American West Since 1900
American West Since 1900 HIST 352
Popular in Course
Popular in History
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Guadalupe Kilback on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 352 at Colorado State University taught by Tracy Brady in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/210013/hist-352-colorado-state-university in History at Colorado State University.
Reviews for American West Since 1900
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/21/15
Review Sheet Final Exam Identi cations Bureau of Rec 7 golden era There was a show of national resolve to stand up to Communism using rivers to their full extent was a way of standing up to communism the amount of irrigated land increased dramatically the drought had returned temporarily and Americans felt the need to really use their water resources 19401960 if you were not for dams then you were a socialist the federal government absorbed most of the cost to build dams wanted to reclaim desert lands they brought jobs and water to the west no one wanted to challenge the Bureau Floyd Dominy was a one man bureau of reclamation he stood up to anyone Inititative Prop 14 Prevented African Americans from buying houses in certain neighborhoods by saying that people have the right to sell or rent to whomever they want and can refuse to sell or rent their houses to whomever they did not want as well Watts Riot 1965 about defacto discrimination Watts was a primarily black neighborhood that also had an unemployment rate of 30 underfunded schools a white police force and higher housing prices A DUI arrest of a black man turns into a riot where blacks destroy businesses that had discriminated against blacks in one way or another they did not harm businesses that had treated them fairly Black Panther Party tried to stop blacks from being harassed by the police had some deadly confrontations with the police Also tried to advocate for selfhelp and instituted free breakfast programs in black neighborhoods and also built shelters in those black neighborhoods AIM stood up against mismanagement of Indian funds by the federal government was involved with the sitin in the office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs most famous pan Indian activists developed in urban Minneapolisfounded by Dennis Banks with Indian people willing to ght for Indian people patrolled cities to make sure police were not harassing young Native Americans their most successful movement was the reoccupation of Alcatraz Island by Native Americans good publicity stunt and good show of red power Russell MeansNative American who had left the reservation was a genius for confrontational politics in 1972 he led a sitin in the office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Wounded Knee was a public relations disaster for the government the FBI hounded the AIM into almost nothing Native Americans occupied the site of the old Wounded Knee Massacre refuse to leave until all Indians say they will do all they can to help the Indian cause eventually the FBI actually attacked the church where these Indians were but the Indians hold out and then agree to surrender later people were actually on the side of the Indians in this one Indian gaming money was needed on the reservations to ful ll military contracts The Indian Gaming Regulatory Act said that Indian tribes had to vote whether or not to establish gaming and gambling operations on their reservations Gave reservations badly needed jobs and helped fund colleges on the reservations United Farm Workers Union that dealt with the dual labor system built by Cesar Chavez through community service organizations went on strikes for better conditions also instituted secondary boycotts of products made from the grapes that were being harvested under such poor conditions people picketed outside of stores that sold these products leads to the recognition of the union by growers Also dislike mechanization and said that it hurt eld workers increased tensions between MexicanAmericans and Mexican migrant workers Corky Gonzales founded the crusade for justice which held a Chicano Youth Liberation Conference and worked for MexicanAmerican rights Aztlan Aztlan was a kind of symbolic homeland in the Southwest connected with the Chicano movement of giving people a common home to look to David Brower president of the Sierra Club said there was such a thing as ecosystems and that there were biological reasons to protect the environment Earth First said nature had a right to exist that rocks had rights too and that sometimes it was necessary to break the law to protect nature Edward Abbey said that nature was under attack from the government and the common people he encouraged radical methods to stop the degradation of nature but they were not violent Sagebrush Rebellion people in the West were starting to feel like the were a colony of the east they wanted the federal government to open up western forest and national park land so that it could be cultivated and be used to make a profit get forest service license money and payments in lieu of taxes down winders Energy Crisis leads to the building of more dams slow growth movements discouraged people from moving to the West Rise of New Right Environmental Saviors western movies John Ford lone gunman idea leads to the rise in