Introduction to Child Development
Introduction to Child Development HDFS 361
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Chapter 1Introduction Bold terms denote key terms and people to know I Why is caring for children important A Development is the pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span Most development involves growth although it also includes decline B Sociocultural contexts and diversity 1 The term context refers to the settings in which development occurs These settings are in uenced by historical economic social and cultural factors Four contexts we pay special attention to are culture ethnicity socioeconomic status and gender a Culture encompasses the behavior patterns beliefs and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation Culture results from the interaction of people over many years 1 Crosscultural studies compare aspects of two or more cultures This comparison provides information about the degree to which development is similar or universal across cultures or is instead culturespecific b Ethnicity is a characteristic based on cultural heritage nationality race religion and language Ex African Americans Latinos Asian Americans Native Americans 2 Diversity exists within each ethnic group as do stereotypes c Socioeconomic status SES An individual s position within society based on occupational educational and economic characteristics 1 Implies certain inequalities Occupations vary in prestige39 some people have greater access to higher levels of education different economic resources and different levels of power to in uence community s institutions d Gender is the characteristic of people as females or males C Resilience Social Policy and Children s development 1 A number of individual factors such as good intellectual functioning in uence resiliency a Resilient children are more likely to have stronger bonds with their parents and develop confidence in their abilities despite negative stereotypes about their gender or ethnic group 2 Social Policy is a government s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens a Ex Child labor laws II What are some historical views of child development A Early Views of childhood 1 In the original sin view especially advocated during the middle Ages children were perceived as being born into the world as evil beings The goal of child rearing was to provide salvation to remove sin from the child s life 2 Toward the end of the seventeenth century the tabula rasa view was proposed by English philosopher John Locke He argued that children are not innately bad but instead are like a blank tablet Locke maintained that childhood experiences are important in determining adult characteristics He advised parents to spend time with their children and to help them become contributing members of society 3 In the eighteenth century Swissborn French philosopher JeanJacques Rousseau presented the innate goodness view He stressed that children are inherently good He said because children are basically good they should be permitted to grow naturally with little parental monitoring or constraint 4 Today the western view of children holds that childhood is a highly eventful and unique period of life that lays an important foundation for the adult years and is markedly different from them B The modern study of child development 1 Alfred Binet invented many tasks to study attention and memory He collaborated in the first modern test of intelligence known as the Binet test 2 G Stanley Hall1904 pioneered the use of questionnaires with large groups of children He was influenced by the evolutionary theory and argued that child development follows a natural evolutionary course that can be revealed by child study He theorized that child development unfolds in stages with distinct motives and capabilities at each stage 3 Sigmund Freudl917 also examined the stages of child development According to his psychoanalytic theory children are rarely aware of the motives and reasons for their behavior and the bulk of their mental life is conscious Freud stressed that a child s experiences with parents in the first five years of life are important determinants of later personality development He envisioned the child moving through a series of stages filled with con ict between biological urges and societal demands He probed the depths of the unconscious mind to discover clues about our early experiences with parents 4 John Watson 1928 theory of behaviorism argued that children can be shaped into whatever society wishes by examining and changing the environment He believed strongly in systematic observation of children s behavior under controlled conditions He also claimed that parents were too soft on children Observed the environments in uence on children s behavior 5 James Mark Baldwin 1880 s was a pioneer in the study of children s thoughts He gave the term genetic epistemology to the study of how children s knowledge changed over the course of development 6 Jean Piaget adopted many of Baldwin s theories and observed the development of his own children and developed experiments to investigate how children think According to him children think in a manner that is very different from adults and pass through a series of cognitive or thought stages from infancy through adolescence 111 What characterizes development A Biological Cognitive and Socioemotional Processes 1 Biological processes produce changes in an individual s body a Genes inherited from parents the development of the brain height and weight gains motor skills and hormonal changes of puberty are all exam les 2 Cognitive processes refer to changes in an individuals