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Forage Crops

by: Fanny Flatley V

Forage Crops HCS 412

Fanny Flatley V
GPA 3.56


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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fanny Flatley V on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HCS 412 at Ohio State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see /class/209950/hcs-412-ohio-state-university in Crop and Soil Sciences at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Anions N03 804239 P033 Solubility comparative nutrient balance 0 O O 0 Net P inputs Net S Plant S inputs uptake U Plant N uptake plant available soil P033 pool plant avail SOIOI U u leaching Sulfur 0 Phosghorous 0 Essential for plants and animals 0 Moreimportantfor grasses have a ner root system resulting in higher root surface area hence more competitive for most nutrients 0 soil concentrations 10 o E E 08 2 a 06 II N 9 04 0 a 2 E 02 a 393 00 O 10 20 3O 4O 50 Soil P ppm 0 MW P 3097 6194 0 159994 8000 14194 in forage Grazing removes P approx uniformly not totally from pasture and concentrates it as solid manure in piles comprising less than 5 ofthe land area This can result in a lower ef ciency of P cycling with grazing Homework Question Calculate a farm P balance A con nement dairy farm has 500 cows each producing 20000 lb milk The farm has 90 acres in forage alfalfa amp corn silage producing 12000 lbsacreyr No P fertilizer is used a calculate how much purchased forage is required and how much P is imported onto the farm assume each cow consumes 10000 lbs forageyear and forage 03 P b calculate how much P is exported as milk assume milk 01 P c ef uent from the cows is collected and spread over the farm What is the P application rate assume all imported P ends up as ef uent P with no leaching losses What would the soil P level be after 20 years assume 9 lbacre ofapplied P will increase soil P by 1 lbacre initial soil P 22 lbac no leaching losses 0 v Forage Establishment Chapter 11 pg 239261 Introduction 39239 Costly 39239 FeItilizeri v Sp ng vs fall 7 39239 Coated vs bare seed 39 Rhizobia Do it and do it 39239 Methods Full cultivation 39 39i Advantages 39ll 39i Advantages Notill direct drilling if soil is uneven or machine incorrectly adjusted Ideal depth varies with species but 5mm W suits many small seeds o Other methods of 10101010 Planting stolons sprigs 39239 eg bermuda grass pg 254 Broadcast Feeding seed to stock Seed dispersal in hay Natural re seeding 7 allowing desirable plants to ower and setseed e g legumes such as white and red clover Grazing Management and Utilization glazing 7 Chapter 20 pg 473501 What are the bene ts of grazing compared to croppingcon nement Definitions MIG Management Intensive Grazing Rotational stockinggraz ing Continuous stockinggrazing Grazing frequency rotation length rotation rate Grazing intensity measured as Stocking rate Stocking density MIG Advantages 39allows greater stocking rate higher pro t 39Animal husbandry 39 Plant husbandry 39Better nutrient manure dispersal 39Ease and accuracy of monitoring wholefarm pasture mass 39Easier to convert surpluses to stored forage haysilage 39Easier to constrain animal intake immediately de cits are identi ed 39Animals easier to manage for animal remedy treatments 39Botanical composition MIG usually favors the desirable species Disadvantages 4000 2000 Pasture mass ngMha 0 10 20 30 40 Time days Forage Quality part 2 Introduction 0 Protein 0 Minerals 0 Vitamins 0 Anti quality components Protein and Quality Crude protein accounts 7 typically measured as Typical levels ange for high animal production 80 of forage protein is Rubisco 7 hence Higher in A Rumen protein digestion 1 Protein is poor N efficiency 2 A small proportion A small proportion Bypass protein S B Lower digestive tract digestion 4 Protein is degraded to high N efficiency Most forages alfalfa red clover and grasses containing legumes binds to protein protein absorption Some bypass protein Excess tannin eg can decrease intake Minerals In general de ciencies de ciencies soil or herbage testing can be used Animal requirements can so plants can grow adequately but for livestock eg Cu Mg some minerals are not required by plants e g 39 Only in rare cases do plants have excess mineral levels for livestock e g mine reclamation Some weeds and be sought by stock eg plantain chicory dandelion Grass tetany or hypomagnesaemia l Caused by or 3 Cows respond rapidly to Mg treatment Vitamins No commonly accepted In general of vitamins to suit livestock requirements No major de ciency problems Antiquality factors 39 Bloat 7 foaming of legume protein saponins in the rumen which prevents passage of digesta prevented by tannins in birdsfoot trefoil and sajnfoin 39 Endophyte 7 alkaloids produced by lngi in ryegrass and tall fescue pg 348349 39 Estrogens produced by old red clover varieties hay appeals to be safe 39 Molds and other mycotoxins in hay Sweet clover poisoning rare 0 Coumaiin harmless in sweet clover is converted to dicoumarol during heating amp spoilage of hay o Dicoumarol is the active ingredient of wafarin 7 an anticoagulant used in a rat poison o and heart surgery Nitrate poisoning amp Prussic acid 0 Warm season grasses and in rare cases can have toxic levels of nitrate o Nitrate converts to nitrite and interferes with hemoglobin 0 Especially regrowth a er rain or following drought O o Remedy is Reed canarygrass allmloids 0 Reduced palatability diarrhea death especially o Remedy Zealalenone o Caused by especially during speci c climate conditions 0 Causes in horses 0 Also occurs when grazing wheat grain Nitrogen pg 8587 267275 0 soil N status is generally related to both are extremely dif cult to measure and quantify 0 soil N forms include and numerous which vary in plant N availability 0 NO339amp NH4 are and don t stay in the soil long 0 Forage production is more closely related to than the in contrast to S K and P analogy to a bank account balance N balance For any site soil N status the Ninputs the Nlosses N2 Fixation pg 85 species speci city white clover and alfalfa can x up to typically crop rotations Legumes Two key attributes l to grassland and subsequent crops 2 high hence high Disadvantages l 2 potential problems Species white clover Trz39folz39um repens 32 M ac in Australasia 12 M ac in USA about 79 M ac sown annually worldwide double for indigenous white clover 2 alfalfa Aedicago sativa 65 M ac in the world 1520 M ac sown annually 3 red clover Trz39folz39um pratense annual sowing about 32 M ac with about 9 11 M ac grown inUSA 4 subterranean clover Trz39folz39um subterraneum mainly in Australia 32 M ac also in USA and Mediterranean 5 birdsfoot trefoil Lotus corniculatus About 15 M ha is grown in USA and annual sowing in southem Feltilizer nitrogen pg 273 Anhydrous crops only 82 0 00 Urea 46 0 00 NH4N03 34000 NH4ZSO4 21000 manure 05 N for cattle 1 N for poultry fertilizer N suppresses N xation rule of thumb 7 will prevent split dressings strategic applications new pasture or in fall for winter stockpile 20 ngMkg N Atmospheric deposition pollution in North America in Europe Volatilization Release of 7 results in of fertilizer application Unless nitrogenous fertilizers are soon after application they can as NH3 and reduce the fertilizer response Nitri cation amp Denitri cation An environmental issue In extreme cases can account for up to from soil Nitri cation Denitri cation released to the atmosphere high in wet soils Leaching Not usually signi cant for most soils being N de cient Can be extremely high if xation and fertilizer exceed Is usually high in areas with Removal in haysilage 01 animal products O en underestimated 7 but is usually the greatest loss of N from the soil Hay typically 25 protein protein is 16 N hay is 4N Typical alfalfa harvest 4 crops each of 15 tonacre 12000 lbacre 134 Tha 480 leha 540 ngha Cow calf operation Grazing 1 cow per acre producing a 600 lb 275 kg stocker calf per acre 60 protein 16N 58 leacre 20 April 2003 Light and Temperature Chapter 5 O The fundamental determinants of forage response 7 the combined effect of warm temperature and increasing daylength to promote owering are required to obtain spring growth rates 9 These are climatic effects and o en there is not much that can be done in practice however Light Qualify 2g 1032 gt 800nm 39 no bene t 39 Many plant responses to high solar radiation heating are to reduce leaf area and minimize radiation load 700 rim 800 nm Farred effects pg 109 High proportion in transmitted light shading effects Etiolation O 61 0 700 nm red effects 0 Redfarred ratio 51 0 61 0 nm no absorbance lt 4 00 nm UV range UV increasing 20 April 2003 Light Intensity Units are those for density of intercepted light Jgt D O O 0 1 2 3 4 5 Leaf Area Index Light Duration 2 Day length Winter light 730am 7 430 9hr days Summer light 530 am 7 830 pm 15hr days High Temperature pg 111 Maximum temperature for growth High temperature effects Low Temperature pg 1 11 1 1 7 Freezing effects Acclimation 7 solute accumulation will lower the freezing point by up to 10 C Vemalization HeaVing pg 112 20 April 2003 Farm Management 39 Light management 39 Species and valiety selection 3 High cold tolerance 39 Fall management and fertilizer 6 April 2003 Physiology Greek phusis ology study of the function of living things Mechanistic basis by which plant processes occur a knowledge of plant physiology allows us to understand eg nutrient uptake drought and cold tolerance disease resistance and photosynthesis Carbon cycle 0 Energy is quottrappedquot and transported as glucose fructose sucrose 0 Energy is stored in 0 Energy carbon 0 The carbon cycle in forages is the basis of 0 Important carbon forms 0 o o o o Total non structural carbohydrates TNC all TNC are completely 6 April 2003 Characteristics of C3 and C4 forages C3 Forages C4 forages Characteristics examples 6 April 2003 Carbon cle resplra I0 products respi tion Soil organic matter Anjma wk excreta me graz g Structural pa rtI p1 am components phot 1thesis nescence and death soluble sugars Harvest g and shoots I I roots respiratio 6 April 2003 Management implications 1 Photosynthesis is maximized by a Gross photosynthesis will be maximized at canopy closure and net photosynthesis may decrease if senescence of shaded leaves gets too high Crop quality is maximized by the and the minimum amount of following winter 7 initial plant growth is from carbohydrates stored in the crowns stolons rhizomes and roots of plants Defoliation during this phase will and weaken the stand The forage crop will take several months to reach a positive energy balance for an establishing pasture it takes time for the crop to build root reserves energy reserves for regrowth a er cuttinggrazing Defoliation during establishment can In fall plants will be translocating carbohydrates as reserves for subsequent regrowth The standard recommendation for alfalfa is to allow 46 weeks between the last harvest August Sept and the l51 killing frost A er any defoliation grazingcutting plants will use stored carbohydrates for regrowth It will take 24 weeks for the crop to rebuild its reserves Repeated defoliation will weaken plants and stands Harvest Management Ch 16 pg 377388 Dr Mark Sule Intrnductinn Harvest denslons ln uence Yleld Forag e quahtv lt Stand perslstence Inseet damage harvests ean be Dlsease lnfestanon held and storagelosses too dry too wet ram 7 all lncrease losses PROFIT all the above atreet pro t Relanonshlp between goWLh stage yleld and quallty Hg 16 8 pg 383 vegansquot am pm Full Fluwer Flwer news Effect of Harvest Tlmmg on Root Reselves m Alfalfa mg 4 6 pg 88 Rant rzservn Harvest Management Seeding year Harvest depends on seeding date Spring seeding no companion crop Late summer seedings 7 First Harvest Timing in Established Stands as plants mature forage quality basing harvest on maturity can be deceiving use PEAQ method for alfalfa for dairy quality grass Summer Harvest Timing can generally use intensive cutting can be done requires Fall Harvest Cautions increased increase roots need time to is the forage REALLY needed Fall Harvest Tips 0 complete last harvest by do NOT harvest during late September amp October cut a er 25F for several hours if fall harvesting select elds that are well drained good fertility amp good pH is the forage REALLY needed Alfalfa Quality by Maturity Stage CP ADF NDF RFV 23 2 8 3 8 164 20 29 40 154 18 3 1 42 144 17 3 5 46 125 15 37 50 1 12 Matching Forage to Animal Needs Need to know Energy Requirements Animals with requirements need forage eg lactating animals Intake Potential Animals that have to eat large amounts of feed need Amount of forage fed Forage quality not that important for animals fed low forage diet e g feedlot steers Economics Cost of feed relative to value of product A high producing dairy cow generates 3000yr in gross income a gestating beef cow generates 450yr Forage Quality for Beef Cows Beef cows TDN 56 to 62 ADF NDF CP Grass 3742 5769 10 13 Alfalfa 3339 4350 1720 Mix 3540 4855 1518 Note high ber low TDN 0 CP less than 10 tend o TDN values less than 55 0 Most beef cows require less than high lactation breeds in first 3 months need 1214 CP CP fed in excess is simply excreted in urine no value to the cow Forage Quality for Dairy Average producing cow RHA lt 18000 NEL gt06 Mcallb ADF lt35 NDF lt60 Grass lt48 Legume High producing and early lactation NEL gt064 Mcallb ADF lt32 NDF lt55 Grass 50 is ideal lt44 Legume lt42 is better Forages lower in quality reduce intake and usually result in lower milk production Difficult to balance diets to maintain good intake with low quality forages Assessment of Moisture Content of Hay A Practical Guide Moisture Condition 30 40 Leaves begin to rustle and do not give up moisture unless rubbed hard Juice easily extruded from stems using thumbnail or knife or with dif culty by twisting in hands 25 30 Hay rustles a bundle twisted in the hands will snap with difficulty but should extrude no surface moisture Thick stems extrude moisture if scraped with thumbnail 20 2 50 Hay rustles readily a bundle will snap easily if twisted leaves may shatter a 0 few juicy stems remain 1 5 200 Swathmade hay fractures easily snaps easily when twisted juice dif cult to 39 0 extrude Reproduced from Hoard s Dairyman 132 1987 Forage Growth staging Methods Alfalfa Maturity Visual Rating from NAAIC Standard Tests 1 Vegetative stems have no buds or owers 2 Early bud l33 stems have buds 3 Mid bud 3465 stems have buds 4 Late bud 66 100 stems have buds no owers present 5 Early ower l33 stems have open owers 6 Mid ower 3465 stems have open owers 7 Late ower 66100 stems have open owers no seed pods present 8 Post ower stems have pods or seeds Alfalfa Stem Staging from Kalu and Fick 1981 0 Stems lt 16 cm n0 buds or owers 1 Stems 1630 cm n0 buds or owers 2 Stems gt30 cm n0 buds or owers 3 12 nodes with Visible buds n0 owers 4 3 or more nodes with buds n0 owers 5 1 node with an open ower n0 seed pods 6 2 or more nodes with open owers n0 seed pods 7 13 nodes with green seed pods 8 4 or more nodes with green seed pods 9 Nodes with mostly brown mature seed pods Grass Maturity Visual Rating from Moore et al 1991 VE Emergence of rst leaf V1 First leaf collared V2 Second leaf collared Vn Nth leaf collared E0 Onset of stem elongation El First node palpableVisible E2 Second node palpableVisible En Nth node palpableVisible R0 Boot stage R1 In orescence emergence rst spikelet Visible R2 Spikelets llly emerged but peduncle not emerged R3 In orescence emerged and peduncle llly elongated R4 Anther emergenceanthesis R5 Post anthesis SO Seed caryopsis Visible Sl Milk stage S2 So dough vewsem Am 2mm Forage Morphology Chapters 2 amp3 pg 25772 Introduction Morphology morphs Greekar o1ogy plantmorphologye eg plantmorphologyxsthebasxsfor respenally ower heads and seed pods H n V k Grassstmcmre The bash umt ofgrass gowth 15 Aullercompnses Abunch grass planth 3 g Sodeformmg gasses also produce 3 g or I r d u N r nu k r The gowmg pomt oftheullens at e and generally protected from revised 1 April 2003 Nonspreading forages The most common legume plant structure eg Commonstructure formostweedseg no mechanism of plant crowns are sensitive to damage by and Damaged plants are prone to being infected by fungal pathogens ultimately resulting in plant death A er harvest plants need to regroW from Vegetativelyspreading forages The dominant plant structure for stolons eg rhizomes p 9 plants have the cwacity to grow rapidly into nodes can produce and eventually can become independent plants if the stolon is broken by treading or eventually senescences in the axis of W quot produce or thus thepotential for vevlsedl Am 2mm Merismn s Menstems are the e undifferentiated eells from whlch leaf and Slam structures develop Areas oflntense eell dmsm By the lame aleaf appears eell dlvlslon has ruwdl H N l ls cut orgrazed Tu l um once the crop ls cut new stems muSL regow from the plant crown revised 1 April 2003 Implications for Farm Management Understanding the morphological components of plants is the key to managing forage quality ratio of leafpseudo stern identifying the onset of owering boot stage in a crop Cutting too late will The morphological trait most closely associated with crop yield is stand height Experienced farmers can estimate stand yield based on height The sward stick and rising plate meter are two tools for measuring yield and this is based on stand height Meristems are the basis of Damaging meristems by tractors or hooves especially when soils are wet and for non spreading forages alfalfa Being able to identify your forages is dependant on a thorough knowledge of plant morphology Sustainabili pg 329 amp Biodiversi pg 331 amp 3342 Introduction 0 Whether or not we feel quotgreenquot or adopt quotecologicalquot practices agriculture is a and is constrained by the laws of biology o The world and are unprecedented 0 Historical evidence is that cultures which their soil have died out 0 With increasing population in Ohio there is an increasing and communities which is becoming increasingly of o farm emissions 0 CFAES has adopted the quotecological paradigmquot production ef ciency economic social environmental What is sustainability v Many de nitions v The term implies Continued production clean water clean air viability 7 protected resources soil water plant animal biodiversity human viability viability What is being sustained How long should sustained mean 7 science can t agree on Technology mask 7 eg from soil loss how would this be measured Sustainability is a sociological concept 7 it is Examples of Sustainability in Forages IZI Examples Examples of Non Sustainability in Forages HERE Biodiversitv 0 De ned as o components 0 Biodiversity is o Subspecies effects 7 0 Rio accord 1992 7 0 Hence there is an emphasis o In some areas restoration and preservation of federally owned land is only with native species pg 375 Biodiversity measurement 4 species number 4 role of dominant and rare species 1 4 Range condition can be scored by a system Introduced species impaired condition 4 The argument for native species is based on the hypothesis that Practical applications of i 1 Bene ts of mixtures 7 eg bloat if legumes exceed 30 of forage dilution of endophyte in tall fescue and ryegrass Complimentary growth patterns e g Faster recovery from drought of range and prairie some question about using seed having the appropriate genetic diversity Exploit spatial variability eg vary species composition on sun facing and shade facing slopes Genetic variation 7 Many differences Some lines sold are blends of varieties e g BG34 Barenbrug ryegrass is a blend of 4 di erent varieties Soil fertility is the no includes CEC basic igneous rocks porous high water holding capacity aerated soil organic matter signi cance fertility is determines the performance of one determinant of Use of improved species intensive management and improved animal production is based on Essential Elements pg 266 Cation exchange capacity 7 the weak electrostatic charge of soil palticles resulting from loss of PF ions which attracts soil cations holding them in a plant available form Depends on Mg H 2 H H K H lemg CaCO3 H20 CaH HCO339 0H 2H20 2H K potash pg 281283 Released into the soil by the mineral or applied as essential in plants promotes important in drought tolerance and freezing resistance metabolic processes in fertilizer is measured as MW K 39098 782 0 159994 160 942 Na Ca in soil is measured as kgKha lbacre or ppm g 103 kg It takes 4 lbsacre of K20 to increase soil test by l lbacre It takes 8 lbsacre of K20 to increase soil test by 1 ppm Soil K should be at least 300 kgha 270 lbac depending on CBC and soil K supplying power in forage is measured as ppm g 106 g or mg102 g desirable levels in forage are at least 25 high losses when forage is removed as haysilage that must be replaced by fertilizer see pg 277 not required by plants and in excess can displace K when present in plants it does help regulate osmotic balance it is required by animals hence is required in forage required by plants for enzymatic function chlorophyll typical levels are 025030 it is required by animals de ciency results in hypomagnesemia of lactating cows can be applied as dolomite Ca CO3MgCO3 can be suppressed by Ca in lime or high rates of K minor role in plants contributes to good soil structure typical levels are l2 it is required by animals for bone growth can be applied as lime Ca CO3 or dolomite Ca CO3MgC03 increases soil pH Homework question A hay eld produces 4 alfalfa crops of 15 tonacre How much K is removed from the eld How much fertilizer would be required to replace it What might the hay be worth and what might the fertilizer cost K20 83K hay is 28 K


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