced something that thing exists Therefore 5 God exists Theresa s response is a counter argument because it doesn t attempt to show that Al s argument fails either of the two tests for a good argument Instead she offers an argument for a conclusion opposed to Al s Key Concept A counter argument is an argument that draws a conclusion opposed to another argument 70 Chapter 2 What Makesa Good Argument Key Concept A refutation argument is an argument whose conclusion is that another argument fails the true premises or proper form test EXERCISE 28 Theresa s other option is to offer a refutation argument an argument whose conclusion is that another argument fails the true premises or proper form test Here s an example of a refutation argument that Theresa might make I It is important that humans be able to choose between doing good and doing evil Therefore 2 It is important that people be allowed to do evil things Therefore 3 An allgood allknowing and allpowerful God would allow some evil to exist The conclusion of this argument is the opposite of premise 2 of Al s argument Theresa has presented a refutation argument intended to show that Al s argu ment fails the true premises test Whether Theresa offers a counter argument or a refutation argument she has shot the argumentative tennis ball back to Al s side of the net It s his turn to respond with either a counter argument or a refutation argument As you watch an argumentative tennis match you need to keep track of where the ball is You need to keep track of whether someone is presenting an original argument a counter argument or a refutation argument In theory this process of argument counter argument and refutation argument could continue forever In practice the match stops either because one side is con vinced to change beliefs or because the arguers run out of time A In Exercise 27 A develop a a counter argument and b a refutation for each of the passages that contains an argument B Evaluate each of your counter arguments and each of your refutation arguments using the true premises and proper form tests Kcy Concept Fallacies are bad arguments that are so common that they39ve been given a name I Fallacies and Relevance Fallacies are bad arguments that are so common that they ve been given a name Bad arguments that have been named as a fallacy occur frequently because they look like good arguments Some people use fallacies without noticing that they re bad arguments Other people deliberately use fallacies when they re unable to provide good arguments These people want to con vince people to change their beliefs but they don t have a good argument In stead they use a fallacious argument and hope that the people they re trying to convince won t notice You ll nd discussions of fallacies throughout this book This section dis cusses six fallacies that involve relevance the Easy Target Fallacy Appeal to Fallamesahd Releyahce 71 Popularity Appeal to Novelty or Tradition Ad Hominem Appeal to Igno rance and Begging the Question Fallacy Easy Target The Easy Target Fallacy occurs in three steps First someone makes an inac curate claim about the views held by someone else Second the person argues that the inaccurately described view is false Finally the person asserts that this argument shows that the accurate view is false The most common cases of this fallacy occur when someone presents an exaggerated version of some one else s view When someone presents his opponent s views in an exagger ated way he distorts his opponent s claims He s offering an argument that s irrelevant to the issue at hand but by misdescribing his opponent s view his argument might deceive others into thinking he has countered the op ponent s view This fallacy is called the Easy Target Fallacy because when it occurs someone creates a view that s an easier target to attack than their opponent s actual view Here s the form of an Easy Target Fallacy S is a variable that refers to statements 1 S2 a distorted version of S1 is false Therefore 2 S1 is false Technical Term Straw Man Fallacy The Easy Target Fallacy TS ofteh called the Straw Mah Fallacyquot Suppose that Catherine asserts that school lunches should be made with less fat and less sugar William responds to Catherine as follows I can t believe that you favor the government deciding what people eat If the government decided what people could eat we wouldn t be able to have a hot dog at the ball park or buttery popcorn at the movies lwant my hot dog with chili please and extra butter on my popcorn when I go to the movies William has committed the Easy Target Fallacy He has chosen a target that s easier to attack than Catherine s actual view Catherine didn t assert that the government should decide what people eat She asserted that there should be less fat and sugar in school lunches Here s a standardization of William s argument 1 If the government decided what people could eat we wouldn t be able to have a hot dog at the ball park or buttery popcorn at the movies 2 We should be able to have a hot dog at the ball park and buttery pop corn at the movies Therefore 3 The government shouldn t decide what people can eat Therefore 4 School lunches shouldn t be made with less fat and less sugar Premise 3 of William s argument is irrelevant to 4 Key Concept The three steps of the Easy Target Fallacy 72 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Habits of a Critical Thinker Giving Opposing Views Their Due Someone who commits the Easy Target fallacy needs to focus on giying opposing yiewstheir due Considering Views that aren39t in accord with your Key Concept The fallacy of Appeal to Popularity occurs when someone argues that a view is true on the grounds that its popular own beliefs can be difficult to do But ifyou dismiss a View Without giying it the consideration it deserves you39ll never know whetherthe View is true Fallacy Appeal to Popularity The fallacy of Appeal to Popularity occurs when someone argues that a view is true on the grounds that it s popular Here s the form of this fallacy 1 Most people approve of or believe S Therefore 2 S is true The fact that most people approve or believe something doesn t mean that it s true Before the introduction of telescopes many people believed that there were only ve planets in the solar system This doesn t mean there really were only ve planets in the solar system Suppose that Rachael and Van are discussing the question of whether extra sensory perception ESP exists lf Rachael offered the following argument 1 Most people think that ESP exists Therefore 2 ESP exists she d have committed the fallacy of Appeal to Popularity 1 is not suffi ciently relevant to 2 Technical Term Argumentvm Ad Papa11m Bandwagon Fallacy For many centuries the discussion of logic and critical thinking occurred in Latin Therefore most fallacies were originally named in LatinThese Latin names are still used The Latin name for an Appeal to Popularity is ArgumentumAd Populumquot it39s also called the Bandwagon Fallacy Debra Lau Whelan wrote an article entitled quot13000 Kids Can t Be Wrong Here s the beginning of the article Whether it s learning proper research skills locating quality Web sites or getting better test scores an overwhelming number of kids think media specialists are essential to learning according to a new study by profes sors Ross Todd and Carol Kuhlthau of Rutgers University s Center for International Scholarship in School Libraries Student Learning Through Ohio School Libraries reveals that 994 percent of students in grades 3 to 12 believe school libraries and their services help them become better learners Whelan 2004 46 This passage and the article s title indicate that Whelan is making the follow ing argument Fallamesahd Relevahce 73 1 994 percent of students in grades 3 to 12 believe school libraries and their services help them become better learners Therefore 2 School libraries and their services help students become better learners The fact that 994 of students believe that something is true doesn t indi cate that it s true Elementary and highschool students have little informa tion about the bene ts and costs of school libraries Thirteen thousand kids could be wrong Fallacy Appeal to Novelty or Tradition The fallacy of Appeal to Novelty or Tradition occurs when someone argues that a statement is true because people have either believed it for a short time novelty or for a long time tradition Here s the form of the fallacy 1 S has been believed by people for a shortlong time Therefore 2 S is true In discussing how to organize the catalog of a university someone might argue 1 We have always organized the sections of the catalog by academic department not by major Therefore 2 We should continue to organize the sections of the catalog by academic department not by major This person has committed the fallacy of Appeal to Tradition On the other hand someone might argue 1 We have never organized the sections of the catalog by academic department Therefore 2 We should organize the sections of the catalog by academic department This person has committed the fallacy of Appeal to Novelty They ve argued that something should be done only because it s new and different Appeal to Novelty and Appeal to Tradition make the same mistake Both reason from the claim about how long people have believed a view to a claim about the truth of a view How long people have believed something is irrel evant to its truth The fact that for hundreds of years many people believed that the Earth was flat doesn t mean that it was Technical Terms Argumentum Ad Novitatem Argumentum Ad Antiquitatem The Latih hame for the Appeal to Novelty TS ArgumentumAdNovitatemquot The Latih hame for the Appeal to Tradition TS ArgumentumAdAntquitatemquot At the beginning of this chapter you saw the following quote The Catholic Church holds that it is not admissible to ordain women to the priesthood for very fundamental reasons These reasons include the Key Concept The fallacy of Appeal to Novelty or Tradition occurs when someone argues that a statement is true because people have either believed it for a short time novelty or believed it for a long time tradition 74 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument EXERCISE 29 example recorded in the Sacred Scriptures of Christ choosing his Apostles only from among men the constant practice of the Church which has imitated Christ in choosing only men and her living teaching authority which has consistently held that the exclusion of women from the priest hood is in accordance with God s plan for his Church Pope Paul argues that women shouldn t be allowed to be priests He makes two arguments for his view The rst is a Biblical argument concerning the actions of Christ It doesn t commit the fallacy of Appeal to Tradition His second argument can be standardized as follows 1 The constant practice of the Church has been to exclude women from the priesthood 2 The Church has consistently held that women should be excluded from the priesthood Therefore 3 Women should continue to be excluded from the priesthood This argument commits the fallacy of Appeal to Tradition Rather than use the word tradition he uses the phrase quotconstant practice and consis tently But the Pope is arguing that because some practice has been done for a long time it should continue A Each of the following passages may contain one of the following fallacies Easy Target Ap peal to Popularity Appeal to Novelty or Appeal to Tradition Determine whether one of these four fallacies is present and if so which fallacy it is 1 DIN 01 l Munstermeister is North RhineWestphalia s best selling beer And North RhmeWest phalia is Germany s most populous province You should enjoy Munstermeister too Budweiser is the best selling beer in the world So it must be the best beer in the world The Remheitsgebot law about what ingredients could be used in beer governed Germany s beer production from 1516 to 1987 And look how good German beer is Germany should reinstate the Reinheitsgebot New Munstermeister Brat is Germany s rst beer with the avor of bratwurst brewed right in You should try Munstermeister Brat today Angela I think that you shouldn t have any more beer You ve had two and you have to drive home Danielle I can t believe that you think you should always decide what I eat and drink It s a free country and I m going to eat and drink what 1 want Mamas Don t Let Your Babies Grow Up to Be Cowboys Title of a Willie Nelson 2003 song Scientists at Very Cool University observed 12456 gastropod mollusks also known as snails and slugs and noticed that 12367 had two pairs of tentacles on their head The remaining mollusks appeared to have lost one or more tentacles