thought intelligence and language a Ex Putting together a twoword sentence memorizing a poem solving a math problem 3 Socioemotional processes involve changes in an individual s relationship with other people changes in emotions and changes in personality a Ex An infants smile in response to a mothers touch adolescent joy of senior prom B Periods of development The prenatal period is the time from conception to birth roughly a ninem onth period During this stage a single cell grows into an organism complete with a brain and behavioral capabilities 2 Infancy is the developmental period that extends from birth to about 18 to 24 months of age Infancy is a time of extreme dependence on adults Many psychological activities are just beginning the ability to speak to coordinate sensations and physical actions to think with symbols and to imitate and learn from others 3 Early childhood is the developmental period that extends from the end of infancy to about 5 or 6 years of age39 sometimes this period is called the preschool years During this time young children learn to become more selfsufficient and to care for themselves they develop school readiness skills following instructions identifying letters and they spend many hours in play and with peers First grade typically marks the end of this period 4 Middle and late childhood is the developmental period that extends from about 6 to 11 years of age39 sometimes referred to as the elementary school years Children master the fundamental skills of reading writing and arithmetic and they are formally exposed to the larger world and its culture Achievement becomes a more central theme of the child s world and selfcontrol increases 5 Adolescence is developmental period of transition from childhood to early adulthood entered at approximately 10 to 12 years of age and ending in 18 to 22 years of age Adolescence begins with rapid physical changes dramatic gains in height and weight39 changes in body contour39 and the development of sexual characteristics such as enlargement of the breasts development of pubic and facial hair and deepening of the voice The pursuit of independence and an identity are prominent features of this period More and more time is spent outside the family Thought becomes more abstract idealistic and logical C Issues in development 1 NatureNurture issue involves the debate about whether development is primarily in uenced by nature or by nurture Nature refers to an organism s biological inheritance nurture to its environmental experiences nutrition medical care family peers school etc 2 Continuitydiscontinuity issue focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual cumulative change continuity such as puberty and learning your first world comes from practice or distinct stages such as thinking abstractly discontinuity 3 exp TV How is Child Devel a Developmentalists who emphasize nurture usually describe development as a gradual continuous process Those who emphasize nature see it as a series of distinct changes Earlylater experience issue focuses on the degree to which early experiences especially in infancy or later experiences are the key determinants of the child s development a Can a negative experience early in life be overcome later by a positive one Or are the early eriences so critical that they cannot be overridden opment a Science A The importance of research 1 B Theor l The scienti c method is an approach that can be used to discover accurate information It includes these steps a Conceptualize or identify the problem Researchers often draw on theories and develop a hypothesis A theory is an interrelated coherent set of ideas that helps to explain and to make predictions A hypothesis is a specific testable assumption or prediction and is often written as an ifthen statement Testing a hypothesis informs researchers of the accuracy of a theory b Collect data and information c Draw conclusions Researchers use statistical procedures to determine whether or not the observations are due to chance d Revise research conclusions and theory by comparing their findings to others on the same topic ies of Child Development Psychoanalytic theories describe development as primarily unconscious beyond awareness and heavily colored by emotion Psychoanalytic theorists emphasize that behavior is a surface characteristic and that a true understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind Early experiences shape development a 7 Freud s theory Personality has three structures the id the ego and the superego The id consists of instincts and is totally unconscious having no contact with reality The ego deals with the demands of reality and uses reasoning to make decisions The id and the ego have no morality meaning they do not take into account if something is right or wrong The superego is the moral part that considers whether something is right or wrong otherwise our conscience He was convinced people s problems were the result of early life experiences and as children grow older the focus of pleasure shifts from the mouth to the anus to the genitals He came up with the five stages of psychosexual development Oral stage Pleasure centers on the mouth birth to l 2 years Anal stage Child s pleasure focuses on the anus l 2 to 3 years Phallic stage Pleasure focuses on the genitals 3 to 6 years Latency stage Child represses sexual interest and develops social and intellectual skills 6 years to puberty Genital stage Atirne of sexual awakening39 source of sexual pleasure becomes someone outside of the family Puberty onward Erikson s psychosocial theory Erik Erikson argued Freud saying we develop psychosocial stages rather than