consumerism and merchandising through Western TV series related stuff Brings violence to TV Essay 1 Themes Civil Rights movement iNative Americans Mexican Americans African Americans Native Americans served in WWII and they also left their reservations to work in war industry Native Americans gain the Indian Claims Commission where Native Americans can ask for reparations for anything they felt was unfair in terms of remuneration for their service in the military or their work in wartime industries Mexican Americans After the war Mexican Americans became primarily urban dwellers and broke the dual labor system Serving in the armed forces gave MexicanAmericans a sense of American identity This identity led Mexican Americans to start fighting for their rights as American citizens Mexicans were still at risk for deportation without due process under the Intemal Security Act of being deported for being suspected of being alien subversives African Americans were treated poorly in some Western states like Texas and Oklahoma saw bylaw segregation in these states but boycotts helped to bring down this segregation Blacks in the West were discriminated against in housing and segregated into allblack neighborhoods when the Rumford Act outlawed discrimination in housing Westerners passed Prop 14 which said that people had a right to sell or rent to whoever they wanted Environmentalism Service industries could be located anywhere because they did not require many resources In efforts to protect some natural monuments the environmentalists had to make some concessions the government would not build in one place if environmentalists agreed to let them build in another area without problems Antigrowth movement in Oregon passed some of the toughest environmental regulations in history and discouraged people from staying in Oregon Leads to SageBrush rebellion Westem mythology in 2quotd half of 20Lh century Bugsy Siegal was a mobster who built the Flamingo casino in Vegas in 1954 Theme of the wild west capitalized on in Vegas with atomic drinks while watching atomic bombs go off in the distance Westemstyle movies idea of a lone gunman protecting women and children fight for the common good tv shows were actually historically accurate Essay 2 Themes Glen Canyon Dammed Ideas of loss vs progress and identity of West Was it worth destroying Glen Canyon to get power from the Dam Industrial tourism Make parks and national monuments more accessible to people Growth of Environmentalism Protect nature rather than making it more accessible Rainbow Bridge sacred site for Navajo Indians Cool nature that was buried by Lake Powell and the Dam on the Colorado River Aug 27 o What makes the West llthe west 0 Aridity I Abnormally arid people tried to make it less arid 0 There is a visible Native American population I Tribal lands tribal sovereignty 0 Border with Mexico I Fairly easily crossed border Border on the Pacific Ocean Asian immigration Pacific trade and diplomatic relations More federallyheld land I East land was privatized much more quickly 0 Offers us a case study of relations between people and the federal government 0 Romanticizing historythe past for commercial gain 0 Dumping ground I Mormons Native Americans toxic waste 0 llBoom bust extractive economy I Mining timber cattle oil 0 Review Progressive Era o Unprecedented growth in industry I No government regulation of the steel industry 0 Not equipped to deal with the new region 0 Reform and change I Accepted the permanence of largescale corporate capitalism big business industry I Want to curb big business abuses 0 Want to help workers 0 Want to prevent revolt I Faith in progress 0 Letting go of some Social Darwinian principles 0 Progress is possible I Belief in interventionism o If you CAN do something you SHOULD do it I Inspired by 0 Evangelical Protestantism Christianity 0 We need to bring better lives to people while they are on Earth Not competing ideas too I llSocial Gospelquot 0 Science and technology 0 Studying problems applying expertise can fix anything 0 Progressive Era in the West 0 Federal government stops seeing theirjob as getting land into private hands I They begin asserting permanent public ownership over lands and resources 0 Big companies and cities happy with government control of lands 0 Big companies were favored by the government 0 Western Resources I Make use of Western resources as efficient as possible 0 Gifford Pinchot o Helps to create the National Forest Service I National Forest Service land is primarily in the West 0 William Mullholland 0 He brought water resources to Southern California I Some areas were overgrazed and deforested 0 Wanted to stop this 0 Wanted everyone to realize there wasn t a neverending supply in the West 0 No more patronage in political positions I Bureaucracies were now staffed with collegeeducated specialists Aug 30 Progressive Era in the West 0 National Forrest Service 0 Arose out of Westerners Western irrigators desire to preserve their water supply I Forests hold snowpack o Started out as llforest reserves I Had no real way of protecting forest reserves 0 1897 Forest Management Act I Placed forest reserves under secretary of the interior 39239 Regulates grazing commercial timber cutting I Law that gave secretary power but no real power of enforcement before Gifford Pinchot stepped in o Gifford