JOUR Chapter 9 Notes
JOUR Chapter 9 Notes JOUR 3190
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyla Brinkley on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JOUR 3190 at University of Georgia taught by Thomas Hudson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Journalism Writing in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 03/16/16
Kyla Brinkley JOUR 3190 Spring 2015 Chapter 9 Notes Basics of Print I. Introduction a. Goal of good storytelling: to create a picture in the viewer’s or reader’s mind b. Print is no longer confined to paper: online news is mostly text-based i. can also support text with video, audio, photos, slide shows, etc. c. print writers have to recreate nonverbal communication cues like gestures d. multimedia means being able to navigate across all media II. Details Help Create Word Pictures a. The most effective reporting/writing goes beyond the images to allow viewer to imagine smelling, tasting, and feeling the story b. Experience c. Online, good story telling makes readers want to click through the multimedia elements d. Answer questions the reader might have e. Print emphasizes powerful details & context f. Handling Quotes i. When transcribing on air sound bites into text quotes, reporters find that what works well on TV doesn’t work well otherwise ii. Quotes may be too short/fragments iii. Words may seem incomplete without nonverbal cues g. Getting Details i. Print vs. broadcast use a different tone ii. Print story is more precise on where the info came from iii. Each story is just tailored for a specific medium iv. Journalist’s job to be aware of the strengths of each medium III. Print Writing a. “a sentence should have a fact in it” b. in print the reporter and editor are always mindful that a story can be cut significantly c. print stories must be written with an eye toward how it can be cut d. Story Forms: Inverted Pyramid i. All key information (who what when where why how) is presented in the story’s lead ii. Aka lede iii. Easy to make a mess trying to cram everything at the top iv. One of the most efficient styles for quickly summarizing v. Ideal for online scanners reading websites vi. However, it has evolved into more of a “Christmas tree” (a series of smaller inverted pyramids that summarize different parts) 1. These often end in “turns” to keep the reader interested vii. The Nut Graf 1. The “nut” paragraph is the reason you are reading the story 2. Nut graf summarizes story, tells readers why its important to read the rest, provides broader perspective on the news 3. Editors will usually look for a nut graf, ask for it, or ask for one themselves and put it in your story 4. Also exists in broadcast but less prominent 5. Sometimes smaller “nuts” introduce specific sections viii. The Hourglass 1. Combines inverted pyramid and narrative, linear style of broadcast 2. Starts with soft lead but gives basics 3. Then has a “turn” that shifts the story into a more narrative, chronological form 4. Sometimes the turn is a nut graf and sometimes it is a transition phrase that provides overall attribution for the following narrative that usually is written in a chronological style 5. Utility for broadcasts 6. Useful for crime stories where narrative follows sequence of events ix. The Dollar Sign 1. Tell story through experiences of a few people and draw parallels 2. Story starts out going down original enter line then wanders off left a bit to take in a wider perspective. Then crosses over center line to keep us grounded and veers off to talk about some wider issues before returning to the center 3. Dangers a. Anecdote must be exactly right b. Beware of leading with an anecdote and never bringing the person back in c. Avoid bookending: throwing person back in as an afterthought IV. Style a. Most print newsrooms use AP Stylebook but many also have own local style manuals b. Print style is detailed & intricate c. Online news distribution is forcing news orgs to reconsider longstanding rules of style (someone in India probably doesn’t know what “Calif.” means) d. When stories go online they are immediate: use “says” instead of “said”? e. Style Differences i. Spelling: broadcasters spell out more words to make reading/pronunciation easier. Print follows common conventions of spelling ii. Numbers: print puts more emphasis on look than pronunciation: th “March 9” not “9 ”. A broadcaster would write it out iii. Punctuation: broadcasters sometimes follow nontraditional punctuation to signal pauses or emphasis. Print uses traditional punctuation iv. Identification: print newsrooms use age and middle initial, more info than broadcast stories use V. Accuracy a. Both print and broadcast try to convey an accurate picture of the world in different ways. b. Fact i. More than getting names dates places details etc. correct. ii. Includes getting facts of language correct iii. Use AP Stylebook c. Tone i. Words have same potential benefit or harm whether spoken or written ii. Ex: “claims” has doubtful connotation iii. Although Internet stories can be corrected quickly, once a wrong version gets into a search engine cache, it can live forever d. Display i. Accuracy in display is the goal of any broadcast reporter, producer, or videographer in assembling a visual story & in print/online the goal is similar ii. Get camera shots keeping in mind where they will be going (online? In video?) VI. Other Issues a. Traditional print newsrooms have had to take on more broadcast characteristics like frequent deadlines b. Broadcast newsrooms have taken on print aspects like getting more details and learning to write enticing headlines c. Even in print every effort must be made to continually move the reader forward d. More headlines are written to be search engine optimized e. News cycle has collapsed in push to get news online first and fast f. The amount of editorial scrutiny a story is likely to receive in a traditional print vs traditional broadcast newsroom is becoming blurred i. Number of editors looking at a story has been cut in many newsrooms g. Biggest differences remaining may be in the orientation toward detail and the types of stories handled in print vs broadcast h. Future place of newspapers is projected to be as analytical complements to the emotional, in-the-moment newsgathering of broadcast and the Internet’s ability to inundate the user with data and info VII. The Print Newsroom a. Print-oriented newsrooms generally have more people, a greater division of labor, and more sets of eyes looking at a story b. Broadcast and print newsrooms are more differentiated because of internet c. Many newsrooms are going to a continuous news flow, where stories are posted online first and expanded for the newspaper d. Broadcast newsrooms are also moving toward continuous flows e. Struggle for both is how to balance demands of paper or newscast, which still brings in more of the money, while adjusting to online, which continues to grow as a share of the business f. In quest for speed stories are being read over less g. Broadcast newsrooms have central assignment desks while assigning editors in print newsrooms are divided by specialty (ex: health, business, sports etc.) VIII. The Editing Process a. A reporter or freelancer typically deals with a “line”, or assigning editor from the moment a story idea is proposed b. Line editors oversee reporters c. Once line editor has cleared print version of a story it usually goes to the copy desk where it will be read by a copy editor d. Copy editor is supposed to bring detached eye to spot logical and potential legal problems in story and anticipate readers’ questions e. Copy editor also looks at style/grammar f. Work may then be reviewed by a supervisor (“slot”) g. News editor aka content editor h. Then when story is laid out on a page it is “proofed”
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