psychosexual stages Unlike Freud who argued human behavior is sexual in nature Erikson argued it is social and reflects a desire to a iliate with otherpeople He believed development occurred throughout the lifespan early and later experiences rather than the first 5 years or simply just early experiences Freud In Erikson s theory composed of 8 stages a unique developmental task confronts an individual with a crisis that must be resolved at each stage and how well the individual resolves the crisis the healthier their development will be Each stage has a positive and negative pole 1 Trust versus mistrust experienced in the first year of life Trust in infancy sets the stage for a lifelong expectation that the world will be a good and pleasant place to live th Nf V 2 Autonomy versus shame and doubt After gaining trust from their caregiver begin to realize behavior is their own and develop a sense of independence or autonomy If they are punished too harshly they develop feelings of shame and doubt This stage occurs during late infancy until toddlerhood 13 years of age 3 Initiative versus guilt occurs during preschool years assume responsibility for their bodies their behavior and their things taking initiative Feel guilty if irresponsible 2 9 He 0 gt Industry versus inferiority occurs during elementary school years Children direct energy towards mastering knowledge and intellectual skills but can feel incompetent and unproductive Identity versus identity confusion during the adolescent years individuals are faced with finding out who they are what they are all about and where they are going in life Faced with many new roles Intimacy versus isolation early adulthood years 20 s and 30 s forming intimate relationships and healthy friendships Generativity versus stagnation middle adulthood 40 s and 50 s primarily a concern for helping the younger generation to develop and lead useful lives The feelings of having nothing to help the next generation is stagnation Integrity versus despair late adulthood 60 onward a person re ects on the past A person either feels satisfied with their life or experiences doubt and regret Psychoanalytic theories include these ideas early experiences play an important part in development family relationships are a central aspect of development personality can be better understood if it is examined developmentally the mind is not all conscious unconscious aspects of the mind need to be considered in Erikson s theory changes take place in adulthood as well as childhood V 0 gt1 00 Cognitive theories emphasize conscious thought a 7 0 Piaget s theory states that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development Organization and adaptation underlie the 4 stages we organize our experiences to make sense of our world and adapt adjusting to new environmental demands Sensorim otor stage birth to age 2 the infant constructs an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences such as seeing and hearing with physical motoric actions An infant progresses from re exive instinctual action at birth to the beginning of symbolic though toward the end of this stage 2 Preoperational stage 27 years of age the child begins to represent the world with words and images re ecting increased symbolic thinking and going beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action 3 Concrete operational stage 711 years of age the child can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets 4 Formal operational stage 11 years of age through adulthood the adolescent reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways Future possibilities Vygotsky s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Similar to Piaget s theory except his did not involve stages and focused more heavily on culture and social interaction He argued that development of memory attention and reasoning involves learning to use the inventions of society such as language mathematical systems and memory strategies Informationprocessing theory emphasized that individuals manipulate information monitor it and strategize about it Central to this theory are the processes of memory and thi ing Individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills Behavior and Social Cognitive theories provided foundations for behaviorism which holds that we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured a 7 Pavlov s classical conditioning a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response originally produced by another stimulus Involuntary responses such as fears 1 Ex Dogs salivating when they taste food ring a bell Skinner s Operant conditioning the consequences in behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior s occurrence In other words a behavior followed by a rewarding stimulus is more likely to recur 1 Ex Smiling at a child after the child has done something good Bandura s Social Cognitive theory holds that behavior environment and cognition are the key factors in development Bandura s early research focused heavily on observational learning also called imitation or modeling which involves learning through observing what others do Ethological Theory a Ethology stresses that behavior is strongly in uenced by biology is tied to evolution and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods 1 Konrad Lorenz studied the behavior of geese which follow their mother as soon as they hatch From this experience the process of imprinting the rapid innate learning within a limited critical period of time that involves attachment to the first moving seen object was created John Bowlby applied these ideas to human development and argued that if attachment throughout