Introductory Biology BIOLOGY 101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebekah Steuber on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 101 at Ohio State University taught by Wiline Pangle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/209969/biology-101-ohio-state-university in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Lecture 11Celular Respiration C5H1205 Glucose 029 co2 H20 EnergyATP ATP lecules in cells like rechargeable batteriesHas energy3 phosphate bonds ADP lostthe third bond like an empty battew Cell Respiration 1 39 39y39 in into 2 quot 39 39 it o 39 only need glycolysis 2 Krebs Cycle0ccurs in 39 39 uan fuim then 39 0 released in the cycleATP made as well as energy carriers NADH 3 Electron Transport CL 39 39 39 g caiiiei made into 5 5 goes in water 39 TD e 39 LlUll 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Aerobicamp 39 39 39 39 Prod y 39 39 both Aerobic amp Anaerobic Differences Aerobic uses oxygen happens in Mitochondria produces 36 ATPAnaerobic doesn t use oxygen no mitochondria produces 2 ATP Goal of Cell Respiration Transform food into energy that cells can use Byproducts waterand C02 Takes place in cytoplasm and mitochondria of cells Lecture 12 Photosynthesis co2 H20 Energysunight9 C5H1205 Glucose 02 39 39 0ccurs39 quot39 39 in quot iake light energy to make energy to use for dark reactions Dark Reactions Occurs in chloroplastsTurn C02 into GlucoseEnzyme quotRubiscoquot is involved in turning the C02 into glucose H20 C02 1 V Light Rubisco most important enzyme for life Dark Reaction Calvin Cycle 02 Glucose Electron Transport Chain in both Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration F 39 39 39 for Cell 39 Lecture 13 DNA It s what makesyouyou A T C G Chargaff s Rule AT CG 2 Strands Ribbon model atomic model computer model DNA s main property Complementaw Base Pairingallows DNA to have its structure to replicate and to make proteins alows DNA to make mRNA and allows anticodon to codon matching Nucleotides Phosphate group Sugar Base Backbone is Sugar and Phosphate only thing that changes in the base Polymer is DNA Monomer is the Nucleotide un ke more DNA throu h replicationMake proteins Replication DNA PolymeraseReplication is directional1Unzip bonda 2Free floating nucleotides match upt is semiconsenativeHappens in nucleus Polymerase adds nucleotides to the new strand and proofreads as it goes Central Dogma K Transcription Translation TD Shared Genetic Code 39 39 39 the Central uugma quot for evolution RNA More genetic material A U C G 1Strand B ne made from a different sugarthan DNADNA may have come from RNAViruses have RNA not DNARNA lifespan is shorter less stable Vocab DNAgenetic material polymer Chromosomepiece of DNA Alleleversion of a gene nesequence of DNA within chromosome that codes fora protein Lecture 14 Errors in DNA Replication lead to mutations any change in nucleotide sequence Error rate 110 proofreading by DNA polymerase keeps rate low types of mistakes SubstitutionDeletion or Addition will change reading frame for the protein more affected by 151 term rathert an rd RNA Messenger RNA mRNA carries information specific to a protein3 RNA bases form a Codon specifying an amino acidimportant fortranscription Transfer RNA tRNA carries specific amino acid to the ribosomes Protein Synthesis humans have many proteins enzymes a type of protein Genetic Code set of rules relating nucleotide sequence to amino acid sequence shared by all organisms Transcription RNA Polymerase goes down unzipped DNA strand and matches bases to create a strand of mRNA Translation within the strand of mRNA 3 bases form a Codon which codes for a specific Amino Acid to be a part ofthe Polypeptide chain ccurs in cytoplasm of a eukawotic cell DNASt39and A AA C C G G C A 0ccurring in nucleus U UU GG C C G U RNA 2 n o a o 0ccurring in ribosomeTransla Polypept de Chain AminoAcids make up proteins Lecture 15 Causes of mutations tanning bedsvew low background mutation ratexrays chemicals function can be coded by multiple genes eye co or Gene Expression zooplankton39 439 39 DNA quot predators will express a longer horn Cells regulate gene expression by alternate splicing protein processing mRNA packaging and cell differentiation Gene Regulation control of gene expression a quotturned offquot gene is still there but does not go through mRNA stage to make proteins control initiation oftranscription mRNA Processing Splicingexonsintrons Alternate Splicingleadsto 1 gene coding potentially for multiple proteins In embwo all cells express all DNAall genes turned oncells are called totipotent stem cells can give rise to all types of cells by differentiating Then differentiation not all cells in our body are the same because they differentiate Interphase 90 of time metabolism and growthWithin interphase is Sphase where DNA replication occurs Miotic M Phase 10 cell division Mitosis for most cells