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by: Anika Treutel MD


Marketplace > Georgia State University > Astronomy > ASTR 1010 > ASTRONOMY OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Anika Treutel MD
GPA 3.77

Ben McGimsey

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Ben McGimsey
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anika Treutel MD on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 1010 at Georgia State University taught by Ben McGimsey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/209923/astr-1010-georgia-state-university in Astronomy at Georgia State University.




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Date Created: 09/21/15
Astronomy 1010 Final Exam Review Chapter 1 Review the components of our solar system 7 sun planets moons asteroids comets Be aware of new units of distance 7 a light year and the Astronomical Unit you don t have to know the length in miles or kilometers Review the various motions of the Earth Chapter 2 Review the concept of the celestial sphere motions of stars circumpolar stars Our view of the celestial sphere is determined by where we stand on the Earth Review the Moon s phases times of day for rising and setting types of eclipses causes of eclipses Understand that the Moon rotates 7 once per orbit Understand retrograde motion of the planets and why the Greeks explained it incorrectly Chapter 3 Review the following historical figures and the contributions they made to astronomy Copernicus 7 heliocentric view of the solar system however his model had flaws Kepler 7 Laws of planetary motion 7 you should know what an ellipse is and how Kepler s Laws explain planetary motion Galileo 7 telescopic observations 7 discovery of sunspots Jupiter s moons Venus phases Chapter 4 Review Newton s Laws of Motion Be aware of Conservation Laws 7 Momentum angular momentum energy Review Newton s Law of Gravit Understand how orbital motion works including the interaction of the sun s gravity and a planet s inertia Know what causes tides on the Earth and also other objects Chapter 5 Know the electromagnetic spectrum 7 gamma rays xrays UV visible IR radio Basic structure of atoms and formation of spectral lines 7 electron transitions Continuous emission and absorption spectra 7 what causes them How to measure temperature StefanBoltzmann Law and Wien s Law Doppler shift 7 Motion towards or away from us Chapter 6 Know the two major properties of telescopes 7 Light gathering area and angular resolution The two major types of optical telescopes 7 re ecting and refracting Atmospheric problems light pollution turbulence absorption 7 solutions high and dry locations adaptive optics telescopes in space Radio astronomy 7 principally parabolic re ectors Constraints in observing IR UV xrays and gamma rays 7 absorption by the Earth s atmosphere difficulty in focusing xrays and gamma rays emission of IR by the telescope itself Interferometry 7 what is it and why do it Chapter 7 Maj or Features Eight planets with almost circular orbits in almost the same plane Sun 7 999 of the mass of the solar system Mercury 7 metal and rock with large iron core no atmosphere heavily cratered Venus 7 covered with clouds high temperature due to greenhouse effect Earth 7 Liquid water on the surface with a large moon Mars 7 Giant volcanoes atmosphere water on the surface in the past Jupiter 7mostly H and He rings many moons Saturn 7 similar to Jupiter spectacular ring system Uranus 7 smaller than Saturn and Jupiter H and He and H compounds axis tilt Neptune 7 similar to Uranus Pluto 7 minor planet icy composition Clues to formation All large bodies orbit in the same direction CCW and almost all rotate CCW Two main types of planets 7 terrestrial and Jovian Many comets and asteroids Chapter 8 To be explained Direct rotation two categories of planets asteroids and comets make allowances for exceptions Condensation model 7 composition of nebular cloud depended on the distance from the sun Planets formed by accretion gradual growth primarily through collisions of dust grains and followed by collisions among the planetesimals The rotating solar nebula flattened along its axis This can explain why most motion is counterclockwise The explanation for why Jovian and Terrestrial planets differ is whether they were inside and outside the frost line But the current conditions can t all be explained by this model there is a lot of evidence of catastrophic collisions after the initial accretion 7 the Earth s Moon the retrograde rotation of Venus and Uranus Chapter 9 Planetary interiors Core mantle and crust Discovered by seismic waves on Earth Differentiation caused by melting of the interior Ongoing geological activity caused by heating of the interior 7 principally