the first year is positive and secure the individual will grow positively in childhood and adulthood If the attachment is negative and insecure lifespan development will not be as optimal 5 Ecological Theory emphasizes environmental factors a Bronfenbrenner s ecological theory holds that development re ects the in uence of several environmental systems Microsystem the setting in which an individual lives These contexts include the person s family peers school etc Most direct interactions take place here Mesosystem relations between Microsystems or connections between contexts i Ex Relation of family experiences to school experiences Exosystem links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual s immediate context i Ex A husband s experience at home may be in uenced by his wife s experience at wor Macrosystem the culture in which individuals live Chronosystem the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course as well as sociohistorical circumstances i Ex Divorce 6 Eclectic theoretical orientation does not follow any one theoretical approach but rather selects from each theory whatever is considered its best features C Research methods for collecting data 1 Observation a Laboratory a controlled setting with many of the complex factors of the real world removed b Naturalistic observation observing behavior in a real world setting making no effort to manipulate or control the situation 2 Survey and Interview 3 Standardized test a test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring Man standardized tests allow a person s performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals 4 Case Study an indepth look at a single individual D Research designs 1 Descriptive research aims to observe and record behavior 2 Correlational research the goal is to describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics a Correlation coef cient a number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables Ranges om l 00 to 100 A negative number means an inverse relation The higher the correlation coefficient whether positive or negative the stronger the association between the two variables A zero demonstrates no relationship 3 Experimental researc a Experiment A carefully regulated procedure in which one of more of the factors believed to in uence the behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant 1 2 3 4 Establish cause and effect relationships Independent variable a manipulated in uential experimental factor Dependent variable a factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable Experimental group a group whose experience is manipulated Control group a comparison group that is as much like the experimental group as possible and that is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor independent variable 6 Random assignment researchers assign participants to experimental or control groups by hance 4 Time Span of Research a Crosssectional approach research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time Usually do not take longer than a few months 1 Ex Comparing the IQ of different 5 8 and ll year olds Longitudinal approach research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time usually several years or more More expensive and time consuming risk drop S7 1 Ex The same children might be assessed for IQ at ages 5 8 and ll E Research Challenges 1 Conducting ethical research a Informed consent what their participation involves and the risks b Confidentiality c Debriefing informed of the studies purpose and methods used afterwards d Deception cannot harm the participants 2 Minimizing bias a Gender bias b Cultural and Ethnic bias 1 Exclude certain races or ethnicities from studies 2 Ethnic gloss the use of an ethnic label such as African American or Latino in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is Leads to overgeneralizations and stereotypes Chapter 2 Biological Beginnings I What is the Evolutionary perspective a Natural selection and Adaptive behavior 1 Natural selection is the evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the ones that survive and reproduce i Charles Darwin On the Origin ofSpecies 1859 2 Adaptive Behavior is behavior that promotes an organisms survival in the natural habitat i EX Attachment between a caregiver and a baby ensures the infant s closeness to a caregiver for feeding and protection from danger thus increasing the infant s chances for survival b Evolutionary Psychology 1 Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the importance of adaptation reproduction and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior i Fit refers to the ability to produce offspring that survive long enough to produce offspring of their own 2 David Buss argues that just as evolution shapes our physical features such as body shape and height it also pervasiver in uences our decision making our degree of aggression our fears and our mating patterns P39 J39 39 view 39 39 39 11 What are the genetic foundations of development a The Collaborative Gene 1 The nucleus of each human cell contains chromosomes which are threadlike structures made up of DNA which is a complex molecule that has a doublehelix shape like a spiral staircase and contains genetic information 2 Genes are the units of hereditary information that are short segments of DNA They direct cells to reproduce themselves and to assemble proteins which are the building blocks of cells as well as the regulators that direct the body s processes 3 The human genome is the complete set of developmental instructions for creating proteins that initiate the making of a human organism b Genes and Chromosomes 1 All cells in the body