Biological Sciences Energy Transfer and Development
Biological Sciences Energy Transfer and Development BIOLOGY 113
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebekah Steuber on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOLOGY 113 at Ohio State University taught by Biao Ding in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/209970/biology-113-ohio-state-university in Biology at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Biology 113 AU2011 Lecture 1 Introduction Chemical Context of Life Some fundamental properties of life Levels of biological organization Energy conversion is key to life Biological structure fits function Cells are an organism s base units of structure and function The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA Emergent properties Systems biology The evolutionary view of life Biologists use two forms of inquiry to study life Chemical context of life matter elements and compounds The building materials of life FFEIPTWPPQP A few tips What I am Your coach My goal To coach you develop skills to see the big picture forest of some fundamental biological concepts so that you can study and appreciate the details individual trees Why This will help your learning of biology and hopefully also other subjects in and beyond your college life Exam Basic content knowledge Application of basic knowledge to solve specific problems Unifying principles of topics Covers lectures Questions from nonlecture contents in the textbook for extra credits Office hours 11301230 Monday Special appointments Email ding35osuedu Phone 2476077 Use Review Sheets to be posted on Carmen A Some Fundamental Properties of Life Response to the environment Regulation Reproduction Growth and development Energy processing B Levels of Biological Organization Fromthe biosphere to molecules The biosphere oorgans and 1 13quotquot organ systems 0 Ecosystems 0Communities g Atoms o Tissues so pm 0 Molecules 0 Populations 0 Energy Conversion Is Key to Life Figure 15 9 Leaves take in carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen its roots D Biological Structure Fits Function Figure 17 b Bones lnfoldings of membrane 1 Neurons d Mitochondria E Cells Are an Organism s Basic Units of Structure and Function 39 The cell Figure 19 Division ofa newt lung cell 25 Pm l l F The Continuity of Life Is Based on Heritable Information in the Form of DNA Sperm cell Figure 110 Fertilized egg Embryo s cells With With DNA from copies of inherited DNA Egg b th Parents offspring with traits inherited rom both parents Figure 111 a DNA double helix b Single strand of DNA G Emergent Properties 0 A System Is a combination of components that form a more complex organization 0 The Emergent Properties of Systems Due to increasing complexity new properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order H Systems Biology Automatic DNA sequencing machines and vast computing power made sequencing of genomes from human and other organisms possible Figure 112 Human Genome Sequencing m Soqulnu o m Human amm A mum smrm Sum d Espinmxkimdnv Known mu in ms Cami 0mm Rudsbfstvmlhwln yw ms an Fmsmznls ProteinProtein Interaction Map Outer membrane and cell Surface On the Origin ofSpecies by Natural Selection The Origin of Species Articulated Two Main Points Descent with modification Natural selection Figure The Tree of Life I All of life is connected through its long evolutionary history 5333 Genus Famll Ursus amenca 39JW Amerlcan black bean J Biologists Use Two Main Forms of Inquiry to Study Life Discovery science Describing nature Hypothesisbased science Explaining nature Theories in Science A scientific theory Is a in 500 e 7 Generates new hypotheses 7 Is supported by a large body of videnoe an Limitations of Science Jane Goodall Studies chimpanzee behavior Science cannot address supernatural phenomena 4e 39 n 4 n results must be repeatable K Chemistry Context of Life Matter Elements and Compounds The Building Materials of Life Biology is a multidisciplinary science i has mass Matter is made up of elements An element isa 39 39 4 no ianee uy chemical reactions quot39 quot 39 39 two or 39 39 a xed ratio A compound has characteristics different 39om those of its elements l M Sudlum Cnlunde Sudium Cnlunde Living organisms are subject to the basic laws of physics and chemistry Table 11 Elements in the Human Body Percentage of Body Mass Element Symbol including water Oxygen o 650 Carbon C 185 963 Hydrogen H 95 Nitrogen N 33 Calcium Ca 15 Phosphorus P 10 Potassium K 04 Sullui39 S 03 37 Sodium Na 01 Chlorine CI 02 Magnesium Mg 01 r elements less than 001 or mass Boron a chromium Cr cobail Co copper Cu fluorine F iodine l iron Fe man an Se Mn molybdenum Mo selenium Se silicon 5 in Sn vanadium V Zinc Zn Structure of Atoms The Simple Truth of Life Each element 7 Consists ofa unique atom An atom 7 Is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Atoms are composed of subatomic particles Relevant subatomic particles include 7 Neutrons no electrical charge 7 Protons positive charge 7 Electrons negative charge A simple View of Atomic Structure 0 Neutrons and protons form the atomic nucleus 0 Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus 0 Neutron mass and proton mass are almost identical and are 5 measured in da ton Cloud of negative charge 2 electrons Electrons a The Energy Levels of Electrons 0 Energy is the capacity to cause change 0 Potential energy is the energy that matter has because of its location or structure The electrons of an atom differ in their amounts of potential energy 0 An electron s state of potential energy is called its energy level7 or electron 5 el Fig 28 q aA ball bouncing down a flight W of stairs provides an analogy for energy levels of electrons 0 Third shell highest energy level Second shell higher Energy t energy level absorbed First shell lowest energy level Energy lost Atomic nucleus b The chemical behavior of an atom is mostly determined by the valence electrons Valence electrons are those in the outermost shell7 or valence shell Elements with a full valence shell ie in which all 12 s as Electron Configuration and Chemical Properties n 39 39 39 auuleelelVIEI39llS T Atomic number He Atomic mass Element sym bol Electron distribution ding am Incomplete valence shell at least one ngelete or mquot va39equot She Im m39A 39 39 chemically inert
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