Pinchot was educated he wanted a career in forestry I Goes to Europe to learn about forest management 39239 Finds a quotcurequot for waste and inefficiency gt Can control nature with the right people working on it I Did not really know the West I 1898 appointed to Department of Agriculture s Division of Forestry 39239 Department of the Interior controlled forest lands gt Men of the Department of the Interior were not forest men 0 Pinchot and Teddy Roosevelt before TR was President became friends I Agreed men should be rugged I Real forestry was lltree fa rming O O O O o v Planting harvesting replanting gt Should be in the Department of Agriculture if it s farming Roosevelt gets the control of forest lands to the Dept of Agriculture after he becomes president Pinchot exacts fees for grazing on forest land has people bid for timber rights Hired forest rangers dedicated educated officials I These men were llrealquot rugged men 39239 Wanted forests to have llsustained yield Westerners were divided in their response to the forest service I Small businessessmall farms were not thrilled with federal control 39239 Did not want federally managed West gt 1906 forest rangers threatened by farmers gt New Mexican natives thought the government was taking away their native lands Called Pinchot llCzar Pinchot 39239 Pinchot wins over a bigger group of Westerners by gt Dropping fees lower on grazing land gt Larger farms realized that no more free grazing would eliminate little farmers gt Won over large timber companies Large farmers got a say in how these lands were distributed 1910 Local Forest Advisory Boards I Federal government consulting locals 39239 Only consulting big companies 0 National Park Service 0 Federally owned regulated land I Pinchot says llwilderness is waste 0 National Parks were useless to most people 0 Fascination with monumental views I llearth monuments that westerners were proud of 39239 llscenic nationalism o Economically hard to develop land I quotworthlessquot lands 0 Growth of tourism in the west I Railroads promoted National Parks 39239 Jay cook of N Pacific Railroad gets Yellowstone National Park 39239 Louis Hill of Great Northern railroad gets Glacier National Park gt Still no federal management of National Parks 0 John Muir 0 Father of National Parks 0 Curative powers of nature 0 National Parks important for people to be able to escape to nature I Nature helps us to know God nature was part of God mystical o Muir and Pinchot meet and get along well I Pinchot and Muir fight because Pinchot tries to kill a tarantula 39239 Muir says everything in nature should exist the way it is 39239 Pinchot says nature can be improved upon 0 1906 Lacey Act 0 llHalfway status for land historic lands prehistoric landmarks I Still protected 0 Wilson allows Forest Service to take resources from many National Parks makes them smaller 0 National Parks 0 Very vulnerable to being found quotusefulquot 0 Yosemite National Park I HetchHetchy Valley 39239 To dam or not to dam gt City of San Francisco needed water so they dammed the Hetch Hetchy Valley in 1913 39239 John Muir really did not want Hetch Hetchy dammed gt llDevotees of ravaging commercialism destroying national parks 39239 Only place on federallyowned land that they could build a dam gt Did not want to put the dam on private lands 39239 Preservationists and Conservationists gt Hetch Hetchy s destruction made preservationists wonder how they could possibly protect nature gt Downplay mysticism of nature s connection with God gt Preservationists adopt conservatives ideas about economic benefits of national parks Tourism gives lots of money Communing with nature for a while will refresh workers and make them more efficient I 1916 National Park Service is created 39239 Stephen Mather gt Mobilized women s clubs to help push for the preservation of national parks Lobbied for parks Published articles asking for support of national parks in National Geographic etc gt Wanted to build roads cabins to make money off national parks also 0 Native Americans in the Progressive Era 0 Federal government dominated Native American life 0 Dawes Act 1887 I Program of forced assimilation I First sign of progressivism I Two types of Native Americans 0 39239 Progressives I Carlos Montezuma o 39239 Captured sold v lllonghairsquotnonprogressives N Born a Yavapai Indian gt Adoptedbought by a man from Arizona gt Went to college med school became a doctor in Chicago gt Formed the llSociety of American Indians Assimilated Indians who were dedicated to uplifting other Indians Indian salvation comes only after complete Indian assimilation Disdained Native Indian llold ways v Reservations were prisons gt Held people down in their Native American ways v 1901 Carlos Montezuma visits his home reservation for the first time gt Yavapai Indians fighting to keep their water resources and native ways Carlos starts helping Yavapai s keep their water by fighting for it gt Main allies are the lllong hairs he used to hate gt Carlos reenvisions reservations as home v Wanted Indians to have freedom in their reservations gt Indians carve out some independenceflexibility in life even while still under the federal government gt Created of quot 39 39 and r g Becomes llgeneral council where all Crow Indians on the reservation assembled to make decisions and vote on issues llCouncil of