except the sperm and egg have 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs These cells reproduce by a process called mitosis During mitosis the cell s nucleus including the chromosomes duplicates itself and the other cell divides Two new cells are formed each containing the same DNA as the original cell arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes 2 Meiosis is different type of cell division in which forms eggs and sperm or gametes During this process a cell of the testes or ovaries duplicates its chromosomes but then divides twice thus forming four cells each of which has only half of the genetic material of the parent cell By the end of meiosis each egg or sperm has 23 unpaired chromosomes 3 During fertilization an egg and sperm fuse to create a single cell called a zygote In the zygote the 23 unpaired chromosomes from the egg combine with the 23 unpaired chromosomes from the spenn to form one set of 23 paired chromosomes one c J39 in uence each other chromosome of each pair from the mother the other from the father Each parent contributes half i Females 23rd chromosome consists of two X chromosomes ii Males have an X and Y chromosome The Y signi es male c Sources of Variability l The combination of genes on each chromosome from the mother and father produce a truly unique combination of genes 2 Identical monozygotic twins develop from a single zygote that splits into two genetically identical replicas each becoming a person 3 Fraternal dizygotic twins develop from separate eggs and separate sperm making them genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings 4 A mistake by cellular machinery or damage form an environmental agent such as radiation may produce a mutated gene which is a permanently altered segment of 5 All of a person s genetic material makes up his or her genotype Not all aspects of a person s genotype is observable 6 A phenotype consists of observable characteristics physical height weight hair color and psychological personality characteristics i The two can affect each other called heredityenvironment interaction or gene environment interaction d Genetic Principles 1 Dominant recessive gene principle one gene of a pair always exerts its effects it is dominant overriding the potential in uence of the other gene called the recessive gene A recessive gene exerts its in uence only if both genes are recessive 2 Sexlinked genes i When a mutated gene is carried on the X chromosome the result is called X linked inheritance This is a larger problem in males because they only have one X chromosome therefore may carry an Xlinked disease Females with one changed copy of the X gene are known as carriers Ex Hemophilia and fragile X syndrome 3 Genetic imprinting occurs when genes have differing effects depending on whether they are inherited from the mother or the father A chemical process silences one member of the gene pair 4 Polygenic Inheritance i Few characteristics re ect the in uence of only a single gene or pair of genes Most are determined by the interaction of many different genes they are said to be polygenically determined ii Gene gene interaction is used to describe studies that focus on the interdependence of two or more genes in in uencing characteristics behavior diseases and development e Chromosomal and Genelinked abnormalities 1 Chromosomal abnormalities sperm and ovum do not have their normal set of 23 chromosomes i Down syndrome characterized by a round face a attened skull an extra fold of skin over the eyelids a protruding tongue short limbs and retardation of motor and mental abilities Caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21 l in 700 births More likely in older women it Sex linked chromosomal abnormalities presence of an extra chromosome either X or Y or the absence of one X in females a W 9 9 Klinefelter syndrome is a genetic disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome making them XXY instead of XY Have undeveloped testes enlarged breasts and taller Impairment in language academic attentional and motor abilities I in 800 male births Fragile X syndromeis a genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome which becomes constricted and often breaks Children with this disorder often appear normal although they typically have a long face a higharched palate and soft skin Mental retardation a learning disability or a short attention span More frequent in males Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder in females in which either an X chromosome is missing making the person XO instead of XX or part of one X chromosome is deleted Short in stature and have a webbed neck Might be infertile or have difficulty in mathematics 1 in every 2500 females births XXY syndrome chromosomal disorder in which the male has an extra Y chromosome No more aggressive than other males 2 Genelinked abnormalities harmful genes 7000 identified most rare 139 Phenylketonuria PKU an individual cannot properly metabolize phenylalanine an amino acid It results from a recessive gene 1 in every 10000 to 20000 births Easily detected Treated by a diet If left untreated mental retardation and hyperactivity NonLatino whites accounts for 1 of mental retardation in institutionalized individuals Nature v nurture issue it Sickle cell anemia occurs most often in African Americans Genetic disorder that impairs the body s red blood cells Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body s cells and are usually shaped like a disk In this a recessive gene causes the red blood cell to become hook shaped that cannot carry oxygen properly and dies quickly As a result the body s cells do not receive adequate