Modern Europe, 1815
Modern Europe, 1815 HIST 328
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Guadalupe Kilback on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 328 at Colorado State University taught by Annika Frieberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/210024/hist-328-colorado-state-university in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Aug 25 The French and American Revolutions 0 Background 0 Terms of Identification I Three Estates I Oath of the Tennis Courts I Storming of the Bastille 0 Causes 0 Class struggle Marxist history Social tensions Economic situation OOO Weak monarchy I People of the aristocracy were abusing the people of the lower classes 0 The lower classes fought back 0 Social Tensions 0 Three Estates I Nobility I Church I Everybody else 0 The nobility and the Church were exempt from taxes 0 Some of lleverybody else were able to buy their way into the nobility o Enlightenment Theory 0 The Social Contract I If the ruler is not taking care of the people the people have the right to replace the government 0 Gave the people a logic for replacing the government 0 Economic Tensions o Peasants paying most of the taxes I Landowners especially paying heavy taxes 0 Landowners were not getting enough money from their produce to cover the taxes 0 They raised the price of food 0 Many people were unemployed 0 These two factors lead to instability 0 Weak Monarchy 0 Louis XVI tries to reform society 0 Marie Antoinette is blamed for many of the French s problems I Louis XVI for the first time since 1614 gathers Parliament 0 During the meeting the third estate Nobility gets upset walks out and meets on the tennis courts o Oath of the Tennis Court June 20 1789 o Nobility all swears to stay on the tennis court until they have written a constitution 0 These men were not llrepublicans they were not committed to a constitution they were just quotreformistsquot committed to reform I King Louis gives in I A new Parliament is formed 0 17891792 first phase of reforms 0 Signs reform will not work I July 14 1789 Storming of the Bastille o Peasants demand old weapons that were stored in the Bastille commander of the Bastille refuses to give them the weapons shoots a peasant o Peasants storm the Bastille I Women s March to the Versailles 0 Oct 1789 o The king was plotting an outside attack by one of his allies to end the rebellions The women cornered the king demanded he stop his plotting o Peasant men were upset about the women being so bold and taking things into their own hands 0 17921794 Popular Revolution 0 The larger population had been politicized 0 There was Economic instability 0 Weak national leadership 0 War I Austria and Prussia declared war on the French 1791 0 Why did they declare war 0 The Austrian king is Marie Antoinette s brother 0 Prussia is near France and they want to be the bigger power in the area 0 What is going to happen 0 More radical change more anarchy Aug 27 0 Popular Revolution 1792 France 0 Reform efforts up to this point had been too political and not enough about economics 0 1794 Third stage of the reforms llReign of terrorquot 0 1792 Formation of the Committee of Public Safety I Robespierre Marat Danton 0 Decide that enemies of the republic enemies of the Revolution should be executed by guillotine I The country went to war under the command of the Committee of Public Safety Enlightenment Legacy 0 Descartes Voltaire Montesquieu Ongoing conflict between the Republic and Democracy and Absolutism Fear of Revolution 0 Ruling elites afraid of being killed American Revolution and how its ideas met with the French Revolution 0 The Continental Congress of 1774 I Writing the Declaration of Independence from Britain 0 Enlightenment ideas were pushing the right to life liberty and property 0 Also about taxes and representation The French Revolution is not for independence they do not want to get rid of the king initially 0 Do want to get rid of absolutist leaders but they have to try three different rulers before they find one that works 0 Their llfourth ofJulyquot Bastille Day is about hating an internal enemy the elites I French people still build barricades when something makes them mad 0 Americans don lt build barricades Napoleon Bonaparte 0 Never would have come to power had there not been a revolution I He did not have family connections he was lower aristocracy o 1793 Need military leaders they don t have the old leaders anymore I Napoleon rises in military ranks because they need leaders I 1796 Napoleon is arrested because of his connections to the Jacobins 0 He is released shortly after because the army needs his military leadership I 1799 Napoleon stages a coup d etat I 1804 Napoleon declares himself Emperor of France 0 He is not a king the people hate kings he is an emperor 0 He expands the landholdings for France 0 Starts civil servant reform I Stops the principal of civil service recruitment being based on blood and instead bases it in on talent Administration overhaul Removes tariffs Builds better roads and communications Establishes the Napoleonic Code Rationalizes educational system Establishes a force of secret police