Six Chiefsquot llSix Business Councilmen is Arapahoe leaders leadership council These six chiefs were appointed by the elders of the tribe they were not elected These men did business in very llNative American ways believed in community and reciprocity September 8 0 Immigration 0 Urban West attracting most people I Asians settling more on West coast I Mexicans staying in the Southern West I Slavs moved into mining towns 0 New people were on the fringes of power I Power and success did not come evenly to each group of immigrants o o Those who stayed on the periphery were nonwhites 39239 People wanted to hire White AngloSaxon Protestants I Westerners were not friendly to Asians o v Helped pass Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 gt Extended the Act indefinitely in 1902 gt After the Exclusion of the Chinese the Japanese came in droves 39239 The Japanese were recruited primarily as railroad workers or lowlevel field workers gt These people did the most dangerous jobs 39239 Unions were for white skilled laborers gt 1790 Naturalization Act said only whites could become US Citizens Asians could not become US Citizens 0 People were afraid whites would be overwhelmed and die out I Nativismquot we don t like nonwhites but some can assimilate 0 US wants to keep good relations with Japan I US wants to expand their influence in Asia 0 Segregation laws in schools 0 Teddy Roosevelt does not want to completely exclude the Japanese I 1907 negotiate llgentlemen s agreement 39239 Japan and the US Japanese government agrees not to issue any more passports to laborers gt US agrees to still let laborers who were already in the US bring over their wives and children Japanese bring in llpicture brides llMailOrder brides Ended in 1924 0 Japanese were somewhat prospering 0 Doing okay within the areas that the US would allow I Excluded from doing many US jobs 0 Many became fishermen and fished for Abalone I Americans were not interested in Abalone I Japanese exported fish 0 Many others became small farmers I Worked on leased land Could not own the land orjust unused empty public land I Made their little scraps of land work for them 39239 Same way they did in Japan I Managed to save some small money Resentment of any Japanese Success 0 Americans put down the Japanese at every chance they could I Call Japanese the llYellow Peril Japanese tried to find their way around leasing laws in California 0 Put land leases in their children s names 0 US put laws in place saying they could not do this I US Supreme Court rules this unconstitutional 0 Japanese not allowed to live in certain areas not allowed on beaches golfcourses o ssei don t fight this their children who were born in America the Nissei want to fight for their American rights 0 Mexican immigrants 0 One of the larger immigrant groups in the American West 0 No hurry to exclude them 0 More acceptable form of cheap labor in the American West I Felt that the Mexicans would come work go back to Mexico 39239 Japanese could not easily go back 0 US celebrates their Hispanic heritage I Still don t like real Mexican people 0 African Americans migrate to the West during the Progressive Era 0 African Americans face less intense discrimination in the West I Some came from the Southwest 39239 Texas Oklahoma 0 Still segregated and discriminated against in housing and jobs I Educationschools Msegregated Working in the West 0 Duallabor system 0 Toptier managers skilled workers 0 Bottomtier farm workers railroad workers I Toptier was white bottom tier was nonwhite 39239 Racial arguments to keep races in bottom tier gt Other races were suited to field work gt Other races were happy in the lower tier I Some whites were in the bottom tier but they could potentially move up to better llwhite man s work 0 v Other races could not move out of this tier o v White workers in lower tier refused to bond with other nonwhites in their jobs not llone of them gt Whites believed they could and would move up quickly 0 Attempts to organize unions 0 1893 Western Federation of Miners formed I Started in Butte Montana I Radical militant federation I Believed economy would always favor capitalists over workers Formed quotselfhelp networks Communities of workers that banded together to help each other 0 v Helped pay each other s bills Socialist militant 39239 Ed Boyce president gt Formed a rifle club Gave everyone a gun trained them how to use them 91010 Progressive Era in the West 0 Labor in the West 0 Laborers tried to get 8hour work days and improve working conditions I Not particularly effective 39239 Teddy Roosevelt and Wilson make some changes in labor laws add child labor laws 39239 They faced a lot of opposition 0 Western Federation of Miners falls apart in 1911 I Later joins International Workers of the World IWW 39239 Envisioned a brotherhood of workers all throughout the world gt 1917 WFM Changes their name to the International Union of Mine Mill and Smelter Workers 0 1917 Bisbee Strike I Looks like unions may overcome their divisions I Owners of Bisbee deported striking Mexican workers to the New Mexican desert they also killed workers as they were loading them onto the trains to be deported 0 United Mine Workers of America UMW I Started with coal miners in Eastern New England states I Dealt with skilled laborers 39239 Were not exclusive of recent immigrants were