due to injury They concluded that all gastropod mollusks have two pairs of tentacles 0 H H D lDl J30 H 01 Fallamesand Relevance As we consider whether or not to move from paper addidrop forms to an online addi drop process we need to remember that we ve used paper addidrop forms for a long time An online process might not work well for our university Eric If we move to the online addidrop process students who do not have access to the internet will have trouble adding and dropping courses We don t want that So we shouldn t use an online addidrop policy Samantha I think that most students nowadays have easy access to the internet Most of my friends can surf on their cell phones And the paper forms are a pain I think on line adds and drops is a great idea Everyone thinks that the Earth is round So why do you persist in saying that it s at Amanda I think it is important for the United States to remain in Iraq If we don t oil supplies to the West could be threatened Luke How can you say that the United States should invade a country every time we think that there is a problem with oil supplies We need to work to conserve energy at home not send in the military to take it from others Martha You need to put sage in the stuffing for your turkey Gareth Why do you say that Martha Well my mother always put sage in her stuffing Give me liberty or give me death Patrick Henry Henry 1999 232 The iPad is a revolutionary mobile tablet computer Assume that this is stated as a part of an argument for the conclusion that you should buy an iPad Congress ordered the Census Bureau to study the commonsense idea of counting inmates at their homes rather than at prison The Bureau responded with an obtuse and evasive report that supports the bad old status quo The report suggests the change desired by Congress might require the costly and invasive procedure of interviewing every inmate The New York Times Counting Noses in Prison 2006 The argu ment in this passage is attributed to the Census Bureau by The New York Times B Construct a fallacious appeal to tradition and a fallacious appeal to novelty in support of the following conclusions mwaH Astrological signs have an in uence on a person s destiny Everyone should get a college education You should get married The earth is at Dwight Yoakam is a great country singer C Discuss whether there are any fallacies in the following quote Here s some background information The US government keeps a stock of oil set aside for emergency the Stra tegic Petroleum Reserve SPR After the attacks of September 11 2001 President Bush directed that the amount of oil in the SPR be increased The government gradually started buying oil and adding it to the SPR In the presidential campaign of 2004 these purchases 75 76 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument became an issue because the price of gas rose sharply The Democratic candidate for Presi dent Senator Iohn Kerry argued that the government should stop buying oil because its price was too high and because the purchases by the government were driving up prices The Washington Post then reported President Bush s response to Senator Kerry s proposal quotOn May 19 Bush was asked about a plan by his Democratic opponent Sen Iohn F Kerry Mass to halt shipments that are replenishing emergency petroleum reserves Bush replied by saying we should not empty the reservesisomething nobody in a responsible position has proposed The idea of emptying the Strategic Petroleum Reserve would put America in a dangerous position in the war on terror Bush said Milbank 2004 A21 Key Concept A person commits the Ad Hominem Fallacy when he attacks a person instead of arguing against the view the person asserts Fallacy Ad Hominem A person commits the Ad Hominem Fallacy when he attacks a person instead of arguing against the view the person asserts It has the following form I H asserts statement S 2 There is something objectionable about Person H Therefore 3 Statement S is false or 3 H s arguments for S are bad arguments H refers to human beings This form is an improper form The premises say nothing at all about S except that H asserted it The fact that there s some thing objectionable about a person is irrelevant to the question of whether what a person says is true or whether that person has made a good argument People can perceive others to be objectionable for many reasons In the past it was quite common for a view to be rejected because the person who asserted the view was thought to be objectionable because of race sex reli gious beliefs ethnicity age or social position Even today such cases of the Ad Hominern Fallacy are all too common Here s an example of the Ad Hominern Fallacy Craig Crawford wrote a review of a book by Frank Rich Rich s book was entitled The Greatest Story Ever Sold The Decline and Fall of Truth from 911 to Katrina In it Rich argues that the administration of President George W Bush used deception misinformation and propaganda to mislead the American people into sup porting the war in Iraq and reelecting Bush Crawford believes that Rich uses ad hominem attacks The occasional ad hominem asidesireferring to Mr Bush as a glad handing salesman a spoiled brat and a rich kid who used his father s connections to escape Vietnam iwill delight the Bush haters among Mr Rich s fan base but tend to undermine the often eloquent conclusions that he draws from his own raw material Crawford 2006 E2 Crawford is correct Rich has committed the Ad Hominern Fallacy Referring to Bush as a quotgladhanding salesman or a spoiled brat has no relevance to Bush s arguments in defense of his actions Fahacresahd Retevahce 77 Technical Terms Argumentvm Ad Hominem Argumentvm Ad Personam The phrase dd hominerri comes from the Latrh hame tor the Ad Hominem Fahacy Argumentum Ad Hamhem WhrTe thrs book avords usrhg the Latrh names of taHacTes Tt usesthe Latrh hame torthrs tahacy because rts Latrh hame rs common The Latrh phrase Argumentum Ad Persondmquot rs sometrmes used to refer to ah dd hominemargumeht The Fallacy of Guilt by Association is a form of the Ad Hominem Fallacy It occurs when people are attacked based on their association with a person group or view that s considered objectionable In the typical case someone asserts that another person s view must be false because some objectionable group of people also hold the view If you asserted that a view is false because it was held by the Communists you d be committing the Fallacy of Guilt by Association Here s an example from a radio broadcast by Rush Limbaugh as reported on his web page As background information Ayman alZawahiri is a leader of AlQaeda the group that organized the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11 2001 The issue under consideration here is whether sending additional troops to Iraq will enable that country to have a stable and peaceful society LLMBAUGH Ayman al Zawahiri is taunting Bush Come on what do you mean 20000 Give us 50 give us a hundred thousand to kill you re going to lose em anyway Who does this sound like by the way Ayman alZawahiri Send us 20000 give us 50 why not an other hundred They ll be defeated anyway We have heard this somewhere before KERRY You can put a hundred thousand troops in and you can up the casualties up the stakes increase the violence and not get a reso lution LHVlBAUGH Yes It was Tohn Kerry ladies and gentlemen who served in Vietnam He once again is on the same page with Al Qaeda Tohn Kerry and the Democrats whether they know it or not their instincts lead them to say things that end up being parroted and repeated by AlQaeda as though AlQaeda are Democrat allies Lim baugh 2007 material omitted Tohn Kerry the Democratic candidate for President of the United States in 2004 is quoted as asserting that sending additional troops to Iraq wouldn t have a positive effect Limbaugh didn t offer any good arguments in support of the view that Kerry s assertion was false Rather than present a good argu ment Limbaugh made an ad hominem attack of the guilt by association form He attacked Kerry and the Democrats by associating them with AlQaeda Comments about a person are not always examples of the Ad Homi nern Fallacy Look again at the form of the Ad Hominem Fallacy Both premises are about a person The rst asserts that a person made a state ment and the second asserts that the person has some objectionable fea ture But the conclusion of the argument is not about a person It s about a statement On the other hand conclusions aren t always about state ments Sometimes an argument draws a conclusion about a person You Key Concept The Fallacy of Guilt by Association is a form of the Ad Hominem Fallacy It occurs when people are attacked based on their association with a person group or view that39s considered objectionable 78 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument Key Concept Someone commits the fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance when he claims that a statement is true because it hasn39t been shown to be false Key Concept The fallacy of Begging the Question occurs when a premise of an argument asserts the conclusion of the argument might argue that a person is dishonest You might argue that a person isn t a good person for a job When the conclusion of an argument is about a person not a statement premises about that person may be relevant If he were attempting to defend the conclusion that Bush is a flawed person or that you shouldn t vote for Bush Rich s claims that Bush is a glad handing salesman and a spoiled brat wouldn t be examples of the Ad Hominem Fallacy Fallacy Appeal to Ignorance Someone commits the fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance when he claims that a statement is true because it hasn t been shown to be false I It has not been shown that S is false Therefore 2 S is true In an Appeal to Ignorance the evidence being offered in the premises is actu ally the lack of evidence Premise 1 doesn t provide a good reason to believe 2 Suppose that Brittany and Travis are talking about Samantha a friend who has moved to another town They re discussing whether Samantha has bought a new car Travis might make the following argument Well what s to say that she didn t buy a new car After all she could have bought a new car I think she got a new car Travis has committed the fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance He has reasoned from a claim that he doesn t know that Samantha didn t buy a new car to the claim that she bought a new car The following would also be an example of the same fallacy Well what s to say that she bought a new car After all she didn t have to buy a new car I don t think she got a new car In this case Travis has reasoned from his lack of knowledge that Samantha has bought a new car to the claim that she didn t buy a new car The ap propriate conclusion that Travis and Brittany should draw from their lack of evidence about Samantha s car is that they don t know whether she has bought a new car Technical Term Argumentum Ad Ignorantiam Argument om ignorance The Latin name tortne fallacy otAppeai to ignorance is ArgumentumAd Ignorantamquot The Fallacy otAppeai to ignorance is sometimes called the fallacy ot Argument from ignorancequot Fallacy Begging the Question This chapter ends with a fallacy that s an exception to the rule that every bad argument fails the true premises tests andor the proper form test The fal lacy of Begging the Question occurs when a premise of an argument asserts the conclusion of the argument The classic example of Begging the Question concerns the following argument for the existence of God Fahamesahd Relevahee 1 God wrote the Bible Therefore 2 Everything said in the Bible is true 3 The Bible asserts that God exists Therefore 4 God exists This argument begs the question because the argument s conclusion is as serted in the rst premise Premise l asserts that God wrote the Bible If God wrote the Bible God exists which is the conclusion of the argument The form of an argument that begs the question is shockingly simple 1 S Therefore 2 Remember that S is a variable that stands for statements In the case of beg ging the question a premise is the conclusion Continuing with the existence of God example the simplest form of Begging the Question would be 1 God exists Therefore 2 God exists Put this way an argument that begs the question wouldn t fool anyone Those who beg the question generally add additional premises and subarguments to hide the fact that the conclusion of the argument is contained in one of the premises This occurred in the argument for the existence of God at the be ginning of this section The two additional premises and the subargument