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Chapter 8

by: Brittany Woody

Chapter 8 EXP3604

Brittany Woody

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About this Document

Lecture and book notes for chapter 8, everyday memory and memory errors.
Cognitive Psychology
Dr. Stagner
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Woody on Wednesday March 16, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXP3604 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Stagner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.

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Date Created: 03/16/16
Wednesday, March 16, 2016 Chapter 8 Everyday Memory and Memory Errors - Autobiographical Memory (AM): memory for specific experiences from your life; episodic or semantic; mental time travel; multidimensional (sensory, emotional, sensory) - Sensory component: Greenberg and Rubin: focused on patients who cannot recognize objects; these patients also experienced loss of AM; shows that visual experience plays a role in forming and retrieving of AM - Cabeza and coworkers: comparing brain activation caused by autobiographical memory and laboratory memory; showed participants pictures taken by patients and patients taken by someone else; both types of photos activated similar structures (medial temporal lobe for episodic and parietal cortex for processing of scenes); autobiographical photos (taken by the participant) activated the prefrontal cortex (information about self) and the hippocampus (recollection); demonstrates richness of autobiographical memories - Memory over lifespan: significant events in a person’s life, events that are highly emotional, or major transition points are remembered well - Participants over the age of 40 asked t recall events in their lives; memory is high for rent events and for events that occurred in adolescence and early adulthood (age 10-30); reminiscence bump is period between 10 and 30 where memory is enhanced; three theories why: • Self-image hypothesis: period of assuming person’s self- image; memory is enhanced for events that occur as a person’s self image or life identity is being formed; people assume identities during adolescence and found adulthood; many transitions during this time cognitive hypothesis: encoding is better during periods of rapid change (significant • during this age); encoding is better during periods of rapid change that are followed by stability; evidence from those who emigrated to the US after young adulthood indicates reminiscence bump is shifted (shifted to around age that the person emigrated) 1 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 • cultural life script: culturally shared expectations structure recall; each person has personal life story, an understanding of culturally expected events; personal events are easier to recall when they fit the cultural life script - Emotional events remembered more easily and more vividly; emotion improves memory, becomes greater with time (may enhance consolidation); brain activity in amygdala • weapons focus: tendency to attend to a weapon when witnessing a crime - In a study, emotionally arousing pictures are remembered better than neutral stimuli, and even more so when the patients are under stress - Flashbulb memories: memory for circumstances surrounding shocking, highly charged important events; 9/11/01, Kennedy assassination, Challenger explosion, etc.; remember where you were and what you were doing; highly emotional, vivid, very detailed - Flashbulbs are not “photographic”; they can change with the passage of time; initial description after event is called baseline, later reports are compared to baseline in repeated recall; results suggest that these memories an be inaccurate or lacking in detail; participants still report that they are confident and that the memories seem very vivid; number of details remembered decline over time at the same rate for flashbulb and everyday memories, but everyday memories are reported to be less accurate by participants (belief) - Narrative rehearsal hypothesis: why flashbulb has belief component; repeated viewing/ hearing of event after event; TV, newspaper, etc introduce errors into memory without you knowing - Memory is what actually happened plus person’s knowledge, experiences, and expectations - Bartlett’s “war of the ghosts” experiment: had participants remember a story from a different culture; repeated reproduction; over time, reproduction becomes shorter and less accurate, and the story changes to become more consistent with person’s own culture - Source memory: process of determining origins of our memories - Source monitoring error: misidentifying source of memory; also called source misattributions 2 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 - Cryptoamnesia: unconscious plagiarism of another’s work due to a lack of recognition of its original source - Jacoby et al.: participants given a list of famous and non-famous names; after 24 hours, some non-famous names were misidentified as famous; some non-famous names were familiar and the participants misattributed the source of familiarity; failed to identify the source as the last that had been read the previous day - Memory can be influenced by inferences that people make based on their experiences - Pragmatic inferences: based on knowledge gained through experience; memory often includes information that is implied by or is consistent with the to-be-remembered information but was not explicitly stated - Schema: knowledge about some aspect of the environment; post-office, ball game, classroom - Script: conception of sequence of actions that usually occurs during a particular experience; going to a restaurant, playing tennis - Schemas and scripts influence memory: memory can include information not actually experienced but inferred because it is expected and consistent with the schema; office waiting room: books not present but mentioned in memory task; constructive nature of memory can lead to errors or false memories - Advantages: allows us to fill in the blanks; cognition is creative, needed to understand language, solve problems - Disadvantages: sometimes we make errors; sometimes we misattribute the source of information (published study vs. tabloid); was it actually presented or was it inferred? - Misinformation effect: misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes the event later; called an MPI: misleading post event information; retroactive interference - Loftus and coworkers: see slides of traffic accident with stop sign; introduced yield sign MPI; participants said they saw a yield sign when it was a stop sign - Loftus: hear “smashed” or “hit” to describe accident; ones who heard smashed said the cars were going faster than the participants that heard hit - Retroactive interference: more recent learning interferes with memory for something in the past; original memory trace is not replaced just changed 3 Wednesday, March 16, 2016 - Source monitoring error: failure to distinguish source of information; MPI is misattributed to the original source - Hyman and coworkers: participants’ parents gave descriptions of childhood events; participant had conversation about experiences with experimenter and experimenter added new events to the event; participants remembered the false events and thought they actually happened - Testimony by an eyewitness to a crime about he or she saw during the crime may have errors; one of the most convincing types of evidence because jury assumes correct memory; can by inaccurate; mistaken identity, constructive nature of memory - Wells and Bradfield: participants viewed security tapes; everyone identified gunman when shown pictures later, but actual gunman was not one of the picture options - Errors due to familiarity: source monitoring; person looks familiar so they think it is because of security tape - Experiment showed that when two people are in crime scene, bystanders can be identified as perpetuators because they are familiar - Errors due to suggestion: suggestive questioning (misinformation effect) and confirming feedback (post-identification feedback effect) - Confidence in identification of criminal increases when given confirming feedback - Confidence in one’s memories may be increased by post event questioning; believe their story is correct because of positive feedback; may make memories easier to retrieve but may not be accurate - Inform witness that perpetrator might not be in lineup; use “fillers” in lineup that look similar to suspect; use sequential presentation (suspects seen one at a time instead of all at once; not simultaneous); improve interviewing techniques (cognitive interview, not asking suggestive questions) 4


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