Module 10 Notes
Module 10 Notes SPED 7007
Popular in Positive Behavior
Popular in Special Education
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Notetaker on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 7007 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Todd Haydon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Positive Behavior in Special Education at University of Cincinnati.
Reviews for Module 10 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/16/16
Module 10 Notes How to Design Individualized Instructional Strategies Written by Krista Anstead March 2016 Learning Outcomes • Replacement Behaviors • Errorless Learning o Shaping o Chaining • Instructional Manipulations o Modeling o Provide Opportunities to Respond • Manipulate Task Difficulty o Constant Time Delay o Guided Practice Readings/References Scott, T., & Anderson, C. (2012). Designing individualized instructional strategies. In Managing Classroom Behavior Using Positive Behavior Supports. Boston: Pearson. Acronyms • Replacement behavior = RB Chapter 10 Notes Introduction • Focus for the chapter: S identified as having repeated failures despite effective prevention efforts o Identified as nonresponsive to school and class-‐wide systems o Need for intervention is immediate and dire • Whenever we identify a deficit, first question should be “why is this a problem for the student?” • Two types of deficits: o Skill – does not know how o Performance -‐ knows how but chooses not to • Effective instruction: o Involves actual examples of positive behavior and manner in which they are presented • Sometimes it is necessary to teach alternative behaviors to S who have extreme difficulty Critical intervention components to address skill or performance deficits • Instruction o Teaching social behavior should be undertaken in same manner as academic instruction o Instructional practices: explanations, modeling, prompting, and guidance o T creates example sets and provides S with models of naturally occurring examples o Steps: § Detail conditions under which behavior should occur and what it looks like § State advantages and simplicity of RB § Role play – pre-‐correct with verbal cues § Provide immediate T feedback in form of correction or reinforcement, and correct any errors § Fade out prompts § Provide S with untrained probes o Appropriate behaviors do not automatically replace undesirable behavior o RB initially require prompting and guidance after instruction o Whether S perceives RB as successful will depend on its consequences § Initial RB should be simple, guided with prompts, and immediately reinforced when observed § Can be shaped toward more sophisticated responses with longer durations over time o Events in the environment can cause undesirable behaviors to return § Require changing environment to mask or minimize conditions • Simplest method: rearranging the classroom o See-‐saw picture: as one behavior increases, the other decreases • Facilitation of success via natural environment • Effective consequences Key attributes of replacement behaviors • S will not adopt alternative behaviors that do not work better than disruptive behavior • Type of RB depend on S, situation, and function of the behavior • Components: o Relevant in the environment o Acceptable o Functional for S • Fair pair: behavior that serves same function as problem behavior • Active behaviors: pass the dead man’s test: can a dead man do this behavior? • Looks normal in the environment, is easily taught to S, and involves active S behavior that results in reinforcement • Should serve same function as undesirable behavior • Will only be used when they are more effective and efficient in meeting S needs • No behavior, no matter however appropriate, will be effective if it is used at the wrong time Designing instruction to facilitate success through errorless learning, shaping, and chaining • Errorless learning: development of instructional strategies and procedures that maximize probability of S success o Goal is to maximize ratio of success to failure, allowing S to receive reinforcement and a natural incentive to continue o Facilitated through use of effective instructional design, prompts and environmental cues, and specific strategies for instructional delivery o Increases S success rates and decrease problem behaviors • Shaping: systematic reinforcement of successive approximations toward a target behavior o Breaking complex behaviors into smaller components to facilitate S success and gradually build capacity with larger and more complex behaviors o Involves teaching and reinforcing behaviors that are not really what we want in the end, but that approach it as we go o Neither the desired behavior nor any component skills exist prior to instruction o Systematic reinforcement of successive approximations toward a target behavior o Shaping behaviors: basic language, writing, athletic skills o Most effective when a behavior is present but not fluent o Focuses on consequences and requires powerful reinforcers as a response to appropriate approximations, ignoring inappropriate or nonexistent behavior o Implemented over an extended period of time § Requires set of approximations, each of which requires days or weeks to achieve o Concern: S are reinforced for practicing errors • Chaining: reinforcement of combinations of simple behaviors that are already in the repertoire of the individual to form more complex behaviors o Also used to build complex behaviors by teaching smaller and less complex components with a view toward an eventual terminal behavior o Used to teach complex behaviors composed of smaller discrete steps consisting of behaviors that S has already mastered o Forward chaining: T teaches first step and guides S through each sequential step as it is acted out § While it seems more logical, backward chaining is more appealing because the reinforcer is delivered at the most natural point, when the task is complete o Generally a simple procedure to implement o Steps: § Identify behavior with a logical sequence of discrete skills § Conduct a task analysis § Identify mastery of skills identified § Teach non-‐mastered skills § Set criterion level for S performance with each component § TEACH! § Fade prompts and extend wait time Manipulating instruction using modeling, providing opportunities to respond, modifying task difficulty, constant time delay, and guided practice • Modeling: act of demonstrating or modeling a key skill or behavior o Effective part of any instruction due to S watching how to engage o Effective T show S what desired behavior looks like, using verbal descriptions to help S note most salient points of modeling o Can be demonstrated by T or S using simple or complex behaviors o Used explicitly as part of instruction when T tells S behavior being modeled and its key components during demonstration, which are typically repeated while verbally engaging S to evaluate understanding