served to conceal the assertion of the conclusion in premise 1 Technical Term Petitio Principii Begging the Question The Lalh hame for Begglhg the Ouestmh s quotPetitio Principi Recently the phrase quotbegging the question has come to be used to refer to a question that naturally comes to mind For example in a radio interview on the war in Iraq someone might assert that travel is difficult in a certain region because terrorist attacks have increased The interviewer might then say That begs the question of why the attacks have increased When you hear the phrase beg the question you ll need to examine the context to de termine which of these two uses of the phrase is being employed The problem with arguments that beg the question is that they aren t arguments at all Every argument has two parts at least one premise and one conclusion Look back at the form of an argument that begs the question It contains only one statement An argument that begs the question isn t an argument but an assertion disguised to look like an argument This explains why arguments that beg the question don t fail either the true premises test or the proper form test They fail a more basic test the test of what it takes to be an argument An argument has to have at least two statements but an argument that begs the question only has one Connections Chapter Ohe dlseusses the two parts of every argumeht premlses ahd COhelusmhs 79 80 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument EXERCISE 210 A Each of the following passages may contain one of the following fallacies Ad Hominem Appeal to Ignorance Begging the Question Easy Target Appeal to Popularity Appeal to NoveltyAppeal to Tradition Determine whether one of these six fallacies is present and if so which fallacy is present 1 2 If you don t start believing in this mission you ll spend the next ten years in the brig 02 01 G l 0 H O H H H N H W H a H 01 I think that the oysters made me sick After all no one has shown me that they didn t make me sick Every morning for the past ten years I ve had raisin bran for breakfast I must keep having it My opponent has committed adultery He cheated on his taxes He hired an illegal alien as a nanny I s views on tax reform simply can t be trusted Where is that package Hmm the time before last a package fell off the porch and into the bushes I better check there quotAnd I wonder still I wonder who ll stop the rain Lyrics from Who ll Stop the Rain Creedence Clearwater Revival I976 When an abortion occurs one person the pregnant woman has killed an innocent per son without any justi cation If someone kills an innocent person without justi cation they ve committed murder Therefore abortion is a type of murder The chest pains indicate that he either has heart problems or acid re ux The EKG shows no heart problems so he must have acid reflux Taxation is government theft of property And theft is illegal So taxation must be il legal as well Congressman Eskandari s tax proposal doesn t deserve serious consideration After all Eskandari has been a Congressman for fourteen years and everyone knows what that meansithat he has never met a tax plan he didn t like People buy more Budweiser than milk Budweiser must be a great beer Mr and Mrs Dursley of number four Privet Drive were proud to say that they were perfectly normal thank you very much They were the last people you d expect to be involved in anything strange or mysterious because they just didn t hold with such nonsense Rowling 1997 7 Who says I am not under the special protection of God Often attributed to Adolf Hitler but source is undocumented Senator Joseph McCarthy argued that those named on a list of people were Commu nists Regarding one person on his list he stated I do not have much information on this person except the general statement of the agency that there is nothing in the les to disprove his Communist connections Rover 1996 I32 In that direction the Cat said waving its right paw round quotlives a Hatter and in that direc tion waving the other paw quotlives a March Hare Visit either you like they re both mad But I don t want to go among mad people Alice remarked Oh you can t help that said the Cat quotwe re all mad here I m mad You re mad How do you know I m mad said Alice You must be said the Cat or you wouldn t have come here Alice didn t think that proved it at all Carroll 1982 64 Fallamesand Relevance 81 B The problem of skepticism is a famous philosophical puzzle It begins with a simple ques tion How do you know that your car your friends the chair in which you are sitting and the entire universe exists Before you answer read the following story It all began that cold Wednesday night I was sitting alone in my office watching the rain come down on the deserted streets outside when the phone rang It was Harry s wife and she sounded terri ed They had been having a late supper alone in their apartment when suddenly the front door came crashing in and six hooded men burst into the room The men were armed and they made Harry and Anne lie face down on the floor while they went through Harry s pockets When they found his driver s license one of them carefully scrutinized Harry s face comparing it with the official photograph and then muttered It s him all right The leader of the intruders produced a hypodermic needle and injected Harry with something that made him lose consciousness almost immediately For some reason they only tied and gagged Anne Two of the men left the room and returned with a stretcher and white coats They put Harry on the stretcher donned the white coats and trundled him out of the apartment leaving Anne lying on the oor She managed to squirm to the window in time to see them put Harry in an ambulance and drive away By the time she called me Anne was coming apart at the seams It had taken her several hours to get out of her bonds and then she called the police To her consternation instead of uniformed officers two plain clothes officials arrived and without even looking over the scene they proceeded to tell her that there was nothing they could do and if she knew what was good for her she would keep her mouth shut If she raised a fuss they would put out the word that she was a psycho and she would never see her husband again Not knowing what else to do Anne called me She had the presence of mind to note down the number of the ambulance and Ihad no great difficulty tracing it to a private clinic at the outskirts of town When I arrived at the clinic Iwas sur prised to nd it locked up like a fortress There were guards at the gate and it was surrounded by a massive wall My commando training stood me in good stead as I negotiated the 20foot wall avoided the barbed wire and silenced the guard dogs on the other side The ground oor windows were all barred but I managed to wriggle up a drainpipe and get in through a second story window that someone had left ajar I found myself in a laboratory Hearing muffled sounds next door I peeked through the keyhole and saw what appeared to be a complete operating room and a surgical team laboring over Harry He was covered with a sheet from the neck down and they seemed to be connecting tubes and wires to him I stifled a gasp when I realized that they had removed the top of Harry s skull To my considerable consternation one of the surgeons reached into the open top of Harry s head and eased his brain out placing it in a stainless steel bowl The tubes and wires I had noted earlier were connected to the now disembodied brain The surgeons carried the bloody mass carefully to some kind of tank and lowered it in My rst thought was that I had stumbled on a covey of futuristic Satanists who got their kicks from vivisection My second thought was that Harry was an insurance agent Maybe this was their way of getting even for the increases in their malpractice insurance rates If they did this every Wednesday night their rates were no higher than they should be quotMy speculations were interrupted when the lights suddenly came on in my darkened hidey hole and Ifound myself looking up at the scariest group of medical men I had ever seen They manhandled me into the next room and strapped me down on an operating table I thought Oh oh I m in for it now The doctors 82 Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument huddled at the other end of the room but I couldn t turn my head far enough to see what they were doing They were mumbling among themselves probably deciding my fate A door opened and I heard a woman s voice The deferential manner as sumed by the medical malpractitioners made it obvious who was boss I strained to see this mysterious woman but she hovered just out of my view Then to my astonishment she walked up and stood over me and Irealized it was my secretary Margot I began to wish I had given her that Christmas bonus after all It was Margot but it was a different Margot than I had ever seen She was wallowing in the heady wine of authority as she bent over me Well Mike you thought you were so smart tracking Harry here to the clinic she said It was all a trick to get you here You saw what happened to Harry He s not really dead you know These gentlemen are the premier neuroscientists in the world today They have developed a surgical procedure whereby they remove the brain from the body but keep it alive in a vat of nutrient The Food and Drug Administration wouldn t approve the procedure but we ll show them You see all the wires going to Harry s brain They connect him up with a powerful computer The computer monitors the output of his motor cortex and provides input to the sensory cortex in such a way that everything appears perfectly normal to Harry It produces a ctitious mental life that merges perfectly into his past life so that he is unaware that anything has happened to him He thinks he is shaving right now and getting ready to go to the office and stick it to another neurosurgeon But actually he s just a brain in a vat quotOnce we have our procedure perfected we re going after the head of the Food and Drug Administration but we needed some experimental subjects rst Harry was easy In order to really test our computer program we need someone who leads a more interesting and varied lifeisomeone like you I was starting to squirm The surgeons had drawn around me and were looking on with malevolent gleams in their eyes But Margot gazed down at me and murmured in that incredible voice I ll bet you think we re going to operate on you and remove your brain just like we removed Harry s don t you But you have nothing to worry about We re not going to remove your brain We already didithree months ago With that they let me go I found my way back to my office in a daze For some reason I haven t told anybody about this I can t make up my mind I am racked by the suspicion that Iam really a brain in a vat and all this Isee around me is just a gment of a computer After all how could I tell If the computer program really works no matter what I do everything will seem normal Maybe nothing I see is real It s driving me crazy Pollock I986 173 material omitted Suppose that you were Mike the detective in this story How could you de termine whether Margot was telling the truth or not How could you tell whether you are a brain in a body or a brain in a vat Here are two arguments you might try a I I see that I have a body that is hands feet arms etc Therefore 2 I am not a brain in a vat b I I think that I see that I have a body Therefore 2 I am not a brain in a vat Does either of these arguments beg the question Why or why not Evaluate both of these argu ments using the true premises and proper form tests ChapterSummary 83 Chapter Summary Good arguments have true premises and a proper form Bad arguments have false premises andor an improper form The true premises test is limited by the argument s audience What s an uncontroversial premise for one audience might not be known to another audience An argument with a proper form is an argu ment in which the truth of the premises provides support for the truth of the conclusion An argu ment with one or more false premises can still have a proper form Putting arguments into the various logical forms allows you to see whether the argument passes the proper form test Arguments can be divided into two types Deductive arguments claim that the premises of the argument guarantee the truth of the conclu sion Inductive arguments claim that the prem ises provide some support for but no guarantee of the truth of the conclusion When applying the proper form test you must check the relevance of the premises to the conclusion Premises can be relevant they provide evidence for the conclusion or irrelevant they provide no evidence