New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Human Gross Anatomy

by: Theresa Emard

Human Gross Anatomy BMS 301

Theresa Emard
GPA 3.65

Mark Frasier

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Mark Frasier
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biomedical Sciences

This 111 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theresa Emard on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 301 at Colorado State University taught by Mark Frasier in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/210032/bms-301-colorado-state-university in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.

Similar to BMS 301 at CSU

Popular in Biomedical Sciences


Reviews for Human Gross Anatomy


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/21/15
7 December Lumbricalsinterossei All interossei ulnar nerve V2 lumbricals lateral side median nerve V2 lumbricals medial side ulnar nerve At MP joint abduction or adduction Flex MP joints and extend IP joints At MP joints flexor digitorum profundis extensor digitorum forcewise At P joints FDP gt ED FDP has more quotforcequot Using ED hyperextend MP joints overpowering FDP No balance can be achieved between these 2 muscles at the MP and IP joints due to force imbalance Lumbricals and interossei help Flex MP helping FDP Extend P helping ED Lumbricals and interossei balance forces of FDP and ED at MP and IP joints Ulnar nerve lesion lose all interossei V2 lumbricals Results in claw hand 9 November Axiohumeral muscles Pectoralis major Clavicular head Clavicle 9 lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus Flexion of humerus Sternal head Sternum and costal cartilages 9 intertubercular groove Extension of humerus Both heads together adduct medial rotate Motor supply mediallateral pectoral nerves Latissimus dorsi Motor supply thoracodorsal nerve Deep fasciaspinous processes T7 L5 9 intertubercular groove Extend arm adduct medial rotation Axioscapular muscles Pectoralis minor Deep to pectoralis major Upper ribs 9 corocoid process of scapula Stabilizes scapula respiratory muscle depresses scapula Motor supply medial and lateral pectoral nerves Trapezius External occipital pluu Lemme U quot p39 processes T1 T12 9 acromion and spine of scapulalateral 13 of clavicle Upper acromionspine Rotate scapula upwards elevate scapula Middle spine of scapula 9 vertebrae Adduct scapula Lower spine of scapula Upper rotation of scapula Nerve supply CN X spinal accessory Levator scapula Superior angle of scapula 9 transverse process of upper cervical vertebra Elevate scapula Dorsal scapular nerve Rhomboid Run from spinous processes of cervical and transverse vertebrae 9 scapula Adduct scapula Dorsal scapular nerve Serratus anterior Between scapula and ribs Medial border of scapula 9 upper 8 ribs Holds scapula to ribs Long thoracic nerve Scapulohumeral muscles Deltoid Has 3 parts converge on deltoid tuberosity of humerus Clavicular Flex shoulder Acromial Abduct shoulder Spinous Extend shoulder Together abduct Axillary nerve Teres major Axillary border of scapula 9 intertubercular groove Extend adduct medial rotation Lower subscapular nerve Rotator cuff muscles Subset of scapulohumeral muscles Infraspinatus Infraspinous fossa 9 greater tubercle of humerus Adduct lateral rotation Suprascapular nerve Supraspinatus Supraspinous fossa 9 greater tubercle of humerus Abduct Suprascapular nerve Teres minor Lateral border of scapula 9 greater tubercle of humerus Adduct lateral rotation Subscapularis Subscapular fossa 9 lesser tubercle of humerus In between scapula and serratus Adduct medial rotation Upper and lower subscapular nerves Supraspinatus often torn 1 Octo be r Arterial Supply Gut GI system Unpaired vessels Arise from abdominal aorta Urogenital system Paired vessels Arise from abdominal aorta Venous Return GI system Separate from systemic Has absorbed materials eaten and drunk must be processed Venous blood 9 liver Arterial Supply of the Abdomen Paired Inferior phrenic Suprarenal to adrenal glands Unpaired Celiac trunk Splenic spleen stomach pancreas Goes far to the left coiled Left gastric stomach lesser curvature inferior esophagus Smallest of the three Common hepatic liver stomach duodenum pancreas gallbladder Proper hepatic liver Superior mesenteric duodenum jejunum ileum ascending colon V2 transverse colon Inferior mesenteric 12 transverse colon descending colon sigmoid colon rectum anal canal Arterial Supply of Urogenital System Paired Renal right typically slighter higher kidneys Ovariantesticular Lumbar posterior abdominal wall Common iliac Internal iliac pelvic viscera gluteal region External iliac lower limb Abdominal aorta bifurcates around L3 L4 Venous Return GI system Hepatic portal system Veins named same as arteries Left