Has a son whom he calls the llking of Romequot born in 1810 Marries the Hapsburg queen gains territory for France and a royal title for himself I Territory of his empire now consists of Rome Tuscany Croatia Germany Poland I Italy Naples Spain and Holland all declare allegiance to Napoleon 0 Napoleon dominates practically all of Europe by 18081809 0 Why does Napoleon fall 0 O Tries to break Britain by declaring the llContinental System saying no one can trade with Britain I The US still trades with Britain because they are not allied with anyone I Britain enacts a naval blockade against Napoleon Ambition I Napoleon s own ambition was too much for him to handle 0 Tried to take on Spain in 1808 Russia is hurting from the llContinental System I Restarts trade with Britain 0 Napoleon goes to war with Russia 0 Russia enacts llScorched Earth Policyquot I Napoleon cannot feed his troops while they re in Russia I 1813 Napoleon leaves Russia with a few thousand soldiers all that s left from 690000 troops he started with Battle of the Nations starts with Prussia vs Napoleon What are the attitudes toward 1 Religion and 2 The individual s relationship with stategovernment in on the one hand Alexander I and Prince Metternich s writings and on the other hand John Stuart Mill s writings 57 Squot Alexander I believes God should and does guide all political decisions and men should all quotconsider themselves all as members of one great Christian nationquot p 28 God s truths should quotcontrol the resolutions of princes and to guide their steps as the sole means of establishing human institutions and of remedying their imperfections Individuals and governments should pay mutual service to one another should always have goodwill between them Individuals and the government should all consider themselves members of one great Christian nation Kings and everyone else are subject to God Laws should come from God Metternich nature and natural conditions influence religion Religious morality never loses its influence Christianity is a stabilizing force in society and the world He seems to believe that men do not really submit to their religious convictions Any individual if they are deemed worthy can be designated ruler of the state Teachers should not preach subversive ideas in the classroom People cannot belong to secret societies because those secret societies may preach ideas that are against the government If people have ever belonged to secret societies they cannot take public office Kings and religion could be overthrown at any time but that very fact is evil Religions quotnever cease to exercise their indestructible influence p 32 Religious morals keep society in order Religion helped to establish civilization The Reformation changed the face of the world State is supposed to defend the people Religion is influenced by natural conditions Presumptuous men will not submit to laws because they did not help write them The destruction of religion will lead to revolution Democracy is something to be protected against p 35 The middle classes are most easily corrupted and most leaders come from the middle class p 36 Metternich thinks it is bad when the middle class tries to form a type of polyarchy and take over government Governments keep society in order God has entrusted government to certain kings Governments are supposed to maintain justice and people s rights they are quotaugment the wellbeing of their people p 38 Monarchs are to maintain the stability of political institutions Religion and the relationship of the state to the individual All individuals are interested in quotselfprotectionquot p 52 The state can only interfere to prevent one man from harming another Men s independence is absolute as long as it does not interfere with the life of or harm another man p 52 People who are too young or do not have the mental capacity to make their own decisions cannot be allowed to do whatever they want A man can be scolded for not doing his quotduty to society and his fellow man p 53 Trying to control men often results in those men becoming more evil p 53 Governments should protect men s liberties Mill believes that being allowed to publish one s opinion is quotalmost of as much importance as the liberty of thought itself p 53 Metternich would clearly object to this idea M should be allowed to do whatever they want as long as they don t harm anyone else doing it This includes the right to assemble even in secret societies an activity Metternich would not allow llt is the duty of governments and of individuals to form the truest opinions they canquot p 56 Mill does seem to think that spreading false ideas is dangerous but he still does not seem like he would restrict the spreading of ideas as much as Metternich is willing to restrict the dissemination of those ideas The best way to learn is to listen to everyone s ideas about a subject p 56 Mill says it is wrong to llstigmatise those who hold the contrary opinion as bad and immoral men p 60 Metternich readily assumes that men with any kind of contrary opinions to commonly held beliefs are bad and immoral
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