not racist gt Similar to the Knights of Labor gt 1910 13 of all mine workers were part of the United Mine Workers Union Owners of the United Mine were not happy 1913 John D Rockefeller and the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company started the open shop drive Attempt to break the union I Closed shops everyone who works there has to be a part of the union I Open shops llright to work drives you don t have to be part of the 0 union to work 0 Strike to prevent open shops UMW Strike I Paid poorly paid by the piece I Colorado coal miners had double the fatality rate of coal miners across the country I UMW director was John Lawson 39239 Not a radical union just breadandbutter I Mary Harris llMother Jonesquot More radical Evicted mine workers from company housing gt Evicted workers stayed in tents so they could keep 0 00 working 0 Strike became very militant I Machine gun fire quotdeath specialquot 39239 April 20 1914 Colorado State Militia attacks miner s camp gt Ludlow CO gt Was a very onesided fight at first tent city burnt down people died llLudlow Massacre Results in militant fighting between workers and the National Guardfederal troops gt Workers were winning so federal troops were brought in to disarm the miners 0 Colorado Fuel and Iron ends up taking very good care of their workers after the Ludlow massacre I Realize they need to quotfixquot capitalism so that workers are better cared for 39239 Need to counter the appeal of radicalism gt Unregulated big business is bad we agree with workers need to stop laissez faire policies Government can play a regulatory role Other kinds of Progressive Reforms in the West llCity Beautifulquot movement I Not only the west I Started with Frederick Law Olmsted 39239 He started the creation of Central Park 0 I We can create beautiful areas in the city so there is less need to quotescapequot the city I Robert Speer cleaned up the Cherry Creek CO area 0 Public health education crime criminal justice system I Denver Judge Ben Lindsey 39239 Advocated for separate juvenile system ofjustice established 1907 gt Children should be treated more leniently when they commit a crime gt Wanted to intervene and get children out of the problem 0 Direct democracy reforms I Initiative referendum direct election of senators 39239 West favored ordinary people exercising direct action by the people 0 v West was the first to allow many of these things September 13 WWI o Erupts in Europe in 1914 0 US stays out I Had pretty good relations with both sides allies and central powers 39239 Hard to be neutral 0 US enters in 1917 o Idea of rational and efficient usage of resources and progressive ideas in general called into question by WW I Progressive Era ends with the War 0 Reasons the US entered the War 0 Attacks from German UBoats I Jan 1917 Germany announces the resuming of unrestricted submarine attacks 39239 Germany was very effective with their use of submarines I Sinking of the Lusitania 39239 The British had been using passenger ships to transport ammunition gt For this reason the Germans were justified in sinking the Lusitania Germans back off after this until Jan 1917 because they do not want the US to join the war against them I Germany decides they can weaken Britain by cutting off supplies from America by firing on and sinking US ships 39239 They think that killing Britain this way will end the war before the US can jom 0 February 1917 Zimmerman telegram the British intercepted this telegram I Was this telegram really sent I From Arthur Zimmerman Germany s Foreign Secretary to Mexico 39239 Proposed that if Mexico would join with the central powers against Britain and the US then they will get back all the territory that was taken from them by the US in the Treaty oquadalupe Hidalgo gt There was no way Mexico was actually going to do this they were in turmoil themselves gt The US felt that they had to go to war now April 6 1917 Wilson requests declaration of war from Congress 0 Takes the US a while to gear up they make it over to the war just in the nick of time War in the West border relations 0 Mexican Revolution in 1917 was a big problem I Thousands of refugees from the Revolution came to the US 39239 Some of these refugees brought the revolutionary sentiment with them White farmers were consolidating and taking over former Mexican lands in the South West I Used Tejanos and other Mexican immigrants as laborers I White farmers were instituting Jim Crowe laws against Mexicans and Tejanos and blacks 39239 People were upset about losing power and rights gt Some violence starts to erupt 1915 Tejanos meet and issue a proclamation calling for an armed insurrection by a liberating army for persecuted people I Institute llEl Plan de San Diego in 1915 and start attacking white institutions and land 0 v Killed some whites in attacks llAnglovigilance Committees start lynching anyone suspected of being involved in these fights I There is retaliation for this violence against the Mexican people 39239 Pancho Villa and his men threaten to invade Dallas gt Actually do invade Columbus New Mexico in 1916 Wilson sends the army out to kill Pancho Villa and even sends men into Mexico to pursue him llBrown Scaresquot Southern California especially 0 O 0 Police start arresting anyone of Mexican heritage Institute surveillance over Mexican neighborhoods Mexicans