World History 1020, Week Five Notes
World History 1020, Week Five Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
March 411 2016 Week Five Dr David Carter World History 11 The Rebellion of 1857 in India WTWA 592596 The Rebellion of 1857 in India a India under the rule of the East India Company b Company s goal to make India a colonialcapitalist economy c Treaty violations annexation of princely domains and abolition of feudal privileges Rebellion breaks out in 1857 led by Indian soldiers sepoys e Con ict grows from limited military mutiny into widespread civil war centered in interior of Indian subcontinent Growing participation of peasantry g Revolt a series of revolts where local people attempted to settle local grievances no national vision existed h Revolt did not challenge traditional hierarchies of caste and religion i Incredibly punitive response by the British and crushing of rebellion j British resume work of transforming India into modern colonial state and economy Insurgencies against colonizing and centralizing states The East India Trading Company played a direct role in taxation and relayed them back to the British Crown who eventually take control over India EITC starts behaving like a monarchy and becomes more assertive Working with Muslim and Hindu princes turns into direct rule over the Indian people along with the overtaking of more land People groups with less power than their oppressors push back by merging religions and castes together for one central cause Although many times in history some people are not able to transcend their differences and ultimately fail In 1856 the Company violated the treaty by trying to annex specific lands and began a program of building railroads telegraph lines etc to make India a colonialcapitalist economy Read text on the Greased Cartridge Controversy Iudicial authority was also transferred from indigenous elites to the Company there were Mughal representatives but they had very little power What starts out as a mutiny grows into a fullblown revolt of peasants artisans religious leaders and dispossessed aristocracy joined together by the experience of oppression This Rebellion cuts across class lines as many of its leaders were from low ranks as well as religious lines joining Muslims and Hindus together The Rebellion began at the military barracks within in the Company Army Soldiers reasserted the authority of the Mughal emperor Peasants claimed the revolt even though men of higher class ultimately led it The movement begins to falter because they can t construct an alternative vision for India even though Ghost Dance Mfecane etc failed they all had alternative visions they were trying to implement In other words there was no national solution to what would come after the Company and the British Crown were defeated The counterinsurgencies of the British eliminated the Mughal Dynasty through exile and execution The British crushes the Rebellion and formally takes over India Queen Victoria declares religious toleration and implements vast improvements and local in uence during her reign Consolidating Nations and Constructing Empires in the Americas WTWA 606 614 Come back to the idea that very little things in history are inevitable Ideals of nationstate building was widespread shared ideals laws and customs Nations sought to expand globally as the acquisition of colonies brought prestige Attempt to colonize is met with resistance leading to the question does it weaken a nation to impose imperialism on another As Americans we re hesitant to group the United States with British Italian and Germanic imperialism Instead of imperialism or expansion we call it manifest destiny Building nationalism nations tend to be built by elites Rising nationstates were varied in their characteristics because leaders attempt to impose their values into the nation Global imperial scramble large migrations of people to new territories Colonial empires moved labor capital and commodities to new territories America wanted to expand their territory which eventually causes the Civil War slave trade The defeat of the South leads to brand new nationbuilding for America Dramatic economic growth strong national government railroads economic and industrial development World War I Will be European focused because the European countries are at the root of the war Other continents will participate but they aren t the instigators in this story As discussed before nationalism is pride in one s nation or state rooted in the belief that your nation state is superior to all others Conservatism liberalism socialism and communism can fall under nationalism Simplified nationalism as a general cause for World War I United States America at this time is still isolating itself from global con icts But our neutrality in European affairs is highly debatable Germany Kaiser Wilhelm II Rise of the German Military and Navy Militarism central tenet of German nationalism Alfred Thayer Mahan was an American Admiral and rote The In uence of Sea Power Upon History in 1890 which was read internationally heavily in uenced world leaders opinions of how important naval power was Filling Africa s Blank Spaces meaning Europeans at this point considered Africa to be a blank space for imperialism Expanding the German Empire goals of connecting all the German landholdings in Africa expanding the contiguous empire in Europe History of French National Identity Enlightenment Liberalism democracy liberty rights of man equality for all men Napoleonic Empire Napoleon s massive expansion conquest AlsaceLorraine bitterness 1871 After the FrancoPrussian war France ceded the AlsaceLorraine region to Germany aka Prussia French holdings in Africa After the Berlin Conference of 18841885 and as part of the quotScramble for Africa France gained large swaths of territory in Northern Africa Expanding the French Empire The Dreyfus Affair 18941906 Alfred Dreyfus was an officer in the French army accused of selling military secrets to the Germans He s tried and convicted sent to Devil s Island prison Meanwhile his case becomes relatively popular and somewhat sensationalized in the media Popular journalist Emile Zola argues for the