oxygen causing anemia and early death iii Cystic fibrosis diabetes hemophilia spina bi da Taysachs Chart on page 70 HI What are some reproductive challenges and choices a Prenatal diagnostic tests Ultrasound technology is a prenatal medical procedure in which highfrequency waves are directed into the pregnant women s abdomen Creates a visual representation of the fetus s inner structures Can detect fetal abnormalities number of fetuses and sex No harm Taken 7 weeks and at other points during the pregnancy K N 5 Fetal MRI brain imaging used to diagnose fetal malformations Uses powerful magnets and radio images to generate detailed images of the body s organs and structure More detailed than ultrasounds Second step Chorionic Villus Sampling CVS is a prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of the placenta is removed Detects genetic defects and chromosomal abnormalities Small risk of limb deformity 95125 weeks 4 LI 6 Amniocentesis prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic uid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal and metabolic disorders More accurate the later performed 1420 weeks Small risk of miscarriage Maternal Blood Screening identifies pregnancies that have an elevated risk for birth defects such as spina bifida and Down syndrome The current test is called the triple screen because it measures three substances in the mother s blood 1618 weeks Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis WIPD focuses on the isolation and examination of fetal cells circulating in the mother s blood and analysis of cellfree fetal DNA in maternal plasma Detect sex as early as 5 weeks Controversial adds to mothers motivation to terminate a pregnancy b Infertility and Reproductive technology 1 1015 of couples in the US experience infertility which is the inability to conceive a child after 12 months of regular intercourse without contraception Problems can rest within the male or female 2 In vitro fertilization I VF 39 eggs and a sperm are combined in a laboratory dish then transferred into the woman s uterus Success depends on mother s age 0 Adoption 1 Adoption is the social and legal process by which a parentchild relationship is established between persons unrelated at birth 39 Children adopted earlier in life are more likely to have positive outcomes than those adopted later in life Adopted children are more likely to have psychological and schoolrelated problems More behavior problems more likely to have learning disabilities use drugs and engage in illicit behavior iii No differences in antisocial behavior between adopted and not IV How do heredity and environment interact The naturenurture debate a Behavior Genetics 1 N 5 The field that seeks to discover the in uence of heredity and environment on individual differences in human traits and development i Does not determine the extent to which genetics or the environment affects an individual s traits ii What is responsible for the differences among people Twin study studies the behavioral similarity of identical twins and compares it with the behavior similarities of fraternal twins Adoption study investigators seek to discover whether the behavior and psychological characteristics of adopted children are more like those of their adoptive parents who have provided a home environment or more like those of their biological parents who have contributed to their heredity b HeredityEnvironment Correlations individuals genes may in uence the types of environments to which they are exposed 1 Passive genotype environment correlation correlations that exist when the biological parents who are genetically related to the child provide a rearing environment for the child i Ex They are skilled readers so they provide the child with books to read therefore the child will most likely become a skilled reader ii More common in the lives of infants and young children C 5 Evocative genotype environmental correlations correlations that exist when a child s characteristics elicit certain types of physical and social environments 139 Ex Smiling children receive more social stimulation than quiet children Active niche picking genotype environment correlations correlations that exist when children seek out environments they nd compatible and stimulating i Niche picking refers to nding a setting that is suited to one s abilities ii Ex Outgoing children seek out social contexts in which to interact with others Shared and nonshared environmental experiences 1 N Shared environmental experiences are siblings common experiences such as their parents personalities or intellectual orientation the family s socioeconomic status and the neighborhood in which they live Nonshared environmental experiences are a child s unique experiences both within the family and outside the family that are not shared with a sibling i Heredity in uences the nonshared environments of siblings d The Epigenetic View and Gene x Environment G x E Interaction 1 e Epigenetic view emphasizes that development is the result of an ongoing bidirectional interchange between heredity and the environment 139 Heredity and environment operate together to collaborate or produce a person s intelligence temperament height weight ability to read etc Genetic X environment G x E interaction the interaction of a speci c measured variation in the DNA and a speci c measured aspect of the environment 139 Pharmogenetics study of geneenvironment interaction involving the individuals genotype and drug treatment a Are certain drugs more dangerous is the genotype is known Conclusions about Heredityenvironment interaction 1 Heredity and environment make up an individuals behavior