are not allowed to buy liquor or guns I Westerners were more afraid of Mexicans than Germans o v Newspapers encourage d the fear of Mexicans September 22 o Zimmerman telegraph o Affected Western relations with Mexico I Focus on Western aspects for the test 0 War opened up many job opportunities because of the need for laborers especially in the areas around military bases 0 Mexican workers wanted jobs in the United States but they did not want to be drafted into fighting for the US 0 US government guarantees no draft I This does not change things socially I Mexican workers pay scale is always lower than white workers 0 National War Labor Board war time federal agency I Create a space where workers and management can come together and talk about their differences to prevent strikes 39239 Samuel Gompers the founder of the AFL was given a seat at the quottablequot of the NWLB I Companies give 0 39 8hour work day 0 o 39 1 V2 time for overtime o o N Workers have the right to organize and owners must recognize this right gt All in exchange for no more strikes 0 WW Understood workers in the west and their migratory nature 0 Provided services for Western workers I Mail dorms social clubs 0 Summer 1917 Unhappiness of timber companies in the Pacific Northwest 0 Government put leaders of strikes and strikers in jail 0 Workers went back to work I Only llkind ofquot on strike I Workers would leave after 8 hours of work or stay in the factorymine and not work I Workers sabotaged the timber industry 0 Timber production was cut just like it would have been if workers had gone on strike 0 The government pressures companies to do their side of the agreement I Sent troops into timber production 0 Timber industry says make the WW go away and we ll comply 0 Government continued to jail leaders and upper members of the WW broke the union o Everest WA government allowed local sheriffs to take 40 IWW prisoners out into isolation make those prisoners run through a gauntlet naked while being beaten some people died from this 0 1919 attack on IWW hall killed members of IWW I Wesley Everest IWW member and WWI hero was lynched 0 Post war 0 1919 waves of strikes workers want changes industries say no 0 Seattle General Strike starts with Seattle Shipyard workers leaving en masse I Shipyard workers were then joined by many other workers from a variety of industries 39239 65000 people on strike I Organize general strike committees 39239 They took care of the essentials police milk delivery to workers laundry ran kitchens gt This was not a radical strike 0 Mayor Ole Hanson and many business owners say this was the quotbeginning of a revolution 0 Strikers back off do not want to be connected to a revolution 0 Workers were unable to counter business owners 0 1920s 0 Major theme prohibition I 1919 US ratifies 18 h Amendment 0 The Saloon was seen as a symbol of the evils of alcohol by evangelical Christians 0 Carrie Nation 0 Born in Kentucky in 1846 later moved to Missouri 0 Her first husband died of alcohol poison 0 Her second husband was a lawyer who supported her 0 She would attack saloons destroy the bar with her hatchet I She was arrested many times 0 Other side of prohibition 0 Alcohol is a public health issue I These people pushed education and encouraged nonalcoholic activities 0 Most 34 of the American west was already dry 920 0 Immigration Restriction o 1924 National Origins Quota Act focused on reducing immigration from quottoo foreign countries I Too foreign was southern and eastern Europe and Asia 0 Left over scare from WW I Brought about the most restrictive era of immigration 0 Clashes between quotAmericansquot too I The world was changing too fast 0 v Modernism vs traditionalism Hubert Work Secretary of the Interior Indian Affairs 0 O Backed by Christian missionaries I Tried to stamp out Indian religious activities Peyote Native American Church I 1880s Oklahoma began to combine traditional practices with elements of Christianity such as taking sacraments I Chief Quanah Park Native American church founder 1924 Congress passes a law saying all Native Americans are US citizens O Called the llCitizenship Act I Passed by Calvin Coolidge Rise of the KKK now a national organization 0 O O O O Wider in scope Antiimmigration antiCatholic anti Jewish anti new modern changes anti prostitution I Keepers of traditional values I 100 quotAmericanismquot I Peak 5 million members I Also a Women s KKK 39239 KKK dominate political force in Colorado Dr John Galen Locke he was from Denver I In 1924 he gained control of the state assembly Governor Clarence Morley Klan got him elected I KKK had the governor and the state house Legislative plans were not very goodwell thought out I They were almost victorious in prohibiting wine in religious services I They proposed that all children be required to attend m school 39239 6 Republicans joined with the Democrats to defeat these proposals Members of the KKK cut across occupational lines I Mostly professional men I Ally Mayor Ben Stapleton Tried to keep JewsCatholics from entering the business field I Women s gossip I Boycotts Falls apart the press criticism poking fun ridicule Dr John Galen Locke pick and choose fraudulent finances I Resigned from Klan leadership Summer 1925 National Klan leaders were caught in sex scandals Dual wage system 0 Whites paid higher than Hispanics