o Followed by S demonstration o Should not only be a planned manner as part of direct instruction but also throughout the day as teachable moments occur o Works best when it begins with a single behavior during a specific classroom activity o S are more likely to imitate a behavior demonstrated by peers • Provide opportunities to respond o Opportunities to respond: presenting opportunities for S to actively respond to academic and behavioral instruction through interactions and requests o Engagement with instruction is highly correlated with achievement o T can affect the probability of engagement through their instructional strategies o Examples: requests, open-‐ended questions, engaging materials via choral, individual, verbal, or gestural means o Helps decrease S deficits in academics and allows T to adjust lessons based on S feedback o Fact questions: require S to recall info that was previously presented or is higher cognitive in nature § require one to three word answers § allow T to quickly assess S understanding o linked to on-‐task behavior and engagement during instruction o effective only when S can successfully respond to at least 80% of the opportunities o S should be given opportunity to respond 8-‐10 times per minute o T should remain on topic, ask open-‐ended questions, and use higher cognitive solicit questions • Modifying task difficulty o S problem behaviors often result from frustration with academic work o S with low success rates sometimes engage in negative behavior as a means of avoiding failure o T should provide S with work that provides an opportunity for higher levels of success o Can be reduced by developing more basic tasks within the same content, reviewing concepts that have already been mastered, or providing additional assistance or arrangements to simplify the task o Key is to determine whether S has necessary skills to complete the more difficult academic problems with sufficient effort o Cannot stand alone! § Should always be combined with prompts and environmental arrangements o Rule of thumb is to determine the work required to facilitate 80% or greater success and begin by assigning work at that level o Present easier problems together with more academically difficult problems • Constant time delay o Constant time delay: an instructional strategy that provides S time to respond to an initial direction or signal that involves few T verbal prompts o Effective for S who require extra time to respond to an initial signal and S with processing deficits § Helpful to reduce number of expectations following initial signal o Decreases S reliance on T excessive directions for compliance o Can be used with as many or as few S as necessary • Guided practice o Guided practice: a component of effective instruction in which T provide direct practice following initial teaching of new skills o S at the acquisition level of learning benefit from teacher-‐directed practice activities o Can be incorporated through active application of information o Produces proficiency through active application of the information taught o Central to effective instruction to prepare S for fluency and maintenance of independent performance Screen Cast Notes General outline of expectations • ch.6 p. 107-‐114 in book: functional assessment for classroom environments (FACE) o copy, print, fill out, scan, and upload it to Bb o should be included in our FBA • ch. 6 p. 115-‐119 in book: Setting Events and Triggers in the Classroom Handout o copy, print, fill out, and scan to Bb o should be included in our FBA • summary statement should only be a couple sentences • Chapter 10: think about table on pg. 179 Functional Replacement Behaviors and their Benefit o (predictor, undesirable behavior, replacement behavior, contingency, function of both behaviors, benefit of replacement behavior) (way to think; DOES NOT have to be written down) o ways to implement replacement behaviors with examples from ch.10 -‐ evidence based practices (errorless learning, shaping, and chaining, modeling, providing opportunities to respond, modifying task difficulty, constant time delay, and guided practice) • write up is open for us: view two articles on Bb under course documents as references (FBA Article and Germer Article) o do not make paper as long as articles o use APA style o title o describe what was going on in classroom (anecdote in italics) o DO NOT NEED literature review o Use synonym for S o Heading § Methods § Describe participant and setting § Dependent measures • Define On-‐task behavior, disruptive behavior, correct responses, replacement behavior, that you were focusing on • Use quiz/test scores as good information to reference § NO inter-‐observer agreement or recording system § Do NOT need recording system info § Functional assessment procedures, outcomes, and hypothesis • Couple sentences • Include summary from FACE here § Intervention selection and design for S o Include AB graph § should just have baseline and intervention results on graph § Can do another A (baseline) if you want to but not needed § Can have graph for on-‐task and one for disruptive behavior o include short paragraph on behavior on what was replacement behavior and intervention o do Not need table on p. 23 of article o if possible to keep track of what you did, (i.e. increasing opportunities to respond) T and collect own data at same time; difficult to do; not expected but can be done if wanted o do NOT need table 2 o include table for mean baseline disruptive behavior across all data points (ex is table 3 on p. 27 in Germer article) § do NOT need SD, Slope, or IOA § do for all important data points (Baseline A1, Intervention B1, Baseline A2, Intervention B2, Maintenance) o social validity: how did you like the intervention? Discuss your thoughts and opinions here on how well the intervention was o DO NOT need to write up all of the results; table is sufficient; include table and one or two sentences for results o Discuss in a few sentences how well the intervention worked • Other option (more of a research article) o Skip introduction o Talk about participants, teacher, student in methods section o Do not need to do setting the terms o Do NOT worry about treatment integrity o Basically same info as other article, just organized differently • Complete FACE, write up paper with described sections (3-‐5 pages) Db Response Post Answers to end of Chapter Questions 1 and 2 on the Discussion Board by Friday 11:59 pm of that week AND Please comment on the Discussion Board at least one of your classmates' answers/comments. Question 1: A new teacher is struggling with constant calling out and other disruptive noises in her classroom. What are some ways in which she can address this behavior through effective instruction? Question 2: In what ways can instruction for improving behavior be adapted to teach academic topics more effectively?
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'