gastric splenic superior mesenteric inferior mesenteric All join together to form hepatic portal vein wide but short Hepatic portal vein empties into liver Liver has sinusoids Functionally same as capillaries Blood processing detoxifying storing Give rise to smaller veins join together From hepatic vein 9 inferior vena cava Proper hepatic artery bile ducts run with hepatic portal vein No functional valves in these veins Anastomoses between left gastric veins and esophageal veins with cirrhosis other major liver problems Blood cannot travel through liver Redirected to beginning or end of GI system Also anastomoses at anal canal 14 September Intervertebral discs Unite adjacent vertebral bodies Nonsynovial height vertebral column is attributed to discs Made up of concentric rings anulus fibrous Thicker anterior Jellylike mass in center nucleus pulposus Shock absorber Disc is supported anteriorally by thicker anulus fibrous broader anterior longitudinal ligament posteriorally by thinner anulus fibrous thinner posterior longitudinal ligament Nucleus pulposus more likely to herniate posteriorlateral Can compress spinal nerve Disc ruptureherniated disk Nucleus is squeezed when picking things up using back Disc problems usually unilateral back muscle problems usually both sides Disc injury most common at L4 L5 next most common is cervical region Disc injuries impact next lowest spinal nerve Herniation between L4 and L5 impacts L5 spinal nerve Back muscles Extrinsic Begin in back end somewhere else Intrinsic Begin and end in back Extrinsics typically have action on upper limb Motor supply from ventral rami of spinal nn Eg trapezius latissimusdorsi rhomboies Intrinsics quottruequot back mm Motor supply from dorsal rami of spinal nn 3 layers superficial middle amp deep Actions trunk movement stabilize vertebral column Bilaterally symmetrical paired Act together 9 single action If leftright contract independently 9 different action Superficial layer Splenius Deep to trapezius SP of thoracic vertebrae 9 TP of cervical vertebrae skull INN dorsal rami Both sides together extend column cervical Individually laterally flex and rotate SP spinous process TP transverse process Middle layer Run from iliumsacrum to skull Erector spinae At base is one mass of muscle splits higher into 3 sections Lateralmost column iocostais Ilium to ribs Run from rib to rib Intermediate column Most massive Longissimus TP to TP Medial column Spinalis SP to SP Shorter than other 2 Most prominent in thoracic region Together extend vertebral column One side independent laterally flex column llBack straps Dorsal rami Deep layer Series of smaller muscles Stabilizers of column lateral Transversospinalis Run from TP to SP Some go to next up some skip one some skip 2 and so on Rotate column to opposite side INN dorsal rami Spinal cord Part of central nervous system CNS quotContinuationquot of brainstem Begins at foramen magnum of skull Functions of spinal cord Sensory processor Directs signals to brainstem thalamus Sensory relay Cerebellum Motor outflow Info from cerebral cortex brainstem Reflexes Stereotyped repeats itself the same way each time motor event driven by a sensory stimulus Contained in spinal cord independent of brain 2 November Vital capacity total lung capacity residual volume Minute volume tidal volume x respiratory rate 500 mLx 12 6 Lmin Alveolar volume Tidal volume dead space x respiratory rate 500 150 mL x RR 350 x 12 42 Lmin Physiological dead space anatomical dead space alveolar dead space PIP Pthorax PIP is negative in quiet ventilation PTM PTP PA 39 PIP COPD Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Emphysema chronic bronchitis asthma Resistance related Restrictive disease Fibrotic lungs Compliance related Surfactant 90 dipalmitoylphosphatyidylcholine Role of Surfactant Low surface tension increases the compliance of lung and reduces work of breathing IRDS high surface tension fluid filled lungs collapsed lungs Alvoeli are more stable and there is less tendency for small alveoli to blow up big alveoli since the smaller alveoli would have less surface tension Alveoli are kept at about the same size thus good gas exchange even ventilation Keeps alveoli dry Alveoli with high surface tension will tend to collapse and hence draw fluid from capillaries into alveolar space Surfactant reduces the surface tension thus preventing transudation of fluid Surfactant Where does it go Reuptake by septal cells Removed by macrophages Removed by lymphatics What stimulates production of surfactant Increased ventilation sighing yawning exercise Beta adrenergic agonists Interdependence Provides stability to alveoli Collapse of alveoli is prevented by traction provided by surrounding alveoli Pores of Kohn and canals of Lambert provide collateral