Modern Human Physical Variation
Modern Human Physical Variation ANTHROP 301
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shad Lehner on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHROP 301 at Ohio State University taught by Douglas Crews in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see /class/209973/anthrop-301-ohio-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Balanced polymorphism System of genes in Which tWo alleles are maintained in stable equilibrium because the heterozygote is more t than either homozygote Tran iem I 39 Oneform39 p 39 the other In nite Alleles Model an attempt to determine for a nite diploid population What proportion of loci Would be homozygous Neutral Theory of Evolution The theory states that the vast majority of evolutionary changes at the molecular level are caused by random dri of selectively neutral mutants Evolutionary Stable Strategy In the prisoner s dilemma ESS is a tit for tat Does Whatever the opponent does Neutral Alleles Model Directional Selection occurs When natural selection favors a single phenotype and therefore allele frequency continuously shi s in one direction Stabilizing Selection A type of natural selection in Which genetic diversity decreases as the population stabilizes on a particular trait value Put another Way extreme values 0 the character are selected against This is probably the most common mechanism of action for natural selection Disruptive Selection used to describe changes in population genetics that simultaneously avorindi idnnl athnth extreme ofthe distribution Q G 1 Stabilizn electjou 1 Dismp Selection 6 3 Directional Selection Befoie A el Sexual Selection W examples The theory proposed by Charles Darwin that states that certain evolutionary traits can be explained by intraspeci c competition Deer antlers Natural Selection w examples is the process by which heritable traits that make it more likely for an organism to survive and successfully reproduce become more common in a population over successive generations It is a key mechanism of evolution peppered moths Arti cial Selection w examples or selective breeding describes intentional breeding for certain traits or combination of traits dog breeding Adaptation s 5 Levels RSelection rselected species exploit lesscrowded ecological niches and produce many offspring each of which has a relatively low probability of surviving to adulthood KSelection Kselected species are strong competitors in crowded niches and invest more heavily in fewer offspring each of which has a relatively high probability of surviving to adulthood Adaptive landscape used to visualize the relationship between genotypes or phenotypes and reproductive success Admixture Admixture occurs when individuals from two or more previously separated populations begin interbreeding Admixture results in the introduction of new genetic lineages into a population Alcohol dehydrogenase Alkapotonuria Alpha beta gamma delta chains in Hb American Founder Mutation Ancestry Ancestry information markers Balanced polymorphisms an equilibrium mixture of homozygotes and heterozygotes maintained by natural selection against both homozygotes Biological race Subgroup in a species that is genetically more different than others Cline Gradual change of a character or feature phenotype in a species over a geographical area Clinical variation Concordance The presence of the same trait in both members of a pair of twins or set of individuals Deletion is a mutation a genetic aberration in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing Deletion is the loss of genetic material Deme A term for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool HNPCC Homeobox genes Inbom errors of metabolism types Inclusive tness an organism s classical tness how many of its own offspring it produces and supports plus the number of equivalents of its own offspring it can add to the population by supporting others 39T b gt C C is the reproductive cost to the altruist b is the reproductive benefit to the recipient of the altruistic behavior and i is the probability above the population average of the individuals sharing an altruistic gene commonly viewed as quotdegree ofrelatednessquot Insertion the addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into a DNA sequence Isoproteins LiFurmani syndrome Low density lipoprotein MHC Malaysian agricultural complex Missense mutations a point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid Mucopolysaccharidosis Neutral Theory of Evolution Nonsense mutations a point mutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon Oncogene Duffy null allele Duplication any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene it may occur as an error in homologous recombination a retrotransposition event or duplication of an entire chromosome Effective population size the number of breeding individuals in an idealized population that would show the same amount of dispersion of allele frequencies under random genetic drift or the same amount of inbreeding as the population under considerationquot Endemic when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs Enzymes Epidemic disease comes in a wave infects all susceptible people then leaves eg in uenza Episodic Disease occurs in episodes over time eg black plague Favism Fitness Founder s effect the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population P53 Missense mutations are responsible for about 75 of the mutations in the p53 gene Gene ow the transfer of alleles of genes from one population to another Genetic drift the change in the relative frequency in which a gene variant allele occurs in a population due to random sampling and chance Geographic ancestry Large population groups occupying entire continents Haplotypes Hemoglobin Hemoglobinopathies High density lipoprotein HLA system Human Leukocyte antigen system humans Codes for glycoproteins Associated with autoimmune diseases Point mutation s a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material DNA or RNA Prophyria Proband On pedigrees the proband is noted with an arrow and the box male or circle female shaded accordingly It is important to denote the proband so that the relationship to other individuals can be seen and patterns established Quantitative trait loci Recombination a process by which a molecule of nucleic acid usually DNA but can also be RNA is broken and then joined to a different DNA molecule Shifting balance theory Silent mutations DNA mutations that do not result in a change to the amino acid sequence of a protein Discontinuous variation Very low density Lipoprotein Vector Vector transmits from one host to another mosquitoes for malaria Vitamin D synthesis Xeroderma pigmentosum Zoonosis disease that has gone from being in animals to being in humans malaria hiv avian flu swine flu chicken pox Autosomal Dominant50 chance that if you have lynch smdrome that you will pass it on The American Founder Mutation is formed from the Founder Effect Which is where new people travel to an island etc and start a family The genes from those two individuals are passed on and only those genes Lynch Syndrome could be a single mutation that happened in one person