World Civilization I Week Three Notes
World Civilization I Week Three Notes 17189
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caspar Snyder on Friday September 12, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 17189 at University at Buffalo taught by Timothy Boyd in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I in University Studies at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/12/14
Week Three Notes Indo Europeans Likely from north of the Black Sea Ancestor of many modern languages 0 Celtic 0 Germanic languages 0 English 0 Romantic languages 0 Sanskrit Hittites ca 1800 1200 BCE Likely from Asia Minor 0 Modern day Turkey Key Characteristics IndoEuropean language 0 Cuneiform Sky God religion Chariots 0 Horse riding Iron Working 0 One of the earliest to use iron instead of bronze Rise to Power Founded by Hattusilis I 0 Unites local tribes 0 Builds capital of Hattusas Massive fortifications around the city 0 Worried about attacks Expansion Mursilis I attacks Babylon ca 1600 BCE 0 Returns home and is assassinated by his family 0 Imperial struggles and intemal con icts over kingship common among the Hittites The empire continues to expand Battle of Kadesh 1286 or 1274 BCE 0 People are still unsure of exact year Hittites vs Egyptians Who won 0 No clue 0 Both claimed victory Record of peace treaties with Babylonians 0 This happens between three empires Collapse Hittite empire falls 0 3rd Intermediate period in Egypt Mycenaean civilization falls Why 0 Sea peoples 0 Foreign invaders 0 Environmental factors Meanwhile in Egypt Lower Egypt ruled by Libyan pharaohs 0 700s Kushites rule all of Egypt 0 Levant 0 As Egypt withdraws they come into the picture Philistines Invaders 0 South east coast of Mediterranean Biblical antagonists of Israelites Phoenicians Semitic speaking people Extensive traders Travel the Mediterranean GoodsIdeas Exchange Trading of 0 Ideas 0 Purple dye o Famous comes from sea shells 0 Sign of royalty 0 Wine 0 Iron Working New type of writing Cuneiform and hieroglyphics 0 Large number of symbols and characters Phoenicians develop an alphabet 0 A phonetic system 0 One letter for one sound 0 2530 characters 0 Becomes a base for later alphabets 0 Like ours Israelites 0 Aka Hebrews Pastoralists 0 Sheep herders and nomads Creation of monotheism 0 Yahweh Sources Main source the Bible 0 Historical document Archaeology 0 Evidence for con ict with Philistines A monarchy 0 At least for awhile Chronology 13th BCE earliest evidence 0 Two empires 10th BCE Reigns of Saul David and Solomon 7th BCE Assyrians conquer Israel 6th BCE Babylonians conquer Judah Assyrians ca 900 600 BCE Territory in open plains 0 Found near Tigris River Easy to navigate 0 Difficult to defend Led to an increase in military strength 0 Strongest military power o Documented by texts and art New Developments Flotation devices 0 In atable animal skins Armored siege equipment Tunneling Propaganda Severe intimidations 0 Beheading and impalement Assimilating Mesopotamian culture 0 Just like Babylonians and Akkadians had done Fall of the Assyrians Nineveh destroyed by Babylonians and Medesin 0 612 BCE 0 Nineveh is conquered by Medes Persians Came from the north ca 1000 BCE 0 East of the Black Sea Small kingdoms centered on fertile land Formed two larger kingdoms 0 North Media 0 South Persia History 700 550 BCE Medes dominant power 550 BCE Cyrus unites two cultures 0 King of Persians 0 Medes and Persia expand rapidly Persian conquest Gentler than Assyrians Rapidly acquired enormous amounts of territory Due to the large amounts of territory the king created satraps 0 Satrap governors 0 Largely independent 0 Only have to send back troops and taxes Created the Royal Road from Susa to Sardis 0 Modern day Iran and Turkey Further expansion Continued after Cyrus 0 Capital Persepolis As far as Hindu Kush 0 Ca 513 BCE Attacked Greece twice 0 490 and 480 BCE 0 Defeated both times 2500 years of history Hittites IndoEuropean language iron horse management Philistines antagonists of Israelites Phoenicians skilled traders created the alphabet Israelites monotheistic religion Assyrians military skill Persians enormous kingdom with satraps Greece is the World Current Western languages are all Indo European Some exceptions Greeks appear in Greece around 2000 BCE There are already people there 0 Known only by archaeology Ca 1650 BCE Greeks at Mycenae 0 On island of Crete 0 Evidence for preGreeks is rich We call early Greeks Mycenaeans 0 Mycenae We call preGreeks at Crete Minans 0 Palace at Knossos Very advanced 0 Artistically 0 Must have studied in Egypt Developed civilization by 1800 BCE 0 Sir Arthur Evans found two magazines to feed the entire population 0 First excavator 0 Magazines storage areas Early Writing 0 Linear A 0 Record keeping culture 66 Big building palace 0 No evidence 0 Evans thought that if it was big it must be a palace Mycenaeans came down from the north Built settlements in a characteristic pattern 0 Acropolis 0 highest point in the city 0 Fort 0 Settlements Were on the bottom As more sites were discovered it was found that Linear A joined Linear B 0 Can t read Linear A o It was only either items being counted or short notes of instructions 0 lst understoodtranslated by Michael Ventris in the early 1950s 0 Very early form of Greek seen though the syllabify of another still unknown language 0 Open syllabic language 0 Ex Baseball 0 Pronounced Ba Se Balla Somewhere between 1100 1000 BCE The Eastern Mediterranean world went to hell 1000 700 BCE Greek Dark Ages No record Only archeology and study preserved in traditional poetry to know about Homer 0 Not real 0 Iliad 0 An older world 0 Kings and warriors 0 Stuff about Illiam Troy 0 Odyssey 0 A later world trade and much less stability 0 Stuff about Odysseus Hesiod 0 Unsure if real 0 Theogony 0 Early history of the gods 0 Works and Days 0 Agricultural wisdom Homer s world monarchy Hesiod s world oligarchy 0 Ruled by few 700 BCE Greek world makes a comeback Formation of citystates 0 Polis pl poleis 0 A city powerful enough to control surrounding towns and country sides 0 Model polis acropolis 0 Market agora 0 May have beginnings of government buildings Athens were rich in potter s clay and silver 0 Athens 0 Monarch 9 oligarchy 9 democracy Sparta remains a dual monarchy 0 Militarized state with a slave helot population 0 Soldiers in armor hoplites o Hoplon 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