ventilation Airway Resistance Pharynxlarynx 6 Airways gt 2 mm diameter 6 Airways lt 2 mm diameter 3 Total airway resistance 15 Majority of resistance is upper airways Laminar air flow VAP Turbulent air flow rpm As the lung expands the increasing tension in alveolar walls pulls conducting airways open Foot Arch 10 September Support bipedal posture Distribute body weight Locomotion Stronger than flat surface Threepoint distribution of weight 39 first 39 fifth 39 Longitudinal calcaneous to toes pronounced medially Transverse medial to tarsal Maintenance Bones Talus is keystone of arch wedged between navicular and calcaneous Ligaments Spring calcaneonavciular Long plantar Short plantar Muscles ntrinsics of foot the function is to maintain the arch Muscles fatigue over time Bones ligaments and muscles mostly maintain while standing Plantar aponeurosis Deep fascia Protects sole of foot Important in maintaining arch while moving Extrinsics of foot Deep posterior compartment of leg Also peroneus ongus ntrinsics of the foot Maintain the arch Second digit midline of foot Reference point for digital movement Dorsal muscles Extensor hallucis brevis digit 1 Extensor digitorum brevis digits 2 4 Dorsiflexextend same thing Motor supply from deep fibular nerve Plantar muscles Medial Abductor hallucis Medial plantar nerve Lateral Abductor digiti minimi Lateral plantar nerve Central 1st layer Flexor digitorum brevis Medial plantar nerve 2quotd layer Tendon of flexor digitorum longus Quadratus plantae Lateral plantar nerve Lumbricals Four of them Origin tendon of flexor digitorum longus On great toe side V2 lateral plantar nerve V2 medial plantar nerve 3rd layer Adductor hallucis 4 h layer Interossei muscles 3rd and 4 h layers innervated by lateral plantar nerve Don t memorize attachments Knee Patella Menisci 31 August Bear body weight 3 joints Hinge between femur and tibia Pivot rotation between femur and tibia Gliding between patella and femur Great leverage Strength Depends upon muscles particularly quadriceps and hamstrings 13 bursae synovial sacs Reduce friction Between tendons and bones tendons and tendons bones and skin Bursitis when they are inflamed Sesamoid bone largest in body Embedded in tendon ofquads Reduces friction of quad tendon Protects knee joint Increases leverage of quads by projecting tendon anteriorally pushes it out forward Patellar ligament runs from patella to tibia Moonshaped Medial C shaped Attached firmly Lateral more circular Attached more loosely Higher on outside lower on inside Reduce wear on bones Shock absorber Ligaments Cruciates Cross each other In interior of joint Anterior and posterior ACL and PCL Posterior limits anterior movement of femur on tibia Anterior limits posterior movement of femur on tibia Limit hyperextension Limit rotation of femur on tibia ACL usually damaged not PCL Collateral Lateral collateral of the knee Aka fibular collateral ligament of the knee Fibula to femur Medial collateral of the knee Aka tibular collateral ligament of the knee Tibia to femur Prevents knee adduction limited by LCL Prevents knee abduction limited by MCL Limit rotation of knee Tight in extension ooser in flexion MCL is attached to media meniscus 24 September BP systolediastole 12080 Systole AV valves closed Pulmonaryaortic valves open Diastole AV valves open Pulmonaryaortic valves closed Coronary arteries Arise from aortic sinus Left coronary In between pulmonary trunk and aorta 1 inch before splitting Anterior interventricular branch Aka left anterior descending LAD Circumflex branch Runs to posterior heart surface Right coronary Anastomoses between anterior and posterior interventricular branches can become functional with cardio exercise 67 right dominant 15 of people posterior interventricular comes off circumflex instead quotleft dominant Venous Return from Heart Great cardiac vein On posterior of heart changes name to coronary sinus Empties into right atrium Middle cardiac posterior interventricular vein empties into coronary sinus Small cardiac vein empties into coronary sinus nterventricular sulcus indentation between left and right ventricles Placenta Provide 02 rid of C02 mom s lungs Metabolites out of fetal blood mom s liver Fetus is not using its own lungs or liver Placenta 9 umbilical vein singular O2 to fetus from mother 9 liver most blood bypasses liver via ductus venosus 9 inferior vena cava 9 right atrium 9 foramen ovale 9 left atrium 9 left ventricle 9 ascending aorta 9 vessels off aortic arch mostly some to descending aorta then umbilical arteries from internal iliac 9 placenta Valve in inferior vena cava directs fetal blood to interatrial wall Valve in interatrial septum foramen ovale Allows blood to bypass pulmonary circulation Pressure in right atrium higher than in left