for the conclusion In some arguments each premise is individually relevant to the conclusion These are indepen dent premises In other arguments the premises are only relevant when combined with the other premises These are dependent premises To test for relevance requires rst looking at the premises individually and then looking at them as a group Fallacies are bad arguments that are so com mon that they ve been given a name They usu ally have some feature that makes them appear to be good arguments The fallacies of relevance are arguments that fail the proper form test because their premises are irrelevant to the conclusion Ad Hominem Appeal to Ignorance Begging the Question Easy Target Appeal to Popularity Appeal to Novelty or Appeal to Tradition are all fallacies of relevance An argument that begs the question isn t really an argument but an assertion disguised to look like an argument Finding Arguments Look for an attempt to convince H Find the conclusion Find the premises gt92 Finding Standardizing and Evaluating Arguments Here s a review of the steps to take to nd standardize and evaluate an argument Steps 179 below are copied from the Guide for Finding and Standardizing Arguments found in Chapter One These steps are repeated here so that you have one handy place to see all the steps As this book discusses the various types of arguments in later chapters it will present different versions of this guide for each of type of argument Review the following to make sure that you ve correctly identi ed the conclusion and the premises imperfect indicator words sentence order premises andor conclusion not in declarative form unstated premises andor conclusion Chapter 2 What Makes a Good Argument 5 Review the following to make sure that you haven t incorrectly identi ed something as a premise or a conclusion when in fact it isn t part of an argument assertions ques tions instructions descriptions and explanations Standardizing Arguments 6 Rewrite the premises and the conclusion as declarative sentences Make sure that each premise and the conclusion is a grammatically correct declarative sentence Rewrite the premises and conclusion as necessary to make them clearer but don t change the meaning of the passage Remove pronouns from the sentences and replace them with the nouns or noun phrases to which they refer Review any phrases you ve omitted to be sure that they aren t premises or a conclusion Number the premises and the conclusion Put around the number of an unstated prem ise or conclusion Place the premises before their conclusion and insert quotThereforequot between the premises and the conclusion Use blank lines to indicate subarguments Compare your standardization to the original passage to make sure that you haven t omitted any arguments found in the passage and to be sure that you ve correctly identi ed the premises and the conclusion gnu C Evaluating Arguments The True Premises Test 10 Check to see whether the premises are accurate descriptions of the world 11 Consider whether the premises are appropriate for the argument s audience 12 Review the premises to be sure they are reasonable Evaluating Arguments The Proper Form Test 13 Determine whether the argument is a deductive argument or an inductive argument 14 Determine whether the premises are relevant to the conclusion Look at each premise individually to see whether the truth of the premise provides some evidence for the truth of the conclusion Look at the premises as a group to see whether the truth of all of them provides some evidence for the truth of the conclusion Evaluating Arguments Checking for Fallacies 15 Compare the argument to the list of fallacies on page 410 to see whether the argument commits any of the fallacies This page intentionally left blank Premises and Conclusions Ndnquk hdd d diffcult timeprocessing thesdlmon with the groundesldte knife Not long into the fish cutting the stone bldde showed several chips at the cutting surface At thestdrtshe found that the stone knife cut the esh more easily than thesolmon s skin Eventuallyshe wossdwing at the esh and using quotlots ofmuscle to cutit Lisa Frink Brian Hoffman and Robert Shaw quotUlu Knife Use in Western Alaska A Comparative Ethnoarchaeological Studyquot 2003 119 Learning Outcomes After studying the material in this chapter you should be able to 1 Recognize and correctly evaluate empirical premises 2 Recognize and correctly evaluate testimonial premises 3 Recognize and correctly evaluate definitional premises 4 Recognize and correctly evaluate statements by experts 5 Correctly determine the strength and scope of conclusions Ihree Kinds otPremises 87 The passage on the previous page is from an article about how Eskimos use stone knives If these statements were premises would they pass the true premises test Are they premises that you should assume or should you look for a subargument Assuming premises must be done carefully Premises should be assumed only when they re likely to be true This chapter will explore some guidelines for deciding whether a premise is likely to be true It will also examine some details about conclusions and point out some things that make some conclusions more difficult to support I Three Kinds of Premises No matter what premise you put in an argument someone can ask you why you think that premise is true To answer that question you can make a subargument But someone can ask you why you think the premises of your subargument are true You can then make more subarguments In principle you could go on forever But you won t live forever so you can t go on providing subarguments You must offer some premises without sup porting them These premises are assumed premises When can you assume a premise It depends on what kind of premise it is Three kinds of state ments are often used as premises empirical statements de nitional state ments and statements by experts In each case some guidelines will help you determine when these statements are likely to be true and therefore may be assumed Empirical Statements Definition of Empirical Statements Empirical statements are statements that report what people observe through their senses When you observe with your senses you re getting direct empiri cal evidence When you get reports of observations from other people or from instruments you re getting indirect empirical evidence Suppose that you re working in the library and a friend comes in and tells you that it has started to rain If she is telling the truth your friend has direct empirical knowledge of the rain and you have indirect empirical knowledge of the rain If you saw the rain on TV that would be another kind of indirect empirical knowledge Indirect empirical experience comes in two kinds reports of observations of others such as your friend and observations that you make with the aid of instruments such as the TV Technical Terms Empirical Knowledge Empirical Theories Empirical knowledge is any knowledge acquired either directly or indirectly through observation Empirical theories are theories about things you can observe Key Concept Empirical statements are statements that report what people observe through their senses AlemnderahukiS ncknmm mm 88 Chapter 3 A moving crane Key Conce 1 Uncontroversially true empirical statements may be assumed to pass the true premises test Premises arid Conclusions are some examples of empirical Here statements 1 Triangular shapes are the most stable form for constructing the large moving cranes used in the construction of uildjngs N Grass turns purple when mowed by an un 39 39 teenager E In 06 more than 1 million smokers stopped smoking for at least one y Rene Descartes was living in China when he invented analytic geometry a m More world championships have been won by the New York Yankees than by any other baseball team 6 Cell phones regularly explode The odd numbered statements are true and the even numbered statements are false but all six statements are empirical statements Statements 1 3 5 111 statements you know to be true Even if you didnt know that statements 1 3 a ove are true theyre all plausible and easily veri able empirical state ments They may be assumed to be true ments 2 4 and 6 are Uncontroversially false empirical statements Uncontroversially false empirical statements can be rejected without are gument ou might think that youd never nd an Uncontroversially false empirical statement in an argument After all why would anyone put an Uncontroversially false premise into an argument But sometimes people decide too quickly or make simple mental errors You might hear someone I 1 Everyone knows that two plus two equals four You might think that this empirical statement is Uncontroversially true But think for a moment People dont learn to add until theyre four or ve years old That means that lots of people dont know that two plus two equals four This statement isnt Uncontroversially true its Uncontroversially false It fails the true premises test Lisa Frink and her team of researchers were studying the adoption of metal knives by Eskimos in Alaska Before contact with Europeans of the traditional knives that the Eskimos used These knives are called ulus One of the Eskimos who tested the knives was Mary Nanuwak Here s part of the quote you saw at the beginning of this chapter The letters are added for clarity a Not long into the sh cutting the stone blade showed several chips at the cutting surface b At the start she found that the stone Three Kinds otPremises 89 Cengage Learning knife cut the esh more easily than the salmon s skin c Eventually she was sawing at the esh and using lots of muscle to cut it Frink 2003 119i Ulu knife Sentences a b and c are empirical statements Statement a is a direct ob servation by N anuwak and Frink Sentences b and c state direct empirical experience of Nanuwak and indirect empirical experiences of Frink All three of them are uncontroversial You can assume that they pass the true premises test If Someone were to state Stone ulus aren t good knives that wouldn t be an empirical statement It s an evaluation Connections Chapter Ten wiii say more about evaiuative morai statements Habits of a Critical Thinker Avoiding Self Deception and Rationalization One thing you can observe is yourseit When you say i39m tiredquot you have made an empii icai statement aboutyourseit You can make incorrect empiricai statements aboutyourseit When you do that you couid be deceiving yourseit Seitrdeception prevents you from being a good criticai thinker it keeps you from accurateiy evaiuati ing your own beiiets Beiievmg TiCiiOTiS about oneseit can be reassuring or fun But discovering your actuai strengths and weakness through honest seitr evaiuation puts you in a better position to make good decisions Rationaiization is a common form otseitrdecepr tion When you rationaiize you presentyourseitWith a bad argument that39s piausibie enough to tooi you into thinking that you have good reasons for dOing whatyou wantto do You might want to go out overthe weekendYou know that midtermsai e next week and you39ve got a biochemistry test But you think to yourseit Face it i39m not gOing to passthat test anyway i may as weii have some tun Yourargument might be standard ized iikethis i i am going to taii my biochemistrytest 2 itiam goingto taiiatestthere39s no point in studying 3 itthere is no point in studying i might as weii go to a party Therefore 4 ishouid gotoa party This argument taiisthetrue premisestest Premise i is aimost certainiy taise Whether you taii the biochemr istntest depends in part on whetheryou study for it Teachers don39t give tests that students wiii necessariiy taiiYou know this but you reaiiy want to go out over the weekend ityou argue yourseitout otstudyingyou have taiien preyto rationaiization 90 Chapter 3 Key Concept The reports of what others have experienced are testimonial statements Key Concept A plausible statement is one that fits with your background knowledge Key Concept A person is reliable when her past testimonial statements have been true Key Concept A plausible statement made by a reliable individual may be assumed to pass the true premises test Premises and ConcluSiOhs Testimonial Empirical Statements Remember the two types of indirect empirical statements statements that are the reports of what others have experienced and statements about obser vations made using instruments The reports of what others have experienced are testimonial statements Your friend s statement that it has started to rain is from your perspective an example of testimony From her perspective it s a direct empirical statement When are testimonial premises likely to be true When should you as sume testimonial premises