for Gametes it is MeiosisPurpose of mitosis is to regenerate cells and to grow Vocab Chromosometightly packed DNA 23 pairs Sister Chromatididentical chromosomes aired after Replication C n rewhere the sister chromatids attach Ploidynumber of sets of DNA Diploid2 setsHaploid1 set CurrEvent Mice did not have the cell needed to turn glucose into energy A person looked up the structure of DNA to make music with the notes Biodegradable plants have higher respiration Researchers have been able to view photosynthesis through an xray camera Researchers have been using a laserto do the same processes of photosynthesis We should use handsfree devices instead oftalking on cell phone because it hasthe possibility of causing cancer Lecture 16 Homologous Chromosomeswe have 23 pairs not identica 39 sister chromatids get pulled apartif something goes wrong it could cause uncontrolled cell growth or can er Meiosis forming gametesgoing from Diploid2N to Haploid1Nhomologous chromosomes split in meiosis not mitosis Meiosis leads to variation in gametes reduces amount of genetic material in gametes Crossing Over homologous pairs exchange parts of their info Recombination multiple forms of gametes occurs in meiosis Cancer disease of the cell cycle CauseAccumulation of mutations in genes that control the cell cyc e mical mutagens radiation orviruses c E m Mutations can c Tumors Benignunharmfulslowgrowingdefined borderquotnormal lookingquot cells MI I L x L ll39 B cells sue to other parts ofthe body Ingfou plulelll 39 quot 39 39 39 39 muLatedL g T r 4 g 39 g plulelll LnaL inhibit cell growthhelp prevent tumors from arisingif mutated can lead to proteins unable to catch tumors Stages Onormal 1localized 2metastasis of local lymphs read beyond original organ 4mu tiple other organs Treatment Surgewremoval works well on benign tumors Radiationisolate the cancer Chemotherapypoison drugsthat stop cell cycle Sarcomacancer of connective tissue Carcinomasurface tissue 39 39 39 L39 quot cells 39 4 39 4 cells quot 39g39 quot Lecture 17 Gregor Mendel quotfather of geneticsquot Pgeneration PurpleAA and Whiteaa 9F all plants purpleAa9 F2 75 purpleAa 25 whiteaa Homozygous alleles are the same for one gene also called quotTrue Breedingquot Heterozygous 2 different alleles for one gene 4 Rules of Inheritance 1Law of Segregationyou only give one copy from the two you have foreach gene 3 Genotype is not necessarily the phenotype w of Independent Assortmentwhich copythat gets passed on is random 4Alleles can be alike or different in each pair of chromosomes T w 39 quot 39 39 39 L kin s a a Metastasis spreading ofa cancer cell from its original tis 1n I s s quotMendelian Inheritancequot exceptions 1Polygenic LU determine color 2Codominancemore than one allele is dominant ex blood type 3Incomplete DominanceF generations phenotype is intermediate to P generations phenotype 4Linkage2 traitsthat are not independent of each ot er Eu A L L ufla39u39uiL fur Lecture 39 j quot39 Recessivemost common Sickle Cell Anemia Cystic Fibrosis Tay Sachs Hemophilia X linked more prevalent in males males are XV minant Huntington s Disease deterioration of brain cells h39 39 39 In Rare if mother is under 30Person has an extra chromosome a trisomy can be shown in the Kawotype graph m Synuuumel OVNonvia ble NonDisjunction ofX Chromosome nulume Consequences of Inbreeding higher amounts of recessive alleles will bring out more recessive diseases BiotechnologyDNA Technology manipulation oforganisms to make useful productsrecombinant DNAmanipulated DNA 39 39 39 in ulin fur 39 39 39 fur growth was isolatedEPOsimulates production of red blood cells GMO sgenetically modified 39 39 g 39 39 midscircular DNA used in making recombinant DNA to ins Main ecological concern inserted genes will jump to otherspeci Modern crops have low genetic diversity in comparison to their wild relatives 1 I ert a gene into another organism Lecture 20Genes are located on DNA and on Chromosomes rensic Science DNA fingerprinting Gene Therapy difficulties targetingthe right cells and producing the right amount of genes either under oroverproduced Genetic Screening On your own genomelookingto see if you are a carrier the embryo postfertilization 3Develop a disease later in life ametes Homologues Haploid Dad Moml Diploid SisterChromatids Cell Re Iication Homolo ous P g Chromosomes Not identical but code for same genes diff alleles 31 i s a pathway by which we can come to discover and better understand the world around us Explains the natural world Does not deal with morals Science is peerreviewAll work is public access Reviewed by experts 90 gets rejecte N I estudyofliving th Science has structure Lecture 1 ngs Test does not support hypothesis Obsewationsa Question a Hypothesisa Prediction a TestExperiment Test supports hypothesis Make additional predictions an educated guess a possible explanation based on obsenation basis for experiment