BIO 1004 Chapter 11 Notes
BIO 1004 Chapter 11 Notes BIO 1004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 11 Notes Blood oz Blood 0 Function transports oxygen nutrients nitrogencontaining waste products hormones and carbon dioxide 0 2 main components Plasma is the main component of blood 0 Plasma is the liquid portion of the blood that makes up the majority of the volume of blood o It is 90 water 0 The matrix is acquired in the digestive system and the urinary system 0 Some components of plasma are picked up in the liver from glands and from all cells in the body Formed Elements are cells and cell fragments found in the blood They are all produced in Red Bone Marrow 0 Blood Plasma Makes up 55 of the blood by volume 90 of the plasma is made up of water and the remaining 10 is made of glucose proteins immunoglobulins carbon dioxide urea brinogen nutrients and hormones Glucose travels to individual cells where it is absorbed and then mitochondria produce ATP using the glucose 0 Proteins albumin blood pressure lmmunoglobulins produced by white blood cells and act like antibiotics in ghting against infections 0 Carbon dioxide too large for all of them to be carried by the white blood cells therefore the rest is carried in Plasma Urea nitrogencontaining waste produce that is produced by all cells in the body and it is eliminated by urine Fibrinogen a protein that is used for blood clotting o Nutrients vitamins and minerals Hormones o Formed Elements Red blood cells erythrocytes transports all of the oxygen and a small portion of the carbon dioxide They are unique in that they do not have a nucleus when they are mature enucleated The center portion is lower than the edges biconcave disc 46 millionmm3 Erythrocytes are removed by the liver and the spleen Some components of the hemoglobin are recycled Live about 120 days Hemoglobin is a chemical that is found in red blood cells that transports oxygen by way of iron 0 Iron and another element found in hemoglobin causes oxygen to attach to hemoglobin White blood cells leukocytes white blood cells that protect the body from bacteria viruses fungal infections parasites and cancer Cancer cells are cells that lose their contact inhibition causing them to continually divide forming tumors These tumors will potentially produce hormones and growth factors to stimulate the production of blood vessels that rob the cells around them 0 Body produces up to 46 per day Leukocytes are classi ed into two categories 0 Granulocytes have granules in the cytoplasm Neutrophils The most common type of white blood cells that are larger than the others The nucleus is segmented and appears as a dark blue when stained The cytoplasm stains a light purple and has small lilac granules that contain toxins to kill bacteria 0 Phagocytic eats foreign particles such as bacteria then the granules merge into the lysosome and release the toxins Relatively nonspeci c 0 Can migrate out of the bloodstream and leak into the tissues 0 0 Bacterial infections causes the number of neutrophils to rise Eosinophils Eosinophils have a bilobed nucleus that is dark blue and orange granules that are toxic to parasites o Phagocytic o Occurs in low numbers increases in bacterial infections and allergic reactions Basoths Basophils contain a bilobed nucleus and contain dark blue granules that block the nucleus Basophils are the least common white blood cell Numbers do not increase Granules contain histamine that does nothing to foreign particles When basophils are damaged histamine is released to dilate blood vessels and increase blood ow 0 Agranulocytes do not have granules in the cytoplasm Monocytes Monocytes are the largest of the white blood cells have an indented nucleus that is dark blue The cytoplasm is light blue Most effective phagocytic cell Capable of leaving the bloodstream Speci c and nonspeci c immunity Stimulates lymphocytes under certain conditions lymphocytes 2nCI most common type of white blood cell Lymphocytes produce antibiotics to target speci c bacteria and make it easily visible to neutrophils Nucleus is round and cytoplasm is light blue 0 Mature lymphocytes tend to have a small amount of cytoplasm which makes them smaller that immature cells Platelets thrombocytes cell fragments that help the body produce blood clots along with proteins and bers
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