Two important criteria help us answer these questions plausibility and reliability Suppose that instead of telling you that it has started to rain your friend rushes in and says Space aliens are landing outside the library Your friend s claim isn t plausible It doesn t t with your background knowledge such as that aliens don t usually land on Earth It wouldn t be appropriate for you to use your friend s statement as an assumed premise in an argument Tes timonial statements should only be used as assumed premises when they re plausible Let s return to the original case Your friend comes in and tells you that it has started to rain Unless your college is in a desert this claim is plausible However what if your friend has developed a habit of telling you that it s raining even when it isn t raining This has become a running joke In that case you shouldn t use your friend s testimony as an assumed premise The problem in this case isn t plausibility but reliability Testimonial statements should only be used as assumed premises if the person making the statement is reliable A person is reliable when her past testimonial statements have been true A plausible statement made by a reliable individual may be as sumed to pass the true premises test When considering reliability you must think about whether people can accurately report their own experiences Some people have better memories than others Some people are less distracted by traumatic incidents than oth ers Some people are more truthful than others One of the authors of this book found to her surprise that she wasn t always a reliable witness When asked to report what happened one morning she said that she d seen a police car chasing a brown truck and that this brown truck crashed into a telephone pole Then she found herself getting up from the ground with no memory of being thrown down News footage later showed a white truck crashing into a brown car which crashed into the telephone pole The intensity of the experi ence affected her perception or memory What she thought she saw didn t co here with other evidence If you know that the testimony you were intending to report came from people undergoing traumatic experiences you shouldn t use that testimony as an assumed premise Plausibility and reliability show that your knowledge of whether a testi monial statement is likely to be true turns on your background knowledge You have background knowledge about aliens including the knowledge that they haven t landed recently in your city which makes your friend s claim implausible In the case of your friend s running joke you re also relying on the background knowledge that your friend is unreliable about rain Knowing how to apply background knowledge is another part of the art of argument Know ing which facts to consider for what audience and in what context are things that you can only learn with practice The more times you about accepting lhree Kmds of Premlses 91 make a judgment someones testimony the more you ll develop a feel for what is plausible and how reliable someone is s E E E i Whlstleblowers are employees who based oh thelr own emplrleal obsenatlohs report lllegal or Uhethlcal Cohduetthat harms the publle They offer prlme examples of how emplrlcal testlmomal evldehee m argumehts eah have llteesavmg or llteethreatemhg eohsequehees Marsha Coleman Adebayo member otthe Board otDlrectors otthe Natlohal Whlstleblowers Cehter became a whlstleblower wheh she wassehlor polle ahalyst torthe Umted States Ehvlrohmehtal Proteetloh Agehey EPA ColemaheAdebayo dlseovered that a US compahy mmmg vahadlum was geheratmg toxle waste polsomhg workers ahd harmmg the ehvlrohmeht ColemaheAdebayo made that mtormatloh publle She suffered retallatloh and death threats due to her testlmohy Her experlehee ahd the courage she exhlblted led to the Notltleatloh or Federal Employees AhtleDlscrlmmatloh ahd Retallatloh Act called the quotNO FEAR Act39 Presldeht George W Bush slghed the blll lhto law lh 2002 lt requlres federal ageheles to protect whlstleblowers EXERCISE 31 A Determine which of the following are empirical statements 1 Blue is the most popular color 2 Red is the color of grass 3 According to the American Heart Association Coronary heart disease is America s N F 4 According to the American Association of Fried Food Lovers high cholesterol makes us healthy 5 Cats and dogs make goodpets 6 My roommate says that I snore 7 My roommate says that there are humans on Mars 8 There are plenty of spiders around 9 Spiders are arachnids which are animals that have eight legs 1 39 Macon GA 11 Spiders are Very often poisonous 92 Chapter 3 Premises and Condusxons 12 The items on the desk are pens 13 Pens are writing instruments made with ink inside a tube 14 According to the International Society of Astronomers Pluto is a dwarf planet 15 According to what is seen through the Hubble telescope Pluto is smaller than some asteroids B If each of the following were premises in an argument which of them could be assumed to pass the true premises test because they are uncontroversially true empirical statements 1 Blue is the most popular color 2 Red is the color of grass 3 According to the American Heart Association Coronary heart disease is America s No 1 killer 4 According to the American Association of Fried Food Lovers high cholesterol makes us healthy 5 Cats and dogs make good pets 6 My roommate says that I snore 7 My roommate says that there are humans on Mars 8 There are plenty of spiders around 9 Spiders are arachnids which are animals that have eight legs 10 Abra Kadabra said Houdini as he unlocked the chains on his arms 11 Spiders are very often poisonous 12 Does your watch have a second hand 13 Your phone must be pretty old since it doesn t have an alarm clock function 14 Hooray 15 According to a renowned psychologist women are from Venus and men are from Mars C Determine whether the following statements are testimonial statements 1 The doctor said that she saw a broken bone on the Xray 2 According to the thermometer it is ve degrees Celsius 3 The witness claimed that the driver of the car didn t brake before hitting the pedestrian 4 The food critic reported that the potatoes were salty 5 My roommate says that there are humans on Mars 6 Spiders are arachnids which are animals that have eight legs 7 Abra Kadabra said Houdini as he unlocked the chains on his arms 8 Spiders are very often poisonous 9 Does your watch have a second hand 10 Your phone must be pretty old since it doesn t have an alarm clock function 11 My roommate says she saw a mouse in the dining hall last night 12 My roommate claims says that there are invisible winged horses in the dining hall 13 According to the American Heart Association Coronary heart disease is America s No 1 killer Three Kmds of Premlses 14 According to the International Society of Astronomers Pluto is a dwarf planet 15 According to what is seen through the Hubble telescope Pluto is smaller than some asteroids D Look in your textbooks for your other courses Provide a two examples of uncontrover sially true empirical statements and b two examples of testimonial statements E Determine whether the numbered statements are empirical statements These statements are from an article on autism in the journal Molecular Psychiatry quot1 Autismautistic disorder MllVI 209850 is a development disorder characterized by three classes of symptoms including impairments in communication and reciprocal social interactions and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors and interests 2 Twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of autism as the con cordance rate for monozygotic twins is much higher than that of dizygotic twins 3 In ad dition family studies indicate that the recurrence to siblings estimated from the multiple studies at 16 is profoundly higher than the risk to the general population which has been estimated at 0572 1000 4 The mode of inheritance of autism appears complex and latentclass analyses suggest that 3710 genes may underlie the disorder although analysis of one genomewide linkage has been used to suggest that at least 10 and as many as 100 genes underlie the disorder Buxbaum 2004 I44 material omitted F Explain whether and why the empirical statements in the following passage would make good premises 1 The rhesus macaque is the unsung hero of the maternity ward 2 In 1940 Nobel laureate Karl Landsteiner and his student Alexander Weiner discovered in this monkey a blood protein they called the Rh for Rhesus factor 3 Researchers soon found the Rh factor in some but not all humans and realized that a mother could react immunologi cally against the factor in her fetus 4 Now a simple test and a vaccine prevent that reactioniand resulting mental retardation or even death in about 20000 US newborns a year Pennisi 2007 216 93 Definitional Statements What s the difference between an empirical statement and a de nitional statement Let s compare some examples of each 0 OJ Empirical statement Triangular shapes are the most stable form for con s ructing large moving cranes used in construction De nitional statement A triangle is a threesided polygon Empirical statement Mark followed a recipe to make this cake De nitional statement A recipe is a set of directions for making or preparing food Empirical statement More world championships have been won by the ew York Yankees than by any other baseball team De nitional statement A home run is a hit in baseball that allows the batter to touch all the bases and score a run 94 Chapter 3 Key Concept A de nitional statement is a report about how a word is used Key Concept Uncontroversial definitional statements may be assumed to pass the true premises test Premises and COi iCiUSiOi iS The second statement in each pair is a de nitional statement a report about how a word is used An empirical statement is a report of an observation It wouldn t be useful to consult a dictionary when trying to determine the truth of the rst statement in each pair above Even if you looked up each word in the rst statement it wouldn t give the sort of information required to know whether triangular shapes are in fact best for insuring strength of a construc tion crane In order to know which geometrical shapes make the best cranes empirical investigation is needed The de nition A triangle is a threesided polygon is uncontroversial It presents an accurate report of how people use the word triangle Like uncontroversial empirical statements uncontroversial de nitional statements may be assumed to pass the true premises test because they re likely to be true While dictionaries can t resolve issues surrounding controversial terms if used properly they re your best rst step in trying to decide whether a de nitional statement is true Frink s article about Eskimo knife use contains a good example of an un controversial de nitional statement This study deals with salmon butchering using a traditional semilunar knife known as the ulu Frink 2003 116 in this sentence Frink de nes an ulu as a traditional semilunar knife There s no reason to doubt this uncontroversial de nitional statement Here s an 39 fals J p 39 39 tatement If something has the genetic code of the species homo sapiens it s a hu man being This is a de nition of human being You might think that it s true But think for a moment Recall from your high school biology classes that the genetic code of every living thing is present in every cell of that thing And recall that every hair that falls from your head contains many cells from your body Each of the cells has the genetic code of the species homo sapiens But a strand of your hair isn t lled with thousands of human be ings This de nition is uncontroversially false and fails the true premises test Connections Chapter Four Wiii say more about definitions inis Cnapter discusses oniy one type of definition dictionary definitions Three Kl dS ofPremlses 95 EXERCISE 32 A Determine which of the following are de nitions 1 Blue is the most popular color 2 Red is the color of grass 3 SCUBA means selfcontained underwater body apparatus 4 According to the American Association of Fried Food Lovers high cholesterol makes us healthy 5 Cats and dogs make good pets 6 My roommate says that I snore 7 My roommate says that there are humans on Mars 8 There are plenty of spiders around 9 Spiders are arachnids which are animals that have eight legs 10 According to Dr Who an independent psychologist in Macon GA everyone should eat 30 large pizzas per day 11 Spiders are very often poisonous 12 The items on the desk are pens 13 Pens are writing instruments made with ink inside a tube 14 According to the International Society of Astronomers Pluto is a