radioactive decay now Size of planet has a large effect on activity Magnetic fields 7 currently explained by the dynamo model rapid rotation coupled with a molten metallic interior Planetary Surfaces formed by ct cratering Volcanoes Tectonics Erosion Moon and Mercury Heavily cratered indicating little surface activity or erosion Some lava flows ceased long ago Mars Some impact craters Large volcanoes One uplift region Tharis and large valley indicating some tectonic activity Clear evidence of former seas and river systems Venus Little evidence of impact craters Significant indication of volcanic activity Some evidence of tectonic activity Dense atmosphere but little weather or erosion Earth Few craters Plate tectonics 7 ocean trenches and mountain chains Liquid water on the surface Chapter 10 Atmospheric effects Wind and weather Absorb and scatter light Greenhouse effect should know how this works Know why certain planets retain a significant atmosphere and others less or almost none planet s gravity plus its temperature plus the mass of a molecule all having an effect Sources of gas 7 outgassing from volcanoes evaporation Losses of gas 7 thermal escape chemical reactions with surface Moon and Merc Only atmosphere is atoms blasted off the surface by solar wind Mars Carbon dioxide and nitrogen Very low pressure Venus Carbon dioxide and nitrogen Extremely high pressure Slow rotation and little weather Runaway greenhouse effect Earth Nitrogen and oxygen Retained most of its water Most carbon dioxide dissolved Plants release oxygen Chapter ll Know in general how Jupiter and Saturn are different from Uranus and Neptune Interiors 7 J and S liquid and metallic hydrogen U and N rock metal and hydrogen compounds 1 7 he 39 39 of the is mostly H and He with H compounds large storm systems are present Magnetic fields and magnetospheres 7 all have strong magnetic fields for J and S generated by rapid rotation plus the metallic H shell unclear for U and N U and N fields are off center and tilted Moons 7 small medium and large sizes are observed For Jupiter 7 4 large moons lo 7 heated by tidal forces active volcanoes extensive resurfaci Europa 7 a liquid ocean under the ice surface probably also due to tidal heating Ganymede 7 evidence of tectonic activity in the past possibly a liquid ocean underneath the surface Callisto 7 geologically inert Ring system 7 dark narrow discovered by Voyager For Saturn Titan is the one large moon has an atmosphere and surface liquids Other significant moons are medium sized and mostly ice many appear to have evidence of volcanic activity remember they are icy not rocky Rings 7 know the definition of Roche limit that the rings are composed of water ice very complex structure with ringlets and gaps due to resonances and shepherd moons For Uranus Five medium sized moons 7 they are mostly icy but dark Rings 7 dark narrow For Ne tune Proteus is medium sized Triton is the smallest of the large moons in the solar system has an atmosphere of nitrogen orbits the planet retrograde Nereid is in a highly elliptical orbit 7 evidence of severe disturbance in the past Rings 7 dark narrow some appear clumped into arcs probably by shepherd moons Chapter 12 Asteroids 7 location of most asteroids is between Mars and Jupiter some are in Trojan orbits others approach the inner solar system their sizes and shapes are irregular except for a few large asteroids which are spherical Meteors 7 shower from comet debris and sporadic from asteroids sources meteorites those that actually strike the ground are derived from asteroids only Most meteorites are stony a very few are metallic Comets 7 Sources Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud composition of ices with dust mixture structure consists of a nucleus coma halo and two tails 7 gas and dust Pluto 7 elliptical inclined orbit retrograde rotation rotation axis tilted 118 degrees to the orbit Origin 7 Kuiper belt object oons 7 Charon7 half the size of Pluto 11 tidal resonance Kuiper belt objects several thousand have been discovered between 1992 and now Quaoar was the first large object discovered Eris is bigger than Pluto They have probably been placed in their current position by the migration of Neptune Composition is ice and roc Chapter 13 Detection of extrasolar planets 7 Extremely difficult due to small size and faintness compared to their star Primarily detected by indirect measures now 7principally Doppler shift of the star However transit measurements have recently been employed S rise 7 most planets discovered are hot Jupiters large planets very close to their star Many are in elliptical orbits They must have migrated there because Jupiter size objects can only form outside the frost line


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