General Psychology PSYCH 100H
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Psychology Final Study Guide Chapter 13Social Cognition I Impression Formation and Attribution Social quot quot 39 quot eek LU IIIIUW and understand Attributionsinferences made about the causes of behavior we 39 quot 39 when lnternal AttIibution behaving because of something internal they always behave that way dispositional factors 2External AttIibution notthe type of person they are but a situation is making them actthat way situational factors Example Campus Riots 39 39 39 39 39 feelingquotg L is lyingform39 39 others a certain way I I quotwhyquot nternal reckless individuals prone to violence riots would not happen without them External confrontational police forced students to act up in response Biases in Attributionrely on shortcuts when deci ing why someone acts the way they do usually incorrect Person Biasunderestimating the effects of the situation on other s behavior unaware of situational factors Fundamental AttIibution Error Biases in 39 39 39 39 39 ational genera n 39 ias 39 quot L what we Example rough Princeton vs Dartmouth game 1 week laterfans had completely different views on what happened People weM can seemingly do no wrong attractive people tall people similar others Attractiveness quotHan Effectquotassociate 39 39 with utnei quot 39 39 is beautiful is good II Perceiving and Evaluating the Sel Se fConceptall the things that make up who we quotarequot t quot39 39 quotquot quot the 39 39 39 39 39 39 accessibility of information Selfjudgments tend to be selfserving 1 quot 39 quot 39 39 we generally ueiie e quot L quot39 39 quot linked to favorable outcomes 2 Unrealistic optimism we believe we are more likely to experience positive eventsfeel like we deserve positive outcomes 3 Illusion of ContIol people believe they can control outcomes thatthey have no influence overroling dice in a casino harderfor higher numbers People tend to take credit for success and to distance themselves from failure bad outcomes blamed on others orsituation SelfEsteemalthough often talked about as being high or low it is a continuous variable an evaluation of oneself i h Stability base their selfesteem on relatively constant internal factors Low Stability base their selfesteem on everchanging situational factors SelfFul lling Prophecieswhen we have beliefs about others we are going to treat them in a way to get them to act in line with what we expect of them mple teacher made aware offew students with high aptitude for learningbeingtold the person on the phone is attractive or not quot39 39 tiuetoilfismost39 39 quot quot 39 lnterdependent SelfConstrualself is connected with others and defined by relationships with those people III Personal and Social Identities Personal Identitycharacteristics we believe are most important define who we e Social Identitygroups we belong to Ingroups groups we identify with Outgroups groups otherthan our own Large groups satisfy belongingnesssimilarity but will not satisfy distinctivenessindividualization Smallgiuup will eti Ly 39 39 39 39 39 quot the need to belong A group that satisfies both needs is one where the person is optimally distinct IV Stereotyping and Prejudice Stereotyping quot ictures in our headsquot basis for prejudice or negative j dgments Measuring Prejudice 1 Expli 39tselfreport measuresdirectly ask if people likedislike certain groups 2 lmplicitreaction time measures Affective 39 39 g tiie ATT 1 1 t lihd i to get 39 ea s and with quotgoodquot and quotbadquot easier to group togetherthings associated Chapter 14Social Influence I Conformity Social Normsunderstood by members ofa group guide social behavior Why people conform 1 Informational 39 quot 39 be their action Ul judgment cause 39 Example SherifAutokinetic Effect Study subjects converged on a common estimate after several trial for how far light traveled 2 Normative In uencepeople conform because they fearthe negative consequences of appearing different Example Asch Line Length Study confederates gave the wrong answer participant had to decide to conform or give right answer Two types of conformity 1 Private Acceptance person privately accepts position taken by others 2 Public Conformity supe icial change in behavior without a change ofopinion Conformity influenced bygroup size awareness of norms and unanimity having an ally in dissent Deindividualiztionpeo le in a large groupfeel a loss of personal identity People feel less accountable for their actions people no longer selfawa re II Obedience When behavior is influenced bythe commands of an authority gure following direct orders instead of choosing to follow a quotrequestquot Stanley MilgramA olph Eichmann was on trial for his Nazi war crimes Milgram studied if he was simplyjust following orders Milgram Studythe quotteacherquot delivered shocks increased with each wrong