dwarf planet 15 According to what is seen through the Hubble telescope Pluto is smaller than some asteroids B If each of the following were premises in an argument which of them could be assumed to pass the true premises test because they are uncontroversially true de nitional statements 1 Blue is the most popular color 2 Green is the color of grass 3 According to the American Heart Association Coronary heart disease is America s No 1 killer 4 According to the American Association of Fried Food Lovers high cholesterol makes us healthy 5 Cats and dogs make good pets 6 My roommate says that I snore 7 My roommate says that there are humans on Mars 8 There are plenty of spiders around 9 Spiders are arachnids which are animals that have eight legs 10 According to Dr Nous an independent psychologist in Macon GA everyone should eat 30 large pizzas per day 11 Spiders are very often poisonous 12 According to my dictionary SCUBA means selfcontained underwater body apparatus 96 Chapter 3 Premlses and Conclwons 13 Your phone must be pretty old since it doesn t have an alarm clock function 14 Abra Kadabra said Houdini as he unlocked the chains on his arms 15 According to a renowned psychologist women are from Venus and men are from Mars C Find two examples of uncontroversially true de nitions in textbooks from your other courses D For items 176 individually and items 7710 in the paragraph below determine whether each of the following is an empirical statement or a de nitional statement Of the empirical statements which are testimonial Then indicate which of the statements would make good premises and why 1 Sometimes the sun appears to be about a hundred yards off 2 My roommate said that the sun was so bright today that it appeared to be about a hun dred yards away 02 The sun is a star that provides light and heat to the planets in this solar system According to my dictionary a star is a heavenly body capable of core fusion 01 J3 A planet is a heavenly body not capable of core fusion said Gibor Basri an astronomer at the University of California at Berkeley 0 According to the results of a Google search Gibor Basri received a BS in Physics from Stanford University in 1973 and a PhD in Astrophysics from the University of Colorado Boulder in 1979 7 Reflectingoninfectious conditions it appears that disease burden rapid change in disease incidence suggesting preventability and public concern about risk are three essential char acteristics that de ne a publichealth disorder 8 By any one of several criteria diabetes is as sociatedwith aveiy high burden to individuals with the disease aswellas to society in general 9 Further there is convincing and increasing evidence that primary secondary and tertiary prevention strategies are effective in reducing the disease burden associated with diabetes 10 Yet most would still consider diabetes primarily to be a clinical disease In part this perception is based on the fact that in association with aging and a possible strong family history diabetes and its complications may appear inevitable to many Further much of the burden associated with diabetes is insidious coming on gradually only after a consid erable number of years Thus the burden associated with diabetes has not dramatically increased in the past few months or years it has been here for some time and is increasing steadily Vinicor 1994 22 E Determine whether the numbered statements are de nitions 1 Autismautistic disorder MllVl 209850 is a development disorder characterized by three classes of symptoms including impairments in communication and recip rocal social interactions and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors and interests 2 Twin studies have indicated that genetic factors play an important role in the etiol ogy of autism as the concordance rate for monozygotic twins is much higher than that of dizygotic twins 3 In addition family studies indicate that the recurrence to siblings estimated from the multiple studies at 173 is profoundly higher than the risk to the general population which has been estimated at 05721000 4 The mode of inheritance of autism appears complex and latentclass analyses suggest Three Krhds ofPremrses 97 that 3710 genes may underlie the disorder although analysis of one genomewide linkage analysis has been used to suggest that at least 10 and as many as 100 genes underlie the disorder Buxbaum 2004 144 material omitted F Determine whether each of the following is an empirical statement a testimonial premise or a de nition indicate which of the statements would make good premises 1 Cry9C is one of several socalled Bt proteins but it is more heat stable and harder for humans to digest than its kin qualities that are typical of such allergens as peanuts Kaiser 2000 1867 2 The term basketry refers to woven textiles created manually without a frame or loom Berman 2000 422 3 quotWe observed 29 instances of wicker FIG 12 constituting 1124 of the basketry weaves Berman 2000 427 4 One of the best recent works Wang Lixm s Meiguo chuanjiaoshi yu wan Qing Zhongguo Xiandruhua American Missionaries and the Modernization of China in the Late Qing argues that American missionaries rather than being tools of cultural or other imperialism were actually engaged in cultural exchange making a signi cant contribution to China s modernization 39m the late ng period Dunch 2002 816 5 Powerful storms have caused mass mortality of at least 10 Caribbean mangrove forests during the past 50 years Cahoon 2003 1094 Statements by Experts The faculty in the Department of Religious Studies know a lot about Islam but less about classical music The faculty in the Department of Music know a lot about classical music but less about Islam The faculty of a college is a collection of experts Experts are people who have specialized knowledge about a particular eld Many experts work outside of college The authors of this book would never dream of attempting to x the transmissions of their cars We know a lot about critical thinking but not much about trans missions marketing plumbmg the cell structure of plants insurance how children learn to read and many other subjects Technical Term Authority Another name forah expert rs ah authorrty Some statements made by experts may be used as assumed premises But appropriately assuming statements made by experts is a difficult matter Be cause the use of the statements of experts is so common this book will spend quite a bit of time laying out some guidelines for their use You should use ve criteria to determine whether a statement by an expert may be used as an assumed premise appropriate credentials reliability lack of bias appropriate area of expertise and expert consensus A statement made by an expert that passes all of these ve criteria may be assumed to pass the true premises test Iocelyn Kaiser Panel Urges Further Study of Biotech Corn Science Volume 290 no 5498 December 8 2000 1867 Copyright 2000 American Association for the Advancement of Science All rights reserved Key Concept Experts are people who have specialized knowledge about a particular field Key Concept A statement made by an expert that passes all five of these criteria may be assumed to pass the true premises test appropriate credentials reliability lack of bias appropriate area of expertise and expert consensus 98 Chapter 3 Premises and Condusxons Appropriate Credentials Anyone can say that she s an expert Credentials are the evidence that a per son provides to show that she really is an expert The most common sort of credential is an academic degree Having a degree in a particular eld is evi dence that a person is an expert in that eld However a person can lie about her degrees or go on the internet and buy a degree from a fake university You may need to do some research to verify that the institution awarding the degree is a real university This can be a bit more challenging than it sounds because the web pages of fake universities can look quite nice But when you dig down into them you ll nd very short lists of faculty odd course names or unusual information about the university s address In addition to academic degrees positions publications grants awards and honors are important credentials Positions are the jobs an expert has had The jobs that provide credentials are extremely varied Being a professor is a job that provides a credential Many jobs in the business world indicate a level of expertise The Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is Ben Bernanke The Federal Reserve system is the central banking system of the United States That Mr Bernanke is Chairman of the Board of Governors of the United States Federal Reserve is one of his credentials It indicates that he s an expert about central banking Especially for academic experts publications and grants are important credentials Professors write papers and send them to journals in the hope that they ll be published The journals receive many more papers than they can print They use a board of editors to select the best of them The same is true of books Professors also apply for grants Boards of reviewers select some of these applications for funding Someone who has been published or has earned a grant has an important credential Awards and honors are also important credentials For example the title of Associate of the Society of Actuaries is awarded to actuaries who pass a certain number of tests Actuaries help businesses manage risk For example actuaries help determine your car insurance premiums The Society of Actu aries is a professional group for actuaries The title Associate of the Society of Actuaries indicates that a person has achieved a level of expertise in help ing businesses manage risks Reliability Reliability isn t about the expert s knowledge It s about the expert s history of telling the truth The question of the reliability of an expert is essentially the same as the question of the reliability of your friend s statements about rain As with your friend if you know that an expert has made many false statements in the past the expert s current statements shouldn t be assumed as premises Lack of Bias An expert is biased when that expert has some reason to make statements that aren t true The most common causes of bias have to do with money For example if experts are being paid by a company whose pro ts will be affected by the truth or falsity of what the experts say you should be hesitant to use the statements of these experts as assumed premises On the other hand you Three Kinds otPremises 99 can t dismiss experts views only because the experts are being paid The key is to consider whether the way the experts are paid will in uence their views Suppose that your instructor is being paid an annual salary This payment method is unlikely to in uence the grades she gives On the other hand sup pose that your instructor was paid for every student who passed the class In that case it would be reasonable to suspect that the instructor s grades could be biased Another common source of bias is a political or ideological viewpoint An expert might strongly believe in a cause The expert might cite evidence in a slanted way in order to further the cause Statements made by such an expert shouldn t be used as assumed premises Don t confuse bias with interest Almost all experts are interested in the eld they study A physicist who has spent her whole life trying to determine whether quarks are the smallest particles in the universe nds this ques tion extremely interesting Her experiments may yield evidence that quarks are the smallest or that they re not or her results may be inconclusive The physicist wants to know what the smallest particle is but has no stake in what that particle turns out to be Bias can be hard to eliminate Suppose that you re also a physicist and the physicist studying quarks is your friend You re one of the few experts on quarks and you ve been chosen to be on a panel that will decide how grant money for the study of quarks will be distributed Because one of the appli cants is your friend you re biased If you re one of a small number of experts on quarks it may not be possible to remove you from the panel making the grant decisions In that case it would be essential that you reveal that you re friends with one of the applicants When you do this you re making your bias transparent A transparent bias is a bias that s known to those evaluating the arguments of the person who s biased On the other hand a bias that isn t transparent is a hidden bias The American Enterprise Institute AEI is associated with conservative causes It publishes studies on economic social and foreign policy issues It makes no attempt to hide its perspective The