must be testable must be falsifiable A A Is a repeatedly verified hypothesis generalized solidly supported by a large body of evidence Elements common to most M m 39 Ito 39 quot quot 39g quot 39 g 39 39 39 doubleblind Lecture 2 Biological Sciences Biochemist Molecular Biology atoms molecules Cell biology cells tissues PhysiologyAnatomyHistology organs Ecology organisms populations communities ecosystems landscapes regions biosphere ExoBiology solar system galaxy Evolution the unifying theow Life bioticNonlife abiotic 9 4 J39WI n 1 Order 2 Regulationhomeostasis 3 Energy 4 Response to the environment things evolve 5 Reproduction 6 Evolution Cell basic unit of lifeProkawotic Cell simpleEukaryotic Cell nucleus Biogenesis 4 stage hypothesis for how life arose 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 amino acids fatty acids nucleotides 2 Abiotic synthesis of polymers Polymers carbs protein lipids DNARNA 3 Formation of precells 4 Origin of selfreplication If quothypothesisquot then quotpred39ctionquot evolution slight change in allele frequencies in a population overone ora few generations nge within a species or closely related species antibiotic resistance cale products ofevolutionary change 39 39 D 39g39 uction of new species and adaptive radiation fossil record DNA comparative anatomy f 39 39 39 overtime Example Bug being resistant to a pesticide Variations exists in the population befuue any 39 39 39 not 39 39 39 39 is not random Mechanisms Driving E m 1 Mutations source of variation randomMutations can be good or badCaused by mutagens tanning beds etc 2 Migration gene 3 Genetic Drift random small pop affectedChanges in allele nequeucy 39 4 Natural Sele on individuals with certain traits reproduce more successfullyspecific individuals not random P r v for natural selection adaptive evolution 1 Variation 2 Heritability 3 Selection different reproductive success 0 E 39 39 39 mortalityquot quot quot in environment 39 f m example of most speciation q 39 39 39 but 39 39 39 eliminates variation eventually variance might decrease Special cases of natural selection 1 Sexual Selection process by which natural selection favors traits that give an advantage in attracting mates 2 Artificial Selection humans act as the selection ex dog breeding amess how many kids you have relative to others in your environment Natural Selection does not lead to perfect organisms environments change quickly variation multiple ways to be quotperfectquot alternative forms ofa gene brown eyes blue eyes etc sex cells sperm oregg each human gamete has 23 chromosomes Lecture 4 M Biological Species Concept 1 Breed with each other 2 Produce offspring 3 Offspring must be fertile Origin of SpeciesSpeciation A consequence of evolution not evolution Speciation requires isolation as species move apart they must stay separate to avoid coming back together as one species 2 u un together just acquire a preference lightning bugs m rim q mcm hm p n We have a common ancestorwith apes we did not come from apes PreDarwin thinking 1 details in nature come from God 2 m reproduce exponentially worked with math 3 geologist evidence that the planet is much olderthan believed used sedimentation as evidence hypothesis of evolution all things come from something and all things change 1 There are naturally existing differences in a population 2 More offspring are produced that can survive 3 Organisms with favorable variation will be presened 4 Accumulation of differences overtime leads to adaptive radiation small number of Into a larger numuel of phenomena 1 Mass extinction events competition suddenly eliminated 2 Colonization Events new location with new recourses and less competitors 3 Evolutionary Innovations a feature that increases fitness Example Darwin39s finches going to the Galapagos slan s Evidence of evolution peppered moth stow in England HumanDriven Evolution 39d 39 39 39 2 Rapid process of natural selection in which features of 39 relateo come to Ex humming i s process of natural selection in which features of organisms related to each othertake on different forms because of different selective pressures 8 a L39 r L39 LotherL 39 39 selectiveforces Ex Darwin39s fInches Fossils dead organisms covered by sediment sedimentation occurs at a constant rate water enters and creates a reaction CD will 39 y 39 39 quot39 between 39 39 evolutionawtimeline Whale Sequence mammals going from land to sea Fish to amphibians DNA evidence for macroevolution sequencinggetting letters from codeThe more similarthe DNA the more recent the split 39 tructures body structures in different organisms that have been modified to serve different purposes yet are inherited from a common ancestor 39 39 39 39 quot evolutionawtime useful Lecture 6 Tempo of evolution 1 C 4 i change 2l Wiquotquot51iLl r E uilibrium goes from no change to a lot of change at once iversity of life Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Includes Protists Plants Fungi Animals Why do we classify 1 Bring orderto chaos 2 Understand relationships between organisms 3 Develop hypothesis aboutthe status of species on Earth today l l l l39 1 How do we classify 1 Identify traits 2 Identify 39 iueuuiy 4 ruyiugeuy 5quot lie in 2 domains both of which 39 39 39 39 Ldll Lructure 439 membrane different machinewto copy DNA All Prokaryotes 1 No organelles including no nucleus 2 DNARNA is circular 3 No sexual reproduction 4 Rapid reproduction 5 Variety in morphology and what they eat C anobacteria do photosynthesis 39 39 39 39 39 2 g 39 39 39 39 doesn39 39 uses sulfur not classified no domain use the host to replicate itself Eukawotes 1Protists 2 Plants 3 Fungi 4 Animals 1 Protozoans mostly aquatic eat bacteria cause of bad diseases malaria 2 Slime Molds resemble fungi good example of convergent evolution Algae the photosynthetic protozoans 4 Seaweeds multicellular protists Endosymbiosis one thing living inside another 1 archaea and 1 bacteria to create eukarya Bacteria and Protists can do Ei39nn li m mince Lecture 7 W Numberof species Numberof individuals Plants evolved from protists main difference is independence from water i getting energy on your own lightHave a cell wallUses ilhil quotquot l 39l39l 5V5 to get energy Getting waterto your cells 2 Support structuresto stand u 3 Dis ersal of gametes waterdoesn t do it 4 Sunlight 1 p H process of going from 1 diploid cell into a trillion cells Mia n a diploid cell splits instead of copies into two haploid cel s Gametophyte39s produce gametes Sporophytes produce spores igirwi r n gametophyte is dominant phase nonvascular a C q 53 r sporophyte is dominant phase vascular nquotgenetic material 2n 1 from mother 1 from father diploid 1n haploid aroh e quot ophytes ascu 39 4 mosses no real rootslive near 39 439 39 in warm 39 on warm iur 39 4 life haploid n ferns true y Lemfur 39 eek life haploid ni ers a 39 39 vascular Ll ue bark Lul r flowering plants extremely adaptivevascularhave a seed encoated in fruitfruit allows it to be in much dryer places echanisms abiotic pollination water or windbiotic pollination insects re pun i39ule fur 39 nutrients uy 39 iur E I s a y Animals multicellularmobileheterotrophs Symmetry body structure like a wheel or pie any cut through center would divide the organism into identical halves S mmetw body structure with left and right sides which are mirror images more advanced Digestion fluid filled cavity that provides cushioning to the internal organs relates to energy 1 39 39 39 39 La 39 39 seatbelt flatworm 2 39 39 quotum 3 Coelomate maximum cushioning from movement car with seatbelt and airbag Chordates n k 7 t backb interaction between individuals and heire vironment in and with their natural world 5 levels iosphere entire earth 2 Ecosystem add in abioticthings food chain 3 Community interacts with other species predators 4 Population multiple individuals Organism individua structure size and growth rate l Pop Distribution competition ys in which populations change in abundance overtime Growt Growth grows toward um max oforganisms an environment can support Competitive Exclusion when one species excludes the other Population Ecology influenced by population densit PopDistribution pre ion Population Dynam39c op Distribution mutualism Lecture 9 Competition Wwithin a madammembers oftwo different species n ir a n g ca 4 39 39 eaters could be hard to find a meal PredatorPreyArms Race idea of a game going on between a predator and prey ex prey becoming more poisonous as snakes become more resistant Energyflows thrc 5 A one species is more important to the food web than any other if removed web would fall apart gy how behavior affects ecology and how ecology affects behavior Mating parental antipredator foraging behaviors h armnpiw VA ig est benefit for lowest cost Lecture 10 Environmental Issues anything affecting the environment negatively w caused by humans Overpopulation overexploiting Earth s resources change Earth s landscape Global Warming ii r m u heat energy escapes into space some radiant heat is trapped by greenhouse gases most are for a longtime caused by combustion of fossil fuels builds on itself not gradual changes ice shelf breaking in 27 days 1 loss of biodiversity species go extinct we are going through a 2 Changes in species distribution and abundance 3 Agent of natural selection Why greenhouse gases are important 1 Large carbon source 2 Explain why earth is heating up 3 Trap heat and make earth livable Invasive Species species that occur outside of their native ranges because of human influence 90 ofthem are plants cost us a fortune 39 39 39 natural Pollution biological magnification DDT getting stuck in waters then getting in organisms then those organisms getting eaten by otherorganisms 39 quot39il right now
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