atrium Fetal circulation ensures Ozrich blood will reach the brain Blood from superior vena cava preferentially directed into right ventricle 9 pulmonary trunk 9 some goes to lungs most to ductus arteriosis pulmonary trunk to aortic arch 9 descending aorta Baby takes first breath 9 blood pressure in lungs drops dramatically with inflation blood circulates through lungs Blood returns via pulmonary veins Blood pressure in left atrium exceeds that in right atrium foramen ovale held closed Seals 1 year anatomically Fossa ovalis in adult small scooped out area Ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus no longer functional Become ligamentum venosum and ligamentum arteriosum 24 August Directly under skin Superficial fascia connective tissue CT Aka hypodermis subcutus Contains fat water Insulation mechanical and thermal Route for vessels and nerves Deep fascia CT Epimysium abovewrapping muscle Compartmentalize muscles MM Allows for free play of MM Serves as place for MM attachment Continuous with periosteum outer lining of bone n thigh fascia lata Muscles Need to know attachments origins least movable partinsertions Actions what it does when it contracts Innervations Lower limb Muscle action doesn t necessary function Control gravity and momentum Boundaries Gluteal region liac crest L4 Greater trochanter Gluteal fold Posterior superior iliac spine S2 Gluteus maximus Post iium sacrum and sacrotuberous lig Runs down to gluteal tuberosity N inferior gluteal nerve Action hip extensor lateral rotator of hip abductor of hip Limits hip flexion controls momentum in walking Eccentric contraction muscle is resisting getting longer Hip extension concentric contraction muscle shortens Tensor fasciae latae Anterior superior iliac spine Runs down to fascia lata iliotibial tract Ii I39D Hip flexor Opposite movements than gluteus maximus N superior gluteal nerve Lesser gluteals Deep to gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Lateral iium down to greater trochanter Abduction of hip action Gluteus minimus Lateral iium down to greater trochanter Abduction of hip action N superior gluteal nerve Limit hip adduction Hold pelvis level during walking function Hip intrinsics Superior to inferior Piriformis Anterior sacrum to greater trochanter Lateral rotator Sciatic nerve emerges below Superior gemellus obturator iternus tendon inferior gemellus Obturator iternus tendon begins in pelvic cavity to greater trochanter Gemelli begin in ischium to obturator internus tendon Quadratus fermoris All are lateral rotators Have lots of stretch receptors tells position of hips Proprioception sense of self Function as proprioceptors 3 December Flexors primarily arise from the medial epicondyle of the humerus median nerve Extensors arise from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus radial nerve Muscles that act on forearm radioulnar joint Brachioradialis Radial nerve Elbow flexion supination Pronator teres Medial epicondyle 9 promixal radius Median nerve Supinator Lateral epicondyle 9 proximal radius Radial nerve Pronator quadratus Ulna 9 distal radius Median nerve Pronator teres and supinator have same distal attachment in radius Muscles that act on wrist radiocarpal joint Flexor carpi radialis Medial epicondyle of humerus 9 2quotd metacarpal Abduct flex wrist Median nerve Flexor carpi ulnaris Medial epicondyle of humerus 9 pisiform bone Adduct flex wrist Palmaris longus Medial epicondyle of humerus 9 palmar aponeuroses Small muscle belly long tendon Flex wrist Extensor carpi radialis longus Lateral epicondyle of humerus 9 2quotd metacarpal Extends abduct wrist Radial nerve Extensor carpi radialis brevis Deep to extensor carpi radialis longus Lateral epicondyle of humerus 9 3rd metacarpal Extend abduct wrist Radial nerve Extensor carpi ulnaris Lateral epicondyle of humerus 9 5 h metacarpal Extend adduct wrist Radial nerve Flexor carpi ulnaris Ulnar nerve Flex wrist Far on pinky side flexor carpi ulnaris like on side of wrist Middle set of tendons on thumb side flexor carpi radialis Muscles that act on digits 2 5 Flexor digitorum profundus Deepest muscles in forearm Ulna 9 digits 2 5 distal phalanx Distal P joint flexion V2 median nerve V2 ulnar nerve Flexor digitorum superficialis Medial humerus 9 digits 2 5 middle phalanx Splits to attach flexor digitorum profundus runs through split to its attachment Median nerve Extensor digitorum At proximal phalanx tendon splits 3 ways 2 lateral bands a middle band Attaches to dorsal surface of middle and distal phalanx Expanded atop MP joint extensor expansion Extend P joints MP joints CM joints wrist Radial nerve Extensor digiti minimi Lateral epicondyle Joins extensor digitorum tendons Extend digit 5 IP joints MP joints Extensor indicis Ulna 9 joins extensor digitorum