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One Week of BIOEE 1780 Notes

by: Carly Siege

One Week of BIOEE 1780 Notes BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology

Carly Siege
GPA 3.4

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You should pair these with the pre lecture vodcasts
Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Siege on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOEE1780: Evolutionary Biology at Cornell University taught by Dr.Sarvary in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Biology: Evolution and Biodiversity in Biological Sciences at Cornell University.

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Date Created: 03/16/16
a metapopulation is a group of population that are connected by gene flow phylogenetic species concept: focuses on the phylogenetic history of organisms biological species concept: defines species as a group of actually or potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups general lineage species concept: species are metapopulations of organisms that exchange alleles frequently enough that they comprise the same gene pool and the same evolutionary lineage the biological species model particularly helps us focus on the process of speciation- the splitting of one group of interbreeding lineages into two - by an isolating barrier Barriers to Gene flow geographical barriers (extrinsic) mountains rivers, oceans, deserts physical separation that prevents gene flow Allopatry - occurs when populations are in separate, nonoverlapping geographic area Physical isolation by vicariance Dispersal and Colonization reproductive barriers (intrinsic) mating preferences, hybrid incompatibilities evolutionary divergence prevents gene flow Prezygotic isolating barriers that impeded gene transfer before sperm or pollen can be transferred to other species behavioral isolation: differences in behaviors that prevent members of different species formatting, such s lack of attraction ecological isolation: isolating barriers that are by products of the ecology of different species Mechanical Isolation: reproductive structures (genitalia, pollination structures) do not fit together mechanically making it difficult for fertilization to occur post mating: gametic isolation: Postzygotic isloating barriers that impeded gene transfer after spermor pollen has been transferred to other species hybrid availability: hybrids die before or shortly after birth hybrid sterility physiological sterility: hybrids suffer problems in the reproductive system or gametes behavioral sterility: hybrid suffer neurological or physiological defects that prevent them from finding mates Ecological speciation - the evolution of reproductive barriers between population by adaptation to different environment or ecological niches AKA Sympatric speciation Hybrid Zones A hybrid zone exists where the ranges of two forms meet, interbreed, and create hybrid offspring. These forms are populations that are genetically differentiated to some degree. Types of hybrid zones Secondary hybrid zone: Arises from secondary contact between two previously allopatric populations Primary hybrid zone: A primary hybrid zone is formed by selection on a previously homogeneous species across an environmental gradient Hybrid zones will create a cline in allele frequencies There will be a transition in the frequency of alleles, genotypes, or phenotypes along a geographical transect Clines can distinguish primary and secondary hybrid zones Clines for different traits will not be concordant Clines will reflect different types of ecological gradients, which are unlikely to overlap exactly Neutral traits will not show a cline Reinforcement - the increase of reproductive isolation between hybridizing forms through selection against hybrid offspring Ecomorph: species with the same structural habitat/niche, similar in morphology and behavior - do not cluster together, meaning that they are not closely related - species on the same island generally cluster together, meaning they are closely related For a species to arise, something has to prevent or strongly limit between populations (extrinsic or intrinsic) changes in some traits keep species reproductively isolated one such trait is the anole’s dewlap, the colorful flab of skin under the lizards throats Adaptive Radiation: when an ancestral species diversifies into many descendant spaces that occupy different environment habitats can be triggered by: - evolution of a new adaptation - vacated niches - specialization absorptive heterotrophy: a process that involves secreting digestive enzymes into the environment Convergent evolution – Different groups of organisms can independently evolve similar traits by adap7ng to similar environments Fungi Paraphyletic: Eukarya that aren’t animals, fungi, or plants. Saprobic Fungi take up nutrients from non living organic matter important decomposer enzymes digest cellulose, lignin, keratin Parasitic Fungi take up nutrients by parasitic interactions obligate facultative plants are hosts of choice cordyceps create zombie ants Predatory Fungi fungi can be active predators by secreting digestive enzymes from their hyphae adhesive constricting ring Mutualistic Fungi symbiotic mutualism: when two species are in close association and both parties benefit fungi (and photobiont) and lichen Microsporidia unicellular, tiniest eukaryotes Highly reduced fungi No functional mitochondria called mitosomes Intracellular parasites of animals Insects, crustaceans, fishes chytrids paraphyletic group aquatic single or multicellular chytrids funges: responsible for amphibian population crashes Dikarya sac fungi (Ascomycota) morels, most yeasts, lichen synapomorphy: the ascus (cell where meiosis occurs) contains several fungal rock stars morel mushrooms Saccharomyces cerevisiae: baking and brewing industries (not to men7on molecular developmental biology) Penicillium chrysogenum, producer of penicillin Candida albicans, cause of thrush, diaper rash Cryphonectria parasitica, chestnut blight Club fungi (Basidiomycota) true fungi: mushrooms … edible and poisonous synapomorphy: the basidium (cell in which meiosis occurs) Arbuscular mycorrhizal crucial economically for plants world wide Arbuscules: site of nutrient exchange have infected 90% of plants penetrate cell wall but not plasma membrane fungus gets the products of photosynthesis plant gets increased surface area for soil nutrients/moisutre


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