following is easily found on its web pages AEI s purposes are to defend the principles and improve the institutions of American freedom and democratic capitalismilimited government pri vate enterprise individual liberty and responsibility vigilant and effective defense and foreign policies political accountability and open debate Its work is addressed to government officials and legislators teachers and students business executives professionals journalists and all citizens interested in a serious understanding of government policy the economy and important social and political developments AEI 2006 People For the American Way PFAW is associated with liberal causes It works in areas broadly similar to the AEI Its perspective is similarly open People For the American Way is an energetic advocate for the values and institutions that sustain a diverse democratic society Many of these are now threatened by the influence of the radical right and its allies who have risen to positions of political power Our most fundamental rights and freedomsiand even our basic constitutional frameworkiare Key Concept A transparent bias is a bias that39s known to those evaluating the arguments of the person who39s biased On the other hand a bias that isn39t transparent is a hidden bias 100 Chapter 3 Premlses ahd Cohcluslohs at risk People For the American Way works in close collaboration with other leading national and state progressive organizations to mobilize Americans at this de ning moment in our history PFAW 2006 The AEI and the PFAW are transparently biased Hidden biases are much more problematic than transparent biases In general if an experts biases are transparent and the other conditions for the assumption of a premise based on expertise have been met you may use that experts statements as assumed premises When it comes to biases the condir tion of expert consensus whichis discussed below is particularly important If both the AEI and the PFAW were to assert the same statement this state ment could be appropriately used as an assumed premise Its hard to know your own biases Tyler might be biased against people who are overweight He might unconsciously assume that the argumen s made by overweight people are worse than those made by those who arent overweight Suppose that Tyler is a manager who supervises a large group of people and that he makes decisions about how his company should use its employees Tylers two associate managers favor different uses and each presents Tyler with arguments for their view One of the associate managers is overweight Tyler might incorrectly nd that the arguments made by the overweight associate manager are weaker than those made by the other as sociate manager Appropriate Area of Expertise A statement by an expert should only be used as an assumed premise if the statement falls within the experts area of expertise Suppose that one of the authors of this textbook said Transmission uid is usually green It wouldnt be appropriate to use this statement as an assumed premise be cause we arent experts about automotive mechanics On the other hand Mahzam39n Bamaji Anthony Greenwald Brian Nosek rll j in Dunnexvnt Mamamr Hanan Dunnexvnt Anthony anenwau Mahzarln BanaJl Anthony Greenwald ahd Brlan Nosek have developed a test that they belleve reveals people39s hlddeh blases They call rt the lm pllclt Assoclatloh Test lAl Dnunzsynt Erlzn Nmk ltyou go to lmpllcltharvard edulmpllclt you cah see thelr results ahd eveh take thelr tests to see whether accordth to these researchers you have uhcohsclous blases Three Kinds of Premises 101 given the expertise of the authors of this book it would be appropriate for you to use our statement that Human rights are one kind of moral rights as an assumed premise Fallacy Inappropriate Expertise Famous athletes who know a great deal about their sports are frequently seen making statements about cars shampoo motor oil mortgages and many other things None of these statements should be used as an assumed premise An argument that contains a premise that s assumed on the basis of expertise but is about an issue outside an expert s area of expertise commits the fallacy of Inappropriate Expertise Albert Einstein has become a misused expert In addition to his groundbreak ing work in physics he became known during World War II because of a letter he wrote to President Roosevelt about atomic experiments being carried out by Nazi scientists in Germany Because Einstein s knowledge helped spur the United States to concentrate more intensely on its own atomic program many thought that Einstein helped bring the war to a quicker end For the rest of Einstein s life and even after his death his name was constantly associated with genius Report ers asked his opinion on everything from breakfast cereal to political candidates a host of things that were irrelevant to his expert knowledge of physics Technical Term Appeal to an inappropriate Authority Argumentum ad Vereczmdiam The fallacy of inappropriate Expertise is also called the fallacy oprpeai to an inappropriate Authority The Latin name for this faiiacy is Argumentum ad Verecundiam Expert Consensus If experts disagree about the truth of a statement you shouldn t use that statement as an assumed premise Disagreement between experts is an op portunity for critical thinking You should examine the arguments of the disagreeing experts Now that you re becoming familiar with what makes a good argument you re in a better position to critically evaluate the argu ments made by experts Key Concept An argument that contains a premise that39s assumed on the basis of expertise but is about an issue outside an expert39s area of expertise commits the fallacy of Inappropriate Expertise Habits of a Critical Thinker Resourcefulness The task of deciding Whether an argument passes the true premises test can be dauntingYou need to checilt to see Whether an empirical statement is uncontroveri siai examinetestimoniai statements considerwhether a statement is an appropriate use ofdefinition and consider the criteria for the evaluation ofstatements by experts Doing these things requiresyou to be resourcefulA resourceful person gures out many different ways to getthe job doneAnd eyaiuating premises requires you to do many different things For example to determine whether a person is an approprie ate expert you may need to do more than a simple Web search You might have to interview people or checilt court records You might have to examine other works by this person A good critical thinilter is resourceful figuring out the best way to evaluate premises 102 Chapter 3 Premises and CO CjUSjO S Students often forget to check for disagreement between experts If you only examine the view of one expert it s impossible for you to determine whether the view you re reading is held by many experts or is the subject of intense debate Before you use a statement of an expert as an assumed prem ise you should check at least two experts GUIDE Proper Citation of Experts When you use an assumed premise on the grounds that it was made by an expert you must cite the expert Citations serve two functions First they show where your assumed premise came from so others can check it for themselves Second they give proper credit to experts for the work they ve done When you get an idea from an expert but don t cite it you re asserting that you came up with the idea yourself Failure to cite experts is theft of ideas lt s plagiarism How to Cite Citations come in many formats The rules for capitalization punctuation etc vary dra matically from discipline to discipline To illustrate this let s look at one article cited in two different formats Here s an example of what s often called science formatll Carnevale G 2006 A new snake mackerel from the Miocene of Algeria Palaeontol ogy 49 391403 Here s an example of the same article cited in what s often called Chicago stylell l Giorgio Carnevale quotA New Snake Mackerel From the Miocene of Algeria Pala eon tology 49 2006 3917403 The second format is called Chicago stylell because it comes from The Chicago Manual of Style This book tells academics how to cite the hundreds of different materials that they may need to cite Science format and Chicago style are only two of many different formats In addition to using different formats different rules govern the placement of citations In science format a reference to the article above would be made by putting Carnevale 2006 into the text of the article at the place at which the author wishes to refer to Carnevale s article In Chicago style there would be a 1 in the text and then the material above would either appear at the bottom of the page or at the end of the chapter or book The quot1 in the text would be in superscript like this 1 You ll use different citation formats for different classes You should consult with your m structor regarding the proper citation format for that class When you ve chosen a major you should buy a good citation guide for that discipline Any faculty member in your major dis cipline should be able to point you to the standard citation reference work for her discipline What You Need to Cite You must cite all uses of others ideas This means that whenever you use an expert s ideas you need to cite that expert If you use the words of others you ve used their ideas and must provide a citation But you can use other people s ideas without using their words and when you do that you still must provide a citation It doesn t matter whether you use the words the expert wrote You must always give credit where credit is due Harry TzvhrDnrhng ManleyGm imam Premises arid the lntemet I Premises and the Internet The internet is a powerful tool for researching premises Like all powerful tools the internet can be misused Think about empirical statements Find ing information about them used to require a trip to the library or at least reading from the thick volumes of an encyclopedia Now you can go on the internet But theres one big problem when you compare the intemet to a lir brary or an encyclopedia Anyone can post anything to the internet There s very little quality control and much of whats on the web is false H es an example om the web page englishpravdaru This web site claims to be the English language version of a web successor to the Russian newspaper Pravda which was the official newspaper of the Communist party in Soviet Russia The authors of this textbook have been unable to verify these claims If aliens visited the Earth their traces would be unusual pretematural and vingno scienti c explanation There have been plenty of such artifacts In the Li yan esert mysterious glassy ormationkte titekwere found Radioactive isotopes were detected in the tektites They prove that the tektites came into eing as a result of strong radioactive emanation not earlier than one million years ago T e Earth was formed not millions but billions of years ago and tektites appeared on the formed planet There were many attempts to give the explanation to ese mysterious formar tions T ere was a version that they appeared after a comet collided with the Earth but u i n L p 39 mau quot f e r tites such as their concentration on some areas of the surface of the Earth Pravda 2006 These statements arent uncontroversial empirical statements They arent de nitions No expert is identi ed You cant check for appropriate credenr tials reliability lack of bias or appropriate area of expertise None of these e claims should be used as an assumed premi Tektwtes 103 104 Chapter 3 Premises and Contiusxons The internet has also made researching the credentials of people who say that they re experts easier and more dangerous People who want others to think that they re an expert actuary could quickly create a web site for a fake group the Association of Actuaries and claim to be the President of this Asso ciation You can t assume that the credentials you nd on the web are accurate What can you do about these problems with the internet Parts of the inter net are subject to quality control and you need to restrict your research to those parts Because you re a college student the most important kind of organization that controls a portion of the web is your college Universities work hard to see that the information in their web pages is accurate University libraries review internet resources and give students access to reliable resources Your library and its librarians are one of your best resources for navigating the internet I A Common Mistake What does it mean when you don t have a good reason to assume a premise Students sometimes jump from the claim that A statement shouldn t be used as an assumed premise to the claim that The statement