tendons Radial nerve Muscles that act on the thumb Flexor pollicis longus Distal phalanx of digit 1 Median nerve Abductor pollicis longus Inserts on 1St metacarpal May have multiple tendons Radial nerve Extensor pollicis brevis Inserts on proximal phalanx ofdigit 1 Radial nerve Extensor pollicis longus Inserts on distal phalanx ofdigit 1 Radial nerve 7 September Don t worry about innervation of hip intrinsics Tibia weight bearing involved with muscle attachment part of ankle joint medial malleolus Fibula non weight bearing muscle attachment part of ankle joint lateral malleolus Dorsiflexion toes toward shin Plantar flexion standing on toes Eversion turn sole outwards Inversion turn sole inwards medially Toes can flex downwards and extend upwards Articulations of ankle region Distal tibiofibular joint fibrous joint nterosseus membrane between them Holds them together quotTrue ankle joint talocrural joint Between talus tibia and fibula Synovial joint uniaxial Hinge joint Allows dorsiflexion and plantar flexion Held together by collateral ligaments Subtalar joint Between talus and calcaneous Synovial joint nonaxial gliding Allows inversion and eversion Transverse tarsal joint Between calcaneous and navicular calcaneous and cuboid Synovial joint nonaxial gliding Inversion and eversion Avulsion injury tearing apart Extrinsics of foot Begin on leg end on foot Action at ankle Held in place by deep fascia retinacula Prevents bowstringing of tendons Focus on distal attachment in foot Deep fascia compartmentalizes Lateral compartment Fibularis longus fibularis brevis fibularis tertius Motor innervation for longus and brevis superficial branch of common fibular n Longus and brevis run posterior to lateral malleolus Tendon of longus runs under sole of foot 151 metatarsal Brevis attaches at 5 h metatarsal Longus and brevis are plantar flexors evertors Tertius innervation deep fibular branch of common fibular n Tertius attaches at 5 h metatarsal Anterior compartment INN Deep fibular n Dorsiflexo rs Tibialis anterior extensor digitorium longus digits 2 5 extensor hallucis longus distal phalanx of digit 1 Posterior compartment INN Tibial nerve Superficial Deep Gastrocnemius Comes off femoral epicondyles has 2 heads Calcaneal tendon Soleus deep to gastrocnemius Attaches to calcaneal tendon Does not cross knee These two limit dorsiflexion plantar flexors Propulsive muscles Plantaris Proprioceptive Position of knee and ankle Tibialis posterior flexor hallucis longus digit 1 flexor digitorium longus digits 2 5 Pass behind medial malleolus Plantar flexors 3 Octo be r Descent of Testes Kidneys ascend testes descend during fetal growth Differential growth rate body continues growing UG system does not Gubernaculum is connective tissue attached from testicle or ovary to anterior abdominal wall Passes through inguinal canal Attaches to what will become scrotum in adult Layers of abdominal wall surround testes in adult Muscle fibers from internal abdominal oblique exist cremaster muscle Controls testes height for temperature control Testis may get stuck in inguinal canal If it remains to age 4 6 ish 9 surgery Testis remains in abdomen does not reach inguinal canal Cryptorchid testis no viable sperm Spermatic cord Testes After emergence from superficial inguinal ring uses this name Contains ductus deferens testicular artery and vein genitofemoral or testicular nerve lymphatic vessels Pampiniform plexus regulates temperature for viable sperm production Sperm production Produces testosterone Epididymis Upon reaching tail is single tube Head rests on testis top Tail becomes ductus deferens Sperm storage become viable Vasectomy Ligation of ductus deferens Sterilization Reversible 50 no viable sperm body will develop antibodies Urethra runs through body of prostate gland Benign prostate hypertrophy BPH Enlarge prostate Squeezesclamps down on urethra Prostate Produces 20 of seminal fluidejaculate Includes fructose prostaglandins Fructose energy source for sperm Prostaglandins induce uterus contraction PSA prostate specific antigen level Elevated something s wrong Test more often Indicates prostate cancer Earlier detection than colonoscopy Ductus deferens approaches posterior aspect of prostate gland 9 joins with duct from seminal vesicles coiled tubules produce 60 of seminal fluid 9 form ejaculatory duct left and right 9 pierce prostate 9 empty into urethra Ejaculate is alkaline to neutralize acidity of female reproductive tract and male urethra Bulbourethral glands Penis n perineum Produces alkaline fluid 3 columns of erectile tissue connective tissue smooth muscle 2 corpora cavernosa singular corporus cavernosum Central ventral corpus spongiosum Houses urethra Erectile tissue surrounded by deep fascia Inhibits venous return by constