Language and Social Identity in the U.S
Language and Social Identity in the U.S LINGUIST 372
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jarrell Schuster on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LINGUIST 372 at Ohio State University taught by David Durian in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see /class/209952/linguist-372-ohio-state-university in Linguistics at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Linguistics 372 Mid Term Review Sheet Reminder The Mid Term is Thursday October 29 2009 Be prepared to answer questions that will resemble the question prompts provided below The day of the quiz you may use any notes you have written related to these questions no page limit However these notes must be handwritten or printed out That is you may not any kind of electronic device cell phone iphone ipod laptop calculators etc You also are not allowed to use the actual text book in answering questions the day of the quiz Of the questions below 10 will ultimately be selected for a MidTerm totaling 70 points The MidTerm is 1 hour 48 minutes This gives you roughly 10 mins to answer each question with 8 minutes of spare time Remember you MAY use a bulletpointbrief sentence style for answering each question and in fact you will nd taking such an approach to your advantage The quiz covers the rst 7 chapters of the Wolfram amp SchillingEstes as well as additional material covered in class lectures that also appears on handouts In addition a couple of questions are drawn from the Do You SpeakAmerican Video we watched in class Questions covering Chapter 1 of W amp SE and Handouts 1 and 2 1 What are three de nitions Wolfram and SchillingEstes provide for standard and nonstandard dialect description for US English Why are all 3 definitions necessary Provide 2 characteristics for each definition that allow us to reliably differentiate each definition 2 What do nonlinguists mean when they say someone speaks with an accen when discussing the speech of English speakers speaking English And what do linguists mean Does accent for a linguist include only pronunciation features Chapter 3 3 In chapter 3 W amp SE discuss 4 major types of variation that occur in language here I am clustering slang use with lexical variation What are the 4 types Be able to provide a definition for each type of variation as well as provide 1 good example of each type of variation Also be able to explain why your example illustrates the type of variation you say it does Chapters 4 and 5 and Handout 3 4 According to the textbook which major areas in the US were rless historically Are these areas continuing to remain as rless as they once were or are these areas becoming more rfull over time What rationale does Labov provide for this state of affairs in the Video Do You Speak American 5 In class I discussed that although a number of subdialects of United States English exist in the presentday US there are essentially 6 major dialects of US English today What are these 6 dialect areas 39 What major dialect feature sets off the US North from other dialects of US English today What major dialect feature sets off the US South from other dialects of US English today According to the textbook what major dialect feature sets the US West and US Midland off from the US North and US South In class I discussed that one ofthese two areas actually differs in terms of how this feature is actually used Which area differs and how does it differ 6 Be able to discuss the difference between hierarchical contrahierarchical and contagious dialect diffusion Which is most likely to occur in major US cities such as Chicago Detroit or Philadelphia Why Which has tended to be found in cities located throughout the US South Why 7 In Do You SpeakAmerican according to Bill Labov what dialect area of the country was broadcast network standard based on historically How does this compare with what we ve learned in class about people s perceptions of the area that the network standard is based on What might this suggest about how people group speech areas perceptually Chapter 2 and Handouts 4 and 5 8 What is analogy and how does this process lead to language change Provide an example that demonstrates analogy and explain how it works based on this example Does analogy lead to the preservation of distinctions in a language or the reduction of them 9 What is rule extension and how does this process lead to language change Provide an example that demonstrates rule extension and explain how it works based on this example Does rule extension lead to the preservation of distinctions in a language or the reduction of them 10 What is a chain shift How does it differ from a parallel shift Provide an example of a chain shift and be able to explain how chain shifts work based on this example Be able to do the same thing for a parallel shift Do chain shifts lead to the extension of distinctions in a language or the reduction of them Chapter 6 and Handout 6 Social Evaluation amp Social Class 11 Grammatical variables fall into three types 7 social stereotypes social markers and social indicators Provide de nitions for each that clarify the differences and give an example of each type 12 What social groups tend to be the most innovative introducing the most language changes or language use innovations Provide 2 reasons why this is the case Which groups tend to be least innovative Provide 2 reasons why this is the case Chapter 6 Ethnicity 13 Based on what we discussed in class how is Spanglish codeswitching different from Chicano English codeswitching Provide examples of each type of codeswitch and discuss 2 culturallinguistic characteristics found among speakers who use each type Which type of code switching is most similar to African American codeswitching Why Chapter 7 Handouts 7 and 8 14 According to W amp SE is AAVE becoming more or less similar to EuroAmerican speech in Hyde County over time Provide 2 reasons why this is the case 15 According to Do You SpeakAmerican on a national level is AAVE becoming more like EuroAmerican speech on a national level over time or less alike Provide 2 reasons why this is the case 16 Be able to discuss and provide a brief analysis of the linguistic features of AAVE used in a sentences such as those below Provide a translation of each AAVE feature as it would be spoken by a EuroAmerican speaker who does not use any AAVE features in their speech a Didn t nobody tell me why John be takin the spare change out of my jar b James ain t goin be coming Like I told you he been sick and walkin around just ain t possible Linguistics 372 Final Exam Review Sheet Reminder Final Exam is Thursday December 10 2009 130 to 318 in Derby 24 Be prepared to answer questions that will resemble the question prompts provided below The day of the quiz you may use any notes you have written related to these questions no page limit However these notes must be handwritten or printed out That is you may not any kind of electronic device cell phone iphone ipod laptop calculators etc You also are not allowed to use the actual text book in answering questions the day of the quiz Of the 12 questions below 9 will ultimately be selected for a Final Exam totaling 66 points The Final Exam is 1 hour 48 minutes This gives you roughly 12 mins to answer each question Remember you MAY use a bulletpointbrief sentence style for answering each question and in fact you will nd taking such an approach to your advantage The nal exam covers the final section of Chapter 6 of the Wolfram amp SchillingEstes text book as well as all of the Carmen readings we did in the second half of the class Additional material covered in class lectures that also appears on handouts will also be covered Ethnicity part 2 Questions covering Chapter 6 of W amp SE and Handout 10 1 What are the main diagnostic phonetic lexical and syntactic features of Lumbee English discussed in Language Files 10 Handout 10 39 Be able to provide at least 2 examples of each type of linguistic feature that is 2 examples of phonetic 2 examples of lexical and 2 examples of syntactic features 39 Why have these features been argued to distinguish Lumbee English from other varieties of English in North Carolina How are these features related to Lumbee identity in other words 2 Based on what we discussed in class as well as what Handout 10 and W amp SE say how is Spanglish codeswitching different from Chicano English codeswitching 39 Be able to provide examples of each type of codeswitch and discuss 2 culturallinguistic characteristics found among speakers who use each type 39 Which type of codeswitching is most similar to African American codeswitching Why Adolescent Speech Eckert 2004 reading 3 Discuss the principle differences between Jock and Burnout social group affiliation as discussed by Eckert in relationship to her study of teenagers in Detroit high schools p 370373 39 What does it mean to be a jock 39 What does it mean to be a burnout 39 Why is this distinction important linguistically and what does it tell us about the nature of speakers who are considered linguistically innovative Language Variation and Change Chambers 2004 Ch 4 Excerpts 4 What is the major difference between the two types of variation trends we discussed in class that is changes in progress versus stable sociolinguistic variables 39 How do the concepts of apparent time and real time change apply to the observation and study of changes in progress Which type of study real or apparen timeis ultimately the most accurate for determining if a change in progress is occurring or not Why Settlement Patterns and Dialect Variation in Ohio Wilhelm and Noble 1996 and Flanigan 2006 Handouts 12 and 13 5 Based on these two readings what were the principle settlement groups who ultimately in uenced the formation of the original dialect boundaries across the state of Ohio 39 How many dialect areas is Ohio compromised of according to what we learned in class In your answer discuss how each area re ects the in uence of the principle settlement group who settled in that area For instance the principle group in uencing the formation of the Northern area in Ohio were settlers from New England Why does this matter How does this fact help us understand why it is the case that even today this area continues to be Northern and distinctive from other dialect areas in Ohio 39 Rinse and repeat for the other 2 dialect areas in Ohio 39 Also be able to identity and name the principle dialect areas of Ohio on a map 6 What are the major dialect features separate the major dialect areas found in Ohio 39 Specifically what major pronunciation feature involving several vowels separates out the Northern section of Ohio from the other dialect areas of OH in presentday Ohio English What are 3 pronunciation features impacting short vowels that distinguish Southern Ohio English from the other dialect areas What vowel shift is shared in common by the South and North Midland areas in the present day 39 What vowel shift distinguishes the North and South Midland from each other Hint on last part of this questionWhat is the term we ve used to describe the simultaneous backing of ae E and I as found among middle class males in Columbus Cincinnati and Columbus Boberg amp Strassel B amp S 2000 and Handout 14 7 What important fact about the status of Cincinnati s placement within the dialect areas of Ohio does the change in the pronunciation of ae discussed by B amp S reveal 39 What dialect area was Cincinnati a part of before this change happened 39 And what area has Cincinnati been argued to be a part of since 39 Based on what we learned in learned in class are Cincinnati and Columbus becoming more alike over time or less alike How does the similar change in pronunciation of ae over time in Columbus help us figure out the answer to this question Columbus Durian Dodsworth and Schumacher 2009 and Durian 2007 8 a What is the major pronunciation pattern that distinguishes working class AAVE from working class White English in Columbus What vowels comprise this pattern of vowel shift b There are also a set of vowel pronunciations that suggest working class AAVE and White English also have some attributes that are becoming more alike over time Which vowels are these c What major reason do D D and S give for why they think at least some of the vowel pronunciations are becoming more alike over time Do you agree with DD and S in their reasoning Why or why not 9 a What are the 3 major social factors impacting the spread of the Str that is shtr pronunciation in Columbus over time b How has the outmigration of whites from the urban core into suburban areas within Columbus impacted the spread of Str among speakers Is the pattern simply related to the geographic movement of folks from the core to the suburbs or is there more to the story in other words And if there s more what is the rest of the story Perceptions of Dialects in Ohio Benson 2005 10 What do Benson s results tell us about the nature of speakers perceptions of dialect boundaries in Ohio How well do these results correlate with the production data we discussed before reading the Benson study What eXplanations does Benson provide for this mismatch Ethnic Language Variation in Ohio Haltman Keiser 2005 and Ramos Pellicia 2005 11 According to HartmanKeiser what are 3 dialect features that distinguish Midwestern Deitsch from Deitsch as spoken in Lancaster PA Does the occurrence of these features in Midwestern Deitsch indicate change in progress away from older Deitsch standards or is it Lancaster Deitsch that shows change Why does HartmanKeiser think Midwestern Deistch dialect features show the pattern of change they show 12 In RamosPellcia s RP article she discusses changes affecting the pronunciation both of consonants and of vowels in Puetro Rican Spanish in Lorain OH 39 For the vowels e o what reasons does RP give for why these vowels seem to be changing to i and u respectively in Lorain What about the use of the consonant r with a retro eX realization What language seems to be most strongly impacting this changeMeXican American Spanish or Northern Cities English Why is this the case What about the change of the consonant of b to v Can we clearly determine which language Mexican American Spanish or Northern Cities English is most in uencing this change Why or why not
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