New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Research in Psychology An Introduction

by: Adeline Williamson

Research in Psychology An Introduction PSYCH 300

Marketplace > Ohio State University > Psychlogy > PSYCH 300 > Research in Psychology An Introduction
Adeline Williamson
GPA 3.77

Kristy Boyce

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Kristy Boyce
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adeline Williamson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 300 at Ohio State University taught by Kristy Boyce in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/209984/psych-300-ohio-state-university in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.


Reviews for Research in Psychology An Introduction


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/21/15
Chapter 9 QuasiExperimental Designs 0 QuasiExperimental Designs 0 Applied research experiments conducted in natural settings to improve the conditions in which people live and work Ex research by government on new school funding research on the effectiveness of daycare programs 0 The high degree of control that is needed to make causeandeffect conclusions is not possible in real world so Quasiexperiments they are like true experiments but they lack the degree of control found in true experiments 0 Quasi vs true experiments True experiment Quasiexperiment Intervention ie treatment is yes yes im lemented Experimenter includes yes yes a com arison Experimenter has a high degree of control over the experimental yes N0 situation ex random assi nment o QuasiExperiments o Obstacles to conducting true experiments obtaining permission to do research 0 Ex trying to conduct research in school districts businesses government offices prisons ect Access to participants 0 Need to use random assignment but people in natural settings don t want to be randomly assigned 0 many times people want to be in experimental treatment group not control group 0 Can use a waiting list as control groupcomplete dependent variable at same time as experimental group but receive treatment IV after research is complete 0 waiting list is not the same thing as random assignment 0 Threats to Internal Validity 0 Potential confounds threats to internal validity that can hurt causeand effect conclusions History when an event occurs at same time as treatment event becomes alternative explanation 0 Ex conducting research on Sept 11 Maturation participants naturally change over time 0 Ex Study conducted during 1St week of quarter vs 9th week of quarter Testing taking a test changes subsequent testing 0 pretest vs posttest pretest could give you information about what the research is looking at Instrumentation instruments used to measure performance may change over time 0 Ex Instrument test could change from pretest to posttest Regression to the mean participants may perform very well or very poorly due to chance if they were tested again then they would regress to the mean score 0 Participant might be chosen for group because they have an extreme score during pretest c When retested likely person s score would regress closerto mean even without experimental treatment Subiect Mortality attrition subjects may drop out of study which ruins equivalence between conditions Selection if differences exist between experimental and control groups at beginning of study 0 because there is no random assignment it is possible that experimental and comparison group are different in important ways Interactions with selection when one group reacts differently than the other rou to above conditions 0 amp experimental group matures more ra idl than com arison group 0 H control group is more affected by external event than experimental group These 2 threats are not controlled even by true experiments Contamination when there is communication about the experimental intervention between the groups of participants 0 Ex when those in experimental group talk about treatment with those in control group 0 can be problematic in natural setting ie quasiexperimental research because participants may know or work with each other Hawthorne effect changes in people s performance when they know si ni cant others are watching them 0 h boss researcher teacher 0 can be problematic in natural setting because can have effects on actual life if research is done at yourjob then this could have an effect on yourjob QuasiExperimental Designs 0 Even without random assignment can still create internal validity when Use a group like the treatment group as a comparison Researchers obtain pretest and posttest measures from both groups 0 need pretest and posttest measures because can t assume that the treatment and comparison groups are equivalent on important variables 0 measures can prove this however 0 Nonequivalent control group design 39 01 X 02 39 O1 02 o 01 Pretest measure Observation 1 o 02 Posttest measure Observation 2 o X treatment like independent variable 0 Dashed line treatment and comparison groups not formed by random assignment Example comparing sections of research methods and developmental psych on reasoning skills Adding comparison group minimizes threats to internal validity due to history maturation testing instrumentation and regression Add tremendous advantage in ability to make causal claims by adding comparison group However can t pretest for all possible differences between groups so can t rule out all differences Can t rule out interactions with selection because they might not have same experiences in real life 0 HAVING A COMPARISON GROUP WILL HELP WITH INTERNAL VALIDITY BUT WILL NEVER REPLACE RANDOM ASSIGNMENT o Interrupted Timeseries Design Simple interrupted timeseries design researchers obtain periodic measures before and after a treatment has been introduced 0 0102 03 O4 05XO6 O7 08 09 010 o 5 observations pretest treatment 5 observations posttest No comparison group These designs are likely to be used when a new government reform business campaign or new product is being introduced 0 Example Connecticut used design to analyze whether increased police force on speeding actually reduced traf c fatalities Helpful to know that treatment is planned for the future so that you can start research with enough time to measure observations before change 0 OthenNise you can use archival records for pretest observations Obvious discontinuities in a time graph are needed to show strong evidence for treatment effectiveness O o Gradual changes cannot be differentiated from regular fluctuations Main problem ruling out alternative explanations for discontinuity Threat of history is a common problem 0 Threat of instrumentation can be problem because institutions change the way they record information when they make procedural changes Threats of maturation testing and regression are generally ruled out because there are multiple observations 0 Those changes would likely be gradual not discontinuous Time Series with Nonequivalent Control Group Design Procedure is identical to simple time series but includes comparison group to provide pre and posttreatment observations 0 0102 O3 O4 05XO6 O7 08 09 010 O 0102 O3 O4 05 O6 O7 08 09 010 0 0105 Pretest measures 06 010 posttest measures X treatment Line treatment and comparison groups not formed by random assignment Controls threat of history events should be happened to both groups at the same time 0 Example could include traffic fatalities from other comparable states 000 0 Program evaluation 0 O O Assesses effectiveness of human service organizations government agencies schools hospitals police that cannot use pro ts as a measure of success Goal Provide feedback to organizations in order to decide what services to provide and how to provide them effectively Interdisciplinary includes psychology sociology economics political science and education Largest scale application of research methods ideas Four questions of program evaluations Example Instituting a recycling program Needs Is an agency or organization meeting needs of the people it serves Process How is a program being implemented 0 Can use observational research Outcome Has a program been effective in meeting its stated goal Efficiency Is a program costef cient relative to alternatives 0 May use archival records experimental or quasi experimental techniques


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.