answer to the quotlearnel Demonstrated that normal people have potential to be influenced by authorig figures and behave inconsistently to theirvalues III Compliance Change in behavior due to a direct request from another person Norm of Reciproci 39f someone does you a favor you return the favorcancel out feelings of debt FreeGift Technique giving a quotno strings attachedquot gift DoorintheFace Technique askfor a big favor follow by asking smallerfavor quotThat s Not Allquot Technique offer quot g 39 39 39 then sweeten the deal before the offer is rejected Norm of Consistencypeople generally act according to theirvalues and follow through once committed E quot L r T niquea kfui quot quot the a kfui 39 once they aglee LowBall Technique get someone to agree to a request then add restrictions or higher pric liking Norm if you like someone you should help them out even ifyou have only known them fora shorttime Norm of Scarcity if something is scarce it is seen as more valuable rare or quotgoing fastquot Scarcity makes us want to act quickly or impulsivel Norm ofAutiIority when an authority figure asks you to do something you go along with what he or she says Example doctors appearing in TV commercials Chapter 15Personality PersonalityTL 4 quot 39 39 how 39 39 quot different and unique I Psychodynamic Approach Structure of Personality 1 IDpleasure 2 Superegomorality 3 Egoreality When ego loses balance Ego Defense Mechanisms counterbalance Ego acts as mediator can quotbuy timequot by reducing anxiety ssion 39 quot 39 4 39 g g 39 Freudian Slip an error in speech memow or behaviorthat is thought to reflect unconsciousthoughts Recovered Memories recalling memories of past events that were previously unavailable to conscious awareness Displacement unconsciously shifting and emotional urge to a substitute target is less threatening or dangerous Sublimation quot 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 activities Reaction Formation 39 quot 39 impulses by quot39 g 39 39 Pro39ection attributing one39s own acceptable thoughts or impulses to another person om ensation striving to make up for unconscious impulses or fe rs Karen Horney developed quotWomb Envy male envy of pregnancy childbirth and motherhood Gives rise to an unconscious desire to devalue women II Humanistic Approach p asizes attainment of human potential People are basically quotgoodquot destructive impulses are due to social factors SelfActualization is our primaw goa Two Orientations 1 De ciency Orientationpreoccupation with perceived needsforthings person does not have Growth Orienta ontendencyto draw satisfaction from what is available in life ratherthan to focus on what is missing quot Peo le reali lCall elLei e 39 neeu nu v p r quot 39t quot fevewday life III Trait Perspectives E p asizes enduring predispositions toward behavioral patterns Traits are consistent across situations and stable overtime emphasizes individual differences Allport over4000 distinct traIts Central Trait basic building blocks that shape most of our behavior example honesty SecondamTrait characteristics seen only in certain circumstances example social at parties Oopenness to experien quot 39 39 t 39 quot quot 39 ce Trait Approach offers a way ofdescribing and comparing individuals using basic personality traitscan help in interpersonal understanding IV SocialCognitive Theories p asizes interactions in behavior cognition and the environment Albert Bandura reciprocal determi mPersonality caused by the interaction of behavioral cognitive and environmental factors W at we o what we think and what39s going on or happening to us interact dynamically Walter Mischel quotsituationist cri quequot Relationship between personal and situational variables e person and situation interact to produce behavior Personal dispositions are more important in some situations than in others People choose to be in stuations that are in accord with their personal dispositions V Assessing Personality Life Outcomeseducationincome levels marital status Situational Testsmeasures of ehavior reaction to conflict and frustration sener Ratingsfamilyfrien s SelfReportsresponses to inteniewspersonality tests Objective Personality Tests tests containing direct unambiguous items relating to individual being assessedquantitatively scored standardized Projective Personality Tests tests made up of unstructured stimuli that can be perceived and responded to in many waysscoring is subjective Chapter 16Mental Disorders I Psychological Disorders A pattern of thought emotion or behaviorthat results in personal distress or a significant impairment in a person39sfunctionin Abnormal Psychologythe scientific study of abnormal behavior in orderto describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns offunctioning Clinical Psychologythe application of psychology to relieve mental distress in a health and social