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PS 330: Intro to Political Theory, Week 7 Notes

by: Kayteeessbee

PS 330: Intro to Political Theory, Week 7 Notes PS 330

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Political Science > PS 330 > PS 330 Intro to Political Theory Week 7 Notes
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture from week seven's class, including Machiavelli and John Calvin and Martin Luther, which is not information that can be found in the textbook.
Intro to Political Theory
Dr. Edward Yager
Class Notes
Macchiavelli, John Calvin, Martin Luther, Political Theory, philosophy, religion, Civil religion
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayteeessbee on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 330 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Edward Yager in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Political Theory in Political Science at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 03/16/16
PS 330 Exam 2 Notes 3/16 Modern Political Thought:  Augustine only earlier thinker (already talked about) who did not see strong relation between ethics and politics. Break from Classical tradition.  Modern time characterized by empirical focus on politics, and separation of politics and ethics.  Focus on power: how to get it, what is it, how is it exercised, how is it maintained?  Launches empirical, historical investigation, minimizing ethics.  Naturalistic ethics or ethical naturalism: separation of politics from historical understanding of ethics.  After Machiavelli and Protestant reformers: social contract theorists (Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau.)  Human beings create government (Hobbes and Locke) primarily for protection, or (Rousseau) for individual integration into community.  Social Contract theory: basis for involvement in community: consent. Machiavelli (1469-1527):  Renaissance Man  In common with Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau: ethics outside of politics.  The Discourses: argument: classical republican government (civic virtue, participation, mixed constitution, etc.)  Examine the Roman Republic (he considers the attributes to be very positive.)  Important values: Freedom, Equality, Rule of Law, Civic Virtue (engagement+information), Mixed Constitution, Res Publica (Common good.)  The Prince: all about Power Politics (less-prepared governments’ leaders should read this guide.)  More power=more stability (regarding the state, and governance.)  Lack of education about the proper use of power, and sees Vatican as excessively involved in temporal matters.  Authority requires consent, and Machiavelli prefers this to simple exercise of raw power to make people comply.  Sees value in Monarch’s manipulation of religion, because convincing people of divine sanction makes it much easier for monarch to obtain willing obedience.  Machiavelli is modern-day Sophist, as he has ignored possibility of objective moral order.  Importance of appearances  Monarch should be seen engaged with “the people,” from time to time.  Inspire sense of loyalty, empathy, and identification. Protestant Reformers: Martin Luther: GodChurchState  John Calvin: ChurchGodState  “Institutes”  “Civil Government”  Held that previous hierarchical arrangement was wrong. (Hierarchy: God delegates to church, who has authority over the civic state.)  Both talked about reforming church-state relationship, which effects politics directly.  Argument (later extended by John Locke): natural division of authority/labor between Ecclesiastical authorities and civil authorities. I.e. ecclesiastical authorities have expertise on specific realm of questions (mainly about life, the meaning of it, right vs wrong, morality, etc.)  Natural division of authority: Argument based upon competence.  Civic authorities: state, etc.  Leading up to separation of church and state.  Function with some level of autonomy  Religious thinkers, themselves, reforming nature of this relationship.  Implications of reformation: 1. Both infuse significant amount of dignity to gov officials. 2. Now authorities exist that can check one another in society. Helps set up pre-condition for limited government. Church upon state (moral issues, etc.) and state upon church (civic issues.) 3. Reconceptualization/reformation allows individuals living in various European countries for citizens to increasingly have greater loyalty to nation-states rather than just to the church/Vatican. Citizenship because increasingly viable. 


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