is false Don t make this mistake Even if a statement shouldn t be used as an as sumed premise that doesn t mean that the statement is false It only means that the statement shouldn t be assumed to be true that you should seek a subargument for the premise When it comes to beliefs about the truth or falsity of a statement you have at least three options 1 You can believe that the statement is true 2 You can believe that the statement is false 3 You can believe that you don t know whether the statement is true or false People often overlook option 3 Connections ChapterTwo notes that l don39t know is often the correct answerto a question EXERCISE 33 A Identify the expert appealed to in each of the following passages and then identify the claims made by the expert Determine whether each of the claims can be assumed to pass the true premises test 1 The organic market has grown and so has the temptation for organic fraud said Robynn Shrader chief executive officer for the NCGA National Cooperative Grocers Association Our program will add a very critical safety checkpoint in the supply chain that will empower retailers and provide peace of mind for organic consumers Smith 2007 3 material omitted N a 01 G 1 it 00 H O H H A Common Mistake quotAny employee who is convicted of unlawful manufacture distribution sale use or possession of a controlled substance or other illegal or dangerous drug or who admits guilt of any such offense in a court proceeding shall be suspended for not less than two months or dismissed after compliance with procedural requirements Safety Net 2006 15 From a brochure announcing the publication of a book for an introduction to philoso phy course This is an outstanding book on all fronts The topnotch introductory essays and extensive glossary make the book extremely userfriendly from the student s perspective Stanley 2006 Roger Penrose 1989 1994 has argued that creative mathematicians do not think in a mechanistic way but that they often have a kind of insight into the Platonic realm which exists independently from us though modesty forbids him saying it of himself Roger Penrose has enjoyed some of the most profound mathematical experiences of recent times If he has nothing more than a mere hunch that he is glimpsing into the Platonic realm that in itself is something for us all to ponder Brown 1999 78 mate rial omitted A liberal arts education is associated with an increase in humanitarianism and a sense of civic responsibility a greater interest in and more liberal attitudes toward a variety of social and political issues and greater regard for civil rights and higher levels of tolerance related to social racial and ethnic diversity HendersonKing 2000 1427143 material omitted Policymakers that are accountable to the public should be more responsive to civil society organisations since they are reliant on the public for reelection and organized interests represent citizen interests Mahoney 2007 338 quotEmotion must be included in a discussion of body intelligence because it is one of the means by which our bodies communicate knowledge to conscious awareness Norris 2001 1 l3 quotSince communication can take place directly through the body the body can be inten tionally used to transmit information Norris 2001 116 Suppose a representative of Bayer were to propose the following argument to support the conclusion that aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid is an effective cure against the com mon cold 1 95 of aspirin users are of the opinion that aspirin is an effective remedy against the common cold Therefore 2 Aspirin is an effective remedy against the common cold According to Bourdieu 1977 schools perpetuate inequality by rewarding the culture ie behavior habits tastes lifestyles and attitudes of the dominant class Ross 1999 447 Raphael 1996a 2000 argued that as welfare recipients are pushed to move into the labor market their dependence on the state may be eliminated but it is replaced by increased dependence on abusive partners Scott 2002 881 105 106 Chapter 3 Premlses and Conclusms 12 quotIn his survey of Arab cities during the Ottoman period Andre Raymond states The number of caravanserais serves as a de nitive index of the amount of economic activity in a city According to Raymond the urban khan governs the level of whole sale trade in an exclusive fashion thereby serving as an absolute indicator of the amount of largescale commercial activity in a given city Um 2003 1807181 mate rial omitted 13 The main motivation for this paper stems from the observation that in the 1980s and 1990s rms invested heavily in downsizing Recent examples are National Westminster bank ATampT IBM and Scott Paper As documented by Audretsch 1995 p 27 Cameron 1994b The Economist 1996a Sampson 1995 and Kets de Vries and Balazs 1997 the mass rings that followed from this downsizing to a great extent involved middle managers Boone 2000 581 14 quotFive volunteers watching the republican presidential debate in Miami in December 2007 were wearing electrodestudded headsets that track electrical activity in the brain When presidential candidate Mitt Romney said he was the only candidate to have got ten the problem of healthcare solved there was a pronounced shift in activity in their prefrontal lobes They liked what they were hearing said Brad Feldman an analyst with EmSence Corp the company that conducted the test to monitor voters brains Alter 2007 W1 15 People say one thing in a focus group and do another thing in the voting booth says Alex Lundry research director for TargetPoint a campaign strategy consultancy Alter 2007 W6 B Determine whether each of the following would be a good premise and why or why not Explicitly use the guidelines discussed above To do some of these exercises you will need to nd and consult the citations page of this book 1 There are at least ve planets visible to the naked eye 2 The subprime mortgage crisis has been a nancial disaster for much of Wall Street wrote Kate Kelley reporter for the Wall Street Journal Kelley 2007 A1 3 According to my neighbor who watched the nightly news last night the subprime mort gage crisis has been a nancial disaster 4 Kate Kelly of the Wall Street Journal reported that Mr Blankfein is set to be paid close to 70 million this year according to one person familiar with the matter Kelley 2007 A1 5 You probably decided whether to accept 4 as a premise based on the credentials of re porter Kate Kelly But should Kate Kelly accept the claim about Blankfein s salary based on the testimony of one person familiar with the matter 6 Use the material from Exercise 33 A14 above 7 Use the material from Exercise 33 A15 above 8 The term basketry refers to woven textiles created manually without a frame or loom Berman 2000 422 9 quotWe observed 29 instances of wicker FIG 12 constituting 1124 of the basketry weaves Berman 2000 427 ACommon Mistake 107 10 One of the best recent works Wang Lixin s Meiguo chuanjiaoshi yu wan Qing Zhong guo Xiandaihua American Missionaries and the Modernization of China in the Late Qing argues that American missionaries rather than being tools of cultural or other imperialism were actually engaged in cultural exchange making a signi cant contri bution to China s modernization in the late Qing period Dunch 2002 316 11 Powerful storms have caused mass mortality of at least 10 Caribbean mangrove forests during the past 50 years Cahoon 2003 1094 12 A liberal arts education is associated with an increase in humanitarianism and a sense of civic responsibility a greater interest in and more liberal attitudes toward a variety of social and political issues and greater regard for civil rights and higher levels of tolerance related to social racial and ethnic diversity HendersonKing 2000 142 material omitted 13 The landscape when considered through a contemporary aesthetic lens is already a cultural sculptural form marked and transformed through thousands of years of hu man activity Tilley 2000 86 14 George Clooney wellknown celebrity for his roles on television and the big screen spoke to the United Nations in 2006 asking the UN to help the people in Darfur who were suffering due to group conflicts Note To determine this you will need to do some research about George Clooney and his knowledge of Darfur 15 In the United States most lawyers specialize in a particular area of the law because it is nearly impossible to have specialized knowledge about all different areas of the law Suppose that Mr Smith becomes a member of the state bar ofNew York He works exclu sively as a criminal defense attorney and comes to be recognized as an expert in criminal law Now suppose that a reporter interviews Mr Smith about one of his famous criminal defense cases and that at the end of the interview the reporter asks Mr Smith who will prevail in a high pro le case in which a recording company is suing a celebrity musician for breach of contract a matter of contract law The celebrity claims the contract cannot be enforced because the record company didn t give sufficient consideration for its bar gain Mr Smith neVer shy about offering his opinion states that the contract shouldn t be enforced because no consideration was given in his view Can Mr Smith s statement about the musician s contract case be used as assumed premise C Evaluate the credentials of the authors of this book 1 Look at the front of this book to nd our names and the name of the university where we wor 2 Then search the web to determine our positions degrees publications and awards D Identify the four empirical statements and two de nitions in the following passage Most of us grew up with the conventional de nition of a planet as a body that orbits a star shines by reflecting the star s light and is larger than an asteroid Although the de nition may not have been very precise it clearly categorized the bodies we knew at the time In the 1990s however a remarkable series of discoveries made it untenable Beyond the orbit of Neptune astronomers found hundreds of icy worlds some quite large occupyinga doughnutshaped region called theKuiper belt Around scores of other 108 Chapter 3 Premises and Condusxons stars they found other planets many of whose orbits look nothing like those in our so lar system They discovered brown dwarfs which blur the distinction between planet and star And they found planetlike objects drifting alone in the darkness of interstel lar space These ndings ignited a debate about what a planet really is and led to the de cision last August by the International Astronomical Union IAU astronomers main professional society to de ne a planet as an object that orbits a star is large enough to have settled into a round shape and crucially quothas cleared the neighborhood around its orbit Controversially the new de nition removes Pluto from the list of planets Soter 2007 34 E Less than a decade ago the biggest problem in global health seemed to be the lack of resources available to combat the multiple scourges ravaging the world s poor and sick Today thanks to a recent extraordinary and unprecedented rise in public and private giv ing more money is being directed toward pressing health challenges than ever before But because the efforts this money is paying for are largely uncoordinated and directed mostly at speci c highpro le diseasesirather than at public health in generalithere is a grave danger that the current age of generosity could not only fall short of expectations but actu ally make things worse on the ground Garrett 2007 14 Imagine that someone makes the following argument relying on and quoting some of Garrett s claims Evaluate the premises of this argument 1 quotLess than a decade ago the biggest problem in global health seemed to be the lack of resources available to combat the multiple scourges ravaging the world s poor and sick 2 quotToday thanks to a recent extraordinary and unprecedented rise in public and pri vate giving more money is being directed toward pressing health challenges than ever before Therefore 3 Experts in global health believe we are making progress on the problem of global health I Conclusions Two features are crucial to assessing the conclusions of arguments strength and scope Strength of Conclusions A conclusion can be stated with more or less strength Let s suppose that all of the following statements are offered as conclusions It s just possible that in ation will rise next year In ation may rise next year There is a good chance that inflation will rise next year Inflation is likely to rise next year Inflation is very likely to rise next year It s certain that inflation will rise next year EEEEEE
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