care context B39opsychosocial Model of explaining psychological disorders Biological factors brain chemistry genetics Psychological processes wants needs emotions learning experiences Sociocultural context gender age marital status economic situations traditions DiathesisStress Approach of explaining psychological disorders n wnen a fur a disorder combines with sufficient amounts of stress to trigger symptoms The more riskfactors for a disorder a person hasthe more likelythe person will develop a disorder associated with those riskfactors Learning coping skills can reduce this Classification for psychological disorders is made with the Diagnostic 8 Sta s cal Manual of Mental Disorders DSM Anxiety Disor ers Characterized by impropertriggering andor persistence ofanxiety responses Phobias irrationalfear and avoidance of quot39 39 39 39 39 39 mm win IunLLiuning L anlc isorder recurrent terrifying 39 39 39 LU wme 39 39 g bsessive Compulsive DisorderOCD Obsessions repeated intrusive thoughts germs uncertainty violence Compulsions repetitive behavior pattern cleansing counting precision Obsessions and compu sions often cooccur P Disorder quot 39 39 person 39 III Mood Disorders Significant and chronic disruption of moods emotions do not reflect objective reality Depressive Disorders Major Depressive Disorderfeeling sadhopeless forweeks or months dangerof suicide s mic Disordermild depression for longer eriod Bipolar Disorders Bipolar I Disorder manic depressionalternating extremes of mood from deep depression to mania and back Bipolar ll Disorder hypomanialess severe manic phases IV Somatoform Disorders Characterized by physical symptoms that mimic physical disease or injuryfor which there is no identifiable physical cause 39 are experienced by the person as real but are due to mental ratherthan physical factors Physcal symptoms suffer or from hearing rumors of illness quotMadness of Crowdsquotphysical symptoms can be transmitted from persontoperson by seeing someone Body Dysmorphic Disorder extreme criticism of one39s physical appearance despite there being no noticeable defect Michael Jackson V Schizophrenia quotSplit Mindquot severe perceptual and cognitive distortions ositive Symptoms not quotgoodquot but presencequotueu iuna 39 39 5 Ne ative Symptoms not quotbadquot but absencequotemotionany Causes 1 Genetic Factorsheritability studies role of environment isk increases with paternal age 2 Physiological Factorsinfluenza and otherviral infections excessive dopamine levels and 39 interest in activity apathy VI Dissociative Disorders Sudden and usually temporaw disruptions of conscious awareness memory and identity 39 exis nce ran a 39 39 ueaLment Dissociative Identity Disorder Kenneth Bianchi Trial claimed to have 2 personalities heard that most people have 3 or more and changed his storyto fit that Chapter 17Treatment I Treatment Early mental asylums were little more than repositories forthe mentally ill Radical ProceduresFrontal Lobotomy Dr Walter Freeman considered an advance in surgew performed in large numbers until death of Rosemaw Kennedy Philippe PinelampDorthea Dix both founded human movements 39 39 39 39 39 people with quotquot Psychiatrists pluy icia 39 39 quot in treating quot 39 g39 quotquot can prescribe me s Clinical Psychologists most have PhD s experts in assessment and therapy ClinicalPsychiatric Social Worker Masters of Social Work some can offer psychotherapy mostly to people with everyday personalfamily problems much less likely today to be committed to mental institutions Modern Treatments Psychotherapy quottalkquot therapies rug therap39es II Psychodynamic Psychotherapy un Freudgoal is to recognize unconscious thoughts and emotions then work through the ways they affect client s evenday life Sigm III Humanistic Psychotherapy Trea ment is an encounter between equals clients will improve on theirown en ages in active listening an echoes restates and clarifies the patient39s thinking acknowledging expressed feelings T e p Carl Roger s ClientCentered Therapy client decided what to talk about without direction judgment or interpretation r m Fritz Perl39s GestaltTherapy treatments designed to help clients get in touch with genuine feelings and disown feelings that are nottheir own IV Behavior Therapy Behaviorists assume most psychological problems are learned Change occurs by learning new behaviors not searchingfor underlying problems Classical ConditioningTechniques Floodingkeep people in a feared but harmless situation Systematic Desens onassociate a new response with feared stimulus Aversion Therapypairing problem behaviors with aversive stimuli badtasting substance on fingernails 39s entcorporal punishment d ation in which desired behaviors are rewarded and undesired behaviors are punished PunI h Operant Conditioning procedures enable therapists to use behavior mo V Evaluating Psychotherapies