release of Dreyfus accuses the government and military of antiSemitism Dreyfus is Jewish Dreyfus is fully pardoned in 1906 but the damage is done French nationalism is weakened Russia Tsar Nicholas II amp Tsarina Alexandra Strict monarchy The RussoJapanese War 190405 Russian Imperialism and expansion Around the turn of the century we re seeing plenty of expansionist imperial policy The Boxer Rebellion 1901 The Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists known as Boxers to westerners lead an uprising to overturn western in uence in China Taiping Rebellion Part 11 Russia loses miserably because shockingly enough taking on the island country in a naval battle did not go well Embarrassment for Russia Great for Japan Angry Peasants and the Dissolution of the Duma Those Russians dying in the RussoJapanese War were mostly peasants aka former serfs 1905 an almostrevolution almosthappens but it s quashed immediately and Nicholas II dissolves the Duma Russian attempt at a representative government Angry Elites in Russia Nicholas II amp Alexandra amp Rasputin Heir to the throne Alexander has hemophilia which Rasputin seems to be able to quotcurequot Elites are now angry because the Tsar and Tsarina have allowed a peasant into the inner circle in some cases replaced them Long story short Russia is not in a good place disjointed and barely holding itself together Great Britain Relatively conservative after the move to a constitutional monarchy no massive political Iingoism Aggressive nationalism reliant upon the idea of being in a place of superiority to othersquot which foundations British nationalism Origins of word jingoism in 19th century pub song The Boer Wars Second Boer War 18981902 Boers remnants of Dutch E India Company who speak Afrikaans and inhabit northern part of British South Africa They rush the British Cape to Cairo Dream by the railroad running from Southern tip of Africa Cape of Good Hope to Cairo Northern Africa Egypt The Balkans and the Ottoman Empire The two are butting heads while one struggles to maintain foothold of power ottoman empire while the other one struggles to gain power most of the Balkan countries Serbian Independence in 18708 from AustroHungarian Empire Seen as a part of Afroeurasia that most needs European help aka meddling PanSlavism nation vs state was founded on the idea of a national identity not based on the state Up to this point we ve been framing nationalism as a statesponsored movement but in the Balkans a lot of the ethnic groups who fit into this bigger Slavic ethnic group are not relegated to one individual country State government recognized by other countries Nation of nationalism ethnic groups shared cultures shared worldviews Nationhood and states can overlap or be synonymous but in the Balkans this isn t necessarily the case Russian Support Supporting the Balkan Leaguequot aka Serbia Bulgaria Montenegro Greece Encroaching Ottoman Empire Even though the Ottoman Empire is considered the sick man of Europequot it is still a large empire compared to the newly formed Baltic states threatening The Balkan Wars War breaks out between Balkans and Ottoman empire Led by Balkan League to lay claim to northern ottoman empire Part of the larger campaign in Europe to increase size of empire When the con ict was thought to be over 1912 Bulgarian King Ferdinand declares war on Serbia and attempts to take over part of Serbia After Bulgaria fails to take over Serbia Austria aka the AustroHungarian Empire saves the Bulgarians day 1913 in peace talks still ceding a greater portion of land to Bulgaria which angers Serbia AustriaHungary Also known as the AustroHungarian Empire still ruled by a monarchy AustriaHungary divided by different languages ethnicities cultures which makes it incredibly hard to have a national identity within the state The newly acquired Bosnia region was going through a rough transition into the empire King Franz Iosef Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Princess Sophie Franz Iosef is questionably sane at this point Decides to send the heir to the throne and his wife on a goodwill mission to Sarajevo in the aforementioned unhappy Bosnia Good idea Probably not Visiting Sarajevo Iune 28 1914 THIS IS SORT OF A BIG DEAL Gavrilo Princip 20 year old Serbian nationalist member of the Black Hand a Serbian nationalist group remember panSlavism The Black Hand doesn t think Bosnians should have to be under the Austrian Empire since they are Slavs Princip amp Pals aka 6 other wouldbe assassins lie in wait in Sarajevo One throws a grenade at the procession but misses Ferdinand and Sophie s car Because Ferdinand and Sophie are so magnanimous and wonderful they decide to at the last moment turn around and visit those wounded by the grenade in the hospital The driver turns into an alley to turn around where Gavrilo happens to be moping about his failed assassination plot but sees his opportunity and kills the Archduke and the Princess Tragedy of the Austrian Throne Killing the heir to the AustroHungarian throne made headlines and was not received well by Austrian officials Remember when Austria and Serbia disagreed on dividing up territory after the Balkan Wars This was worse Austrian amp Serbian negotiations paraphrased Austrian Proposal 1 Serbia you were responsible for killing our heir to the throne Give us most of your land and most of your money Or elsequot Serbian Response 1 No thank you we ll be keeping our land and money Our government is not affiliated with those Black Hand fellowsquot Austrian Proposal 2 after talking to their northern German allies who are fully militarized and shouldn t actually care about a Serbian rebel group and an Austrian monarch Serbia give us ALL your money and ALL your land or else we and Germany will crush you like a grapequot Serbian Response 2 after talking to their old Balkan League friend Russia who has the biggest army in the world at this point no big deal slightly nervously Still no This isn t really our fault and we don t appreciate your threatsquot Alliances as of 1914 France Great Britain and Russia Triple Alliance AustriaHungary Germany and Italy
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