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bio 1104k Chp 38. Nervous system and Neurons

by: Arabia Lightell

bio 1104k Chp 38. Nervous system and Neurons Bio 1104k

Arabia Lightell

Introductory Biology II
dr nash

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About this Document

These notes will cover all of chapter 38.
Introductory Biology II
dr nash
Class Notes
bio 1104k, nervous system, neurons, Biology, Chp. 38
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arabia Lightell on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1104k at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by dr nash in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/16/16
Neurons Chp 38 Cellular behavior of neurons 1 Dendrites receive info 2 Cell body process info from dendrites 3 Axon conducts electrical signals away from the cell body 4 Signals are transmitted to other neurons at synaptic terminals All animals have a nervous system except sponges Neurons electrical cells are the basic unit of a nervous system lnterneurons integrate store and process info Sensory neurons sense and convert stimuli into electrical signals Motor neurons control muscles and glands Glial Cells support cells Do not send electrical signals Nerve net A diffuse network of neurons Lack a brain Cnidaria Neurons are like batteries Neg charge on the inside Pos charge on the outside The difference in these charges is the RESTING POTENTIAL A charge difference is caused by moving positive ions When a neuron is at rest Membrane is more negative than outside K is higher than outside the cell Na is lower than outside the cell Neurons send signals through action potentials Action Potential a brief positive charge that travels down an axon like a wave relying on Diffusion of Na and K Always travel away from the cell body All the same size Stimulation opens Na channel and Na diffuses into the cell Occurs if enough Na enters the cell to raise the voltage to a threshold If the sum of the membrane changes is more pos than a threshold an action potential is sent down the axon Axons are insulated with myelin Insulation of myelin increases conduction speed of action 10x Myelin is composed f 80 fat and 20 protein and gives white matter it s appearance Multiple Sclerosis MS Incurable disease which axons are demyelinated and axons fail to transmit potentials Symptoms weakness spasm balance dysarthria dysphagia visual defects fatigue incontinence Communication between neurons occur at synapses Axons and dendrites communicate across a tiny space called a synaptic cleft Presynaptic before the synapse Post synaptic after the synapse Transmission via Synapses 1 Action potential is initiated 2 Action potential reaches the synaptic terminal of the presynaptic neuron 3 The positive charge of the action potential causes the synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters 4 Neurotransmitters bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron 5 Neurotransmitters binding causes ion channels to open and ions ow in or out 6 Neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic terminal are degraded or diffuse out of the synaptic cleft Types of neurotransmitters Glutamate important for learning and memory Dopamine essential for learning and memory Serotonin appetite sleep anxiety a Antidepressants like Prozac and Paxil may inhibit serotonin synapses prolonging good moods Acetylcholine released by motor neurons to trigger muscle contraction Chp38 Neurons and Human Nervous System Central Nervous System Brain complex processing and responses Memory Thoughts Emotions Spinal Cord quot Interstatequot of the nervous system limited processing Re exes Dorsal roots carry sensory signals from sensory neurons Ventral roots carry commands from motor neurons away from cord Protected by 1 Bones vertebrae and skull 2 Cerebrospinal uid lls spaces in brain and spinal cord cushions the brain 3 quot Bloodbrain barrierquot prevents infection but also keeps white blood cells and antibiotics out This makes it dif cult to treat brain diseases because the drugs have to pass through this barrier Peripheral Nervous System carries info to from the central nervous system to the body Hindbrain regulates automatic functions such as breathing cerebellum coordinates movements brainstem medulla Midbrain wakefulness emotion pleasure Forebrain hypothalamus controls hormones and promotes homeostasis Cerebrum thought conciousness memory seperated into two hemispheres that have 4 lobes each Frontal Voluntary muscle movement personality Parietal Sensory interpetation Occipital lobe Visual processing Temporal Auditory processing Pattern Recognition Strokes affect the temporal lobe Somatic Reports Sensory info and controls voluntary muscles Autonomic Carries signals tofrom involuntarily controlled organs glands smooth muscles Sympathetic Fight or Flight Parasympathetic Rest and Digest Working Memory Shortterm immediate access lnvolves parietal and frontal lobes Long term Memory Permanent info storage Most memories are stored throughout the cerebrum Motor learning skils are stored in the cerebellum The hippocampus converts working memory to long term memory


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