Client s typically overestimate effectiveness of therapy Psychotherapies provided a hope for demoralized people a new perspective and a trusting relationship Psychology Midterm 1 Chapter 1 1 Definition of Psychology Science of behavior and the mind William Wundt opened first psychology laboratory 2 Descartes amp Hobbes Dualisma material body and an immaterial soul Descartes Different type of dualism less responsibility given to the soul Regarded the body as a complex machine capable ofthings without influence of soul Soul was responsible only forthought and acts on the body through the pineal body Buried between the two halves of the brain Hobbes Materialismsoul is a meaningless concept nothing exists but matter and energy Even voluntary choices we make can in theory be understood by physical processes especially the brain 3 Empiricism llBlank Slate vs Nativism Empiricism The idea that human knowledge and thought derive ultimately from sensory experience We acquire knowledge of the world around us and can behave adaptively within it Thoughts are not products of free will but rather reflections of a person39s experiences Law of Association by Contiguityevents become associated with one another baby Albert Nativism The most basic forms of human knowledge are native to the human mind The mind must come with some initial furnishings in orderfor it to be furnished through experience a priori knowledgebuilt into the human brain a posteriori knowledgegains from experience in the environment 4 Darwin amp Freud Darwin Basic forms of human emotional expressions are inherited and have evolved for survival Human emotions learning and reasoning came about gradually because they promoted survival Natural selection also offered a scientific foundation for nativist views of the mind Freud Became interested in the psychological roots of his patients problems Believed symptoms were unconscious conflicts relied on psychoanalysis 5 Structuralism vs Functionalism Structuralism Titchner tried to define the structure of consciousness by studying its parts Functionalism William James interested in how consciousness and behaviorfunction to help individuals adapt and survive Influenced by Darwin39s theory of evolution 6 Current Approaches to Psychology Shift from philosophy to scientific experimentation Cognitive Revolution Chapter 2 1 Hindsight Bias quotI knew it all along After learningthe outcome of an event people believe they could have predicted that outcome 2 Clever Hans Owner Oscar Pfungst Perfect example of Confirmation Bias We seek out info that confirms our existing beliefs and ignore disconfirming info 3 Theory amp Hypothesis Theory An organized set of principles offered to explain a phenomenon Can39t be tested directly only tested by testing different hypotheses Hypothesis A specific testable prediction about the conditions under which an outcome will occur 4 Conceptual Definitions vs Operational Definitions Conceptual Broad Speci c Operational Conceptual Make clear what you are studying and convey exactly what you understand a concept to mean Operational The concept you are studying specifically defined in concrete terms Operationalizing a concept allows you to manipulate it and measure it 5 Three Research Methods What is Method Basic Purpose How Conducted Manipulated Descriptive To observe and Case studies surveys Nothing record behavior and naturalistic observations Correlational To detect naturally Computing statistical Nothing occurring relationships association sometimes to assess how well among survey one variable predicts responses Experimental To explore cause Manipulating one or Independent and effect more factors and using variables random assignment to eliminate preexisting differences among subjects Descriptive Research Naturalistic Observation Strengths not dependent on subjects39 selfreported behavior Weaknesses observer effects confirmation bias rarity of behaviors of interest Case Studies Strengths allows analysis of rare behaviors Weaknesses generalizing findings beyond a single case can be difficult Surveys Strengths gather large amounts of data quickly Weaknesses nonrepresentative samples Correlational Research Correlation Coefficient r signifiesthe size and direction of relationship between variables 1 perfectly positivenegative correlation 0 no correlation Strengths Researchers can study naturally occurring variables that might be difficultunethical to manipulate Weaknesses Provides no information about causality does X cause Y Lurking Variables Experimental Research Independent Variableswhat a researcher changes to see if it has an effect IV39s are manipulated Dependent Variableswhat a researcher measures to determine influence of IV DV39s are measured Strengths Permits conclusions about causality can rule out other variables Weaknesses DifficultUnethical to manipulate some variables results may not generalize to population 6 Types of Validity Statistical Validity Statistical Significance testing95 confidence Large number of subjects large experimental effects low variability Construct Validity Are your results dependent on the particular way you manipulated and measured your variables Internal Validity How well have you controlled alternative explanations for the effect you have shown Making sure that only the manipulated IV causes differences in the DV Internally valid studies do not have confounding variables An outside variable that changes along with the IV leading to a mistaken conclusion Chapter 4 1 Sensitization vs Habituation Sensitization The progressive amplification of responses following repeated administrations of a stimulus Habituation Reduction in response to an unchanging stimulus brought by repeated exposure to stimulus Dishabituation Reappearance of the original response when the stimulus changes 2 Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Jim conditioning Dwight in The Office Unconditioned Stimulus Conditioned Stimulus quotDo you want an Altoidquot Computer quotbingquot sound Unconditioned Response Conditioned Response Outstretched hand by Dwight Outstretched hand even with no Altoid Operant Conditioning Learned associations between stimuli can occur before during or after conditioned response Responses that will be repeated are onesthat produce positive consequences Reinforcement Positiveadding desirable stimulus more likely to be repeated Negativeremoving an undesirable stimulus more likely to be repeated Punishment Positiveadding undesirable stimulus less likely to be repeated Negativeremoving desirable stimulus less likely to be repeated 3 Intrinsic vs Extrinsic rewards Intrinsicinternal from within a person Curiosity interest enjoyment Extrinsicexternal from the environment Good grades money praise 4 BF Skinner Argued that behaviors were shaped by external influences instead of inner thoughtsfeelings Skinner Box Shaping reinforcing responses that come successively closer to desired response Ex pen clicks forthe girl who walked around class until she was right 5 Learned Helplessness Learning that responses do not affect consequences stops attempts to exert control over situation Associated with symptoms characteristic of depression Chapter 5 1 Neurons The billions of connected cells that make up the body s information system Uses electrical impulses and chemical messengers to send information Sensory neuronscarry information from sensory organs Ex eyes ears tongue Motor neuronscarry messages to operate muscles Interneuronscarry messages from one set of neurons to the other Dendritesreceive Axonsone per cetransmit Ifa neuron is stimulated beyond a certain point it will quotfirequot Repolarization Neuron quotresetsquot before it can fire again 2 Neurotransmitters Signals sent from one neuron to another are sent in the form of molecules These molecules are neurotransmitters Travel across the gap between two neurons This gap is called a Synapse Excitatory neurotransmittersincreases likelihood of firing Ex Acetylcholine Glutamte Inhibitory Neurotransmitters Ex Dopamine Serotonin Endorphins 3 Nervous Svsiem Dmsmns v i CIMHII Mphoml quotmumquot mum ans Curl1 quotInlays n and Iran a 045 4 39 mm spinal and Sammie Amonami mm Wm WM am we own mm nude gram mumn hm hummiu mu mr foil m Inkmln m k1 nu 0415 V v Sympal lk nrusymp ha mm n quotmum mum in Calm way In mm W may and ma vann mm A Map Wm M he Brew on mm mmquot man ma mmv humanm an mums4 hbmummmm mm mm Mum ernrnunl mummyquot imam mumu mmm m an mum w mum um 5 Brain Imaging Techniques Electroencephalograph EEG Measures general electrical activity of brain Position Emission Tomography PET Tracks neural activity in brain as radioactive substance flows through Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Exposes brain to magnetic field and measures radio frequency waves Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS Temporarily disrupts function of particular part of brain to show what part does what Chapter 6 1 Drives and Incentives Drivesa state of arousal that prompts action to reduce the drive to restore balance Regulatory Driveshunger thirst oxygen sleep warmth Motivation arises from an imbalance in homeostasis Nonregulatory Drivessafety reproduction education social Not motivated by homeostasis Incentivesa sought after object or end that exists in the external environment Drives and Incentives complement each other Value of incentive is low only strong drives cause behavior Value of incentive is high weak drives can cause behavior Drives and Incentives influence each other Strong drives can increase the value of incentives Strong incentives can increase the strength of drives Z Mas ow s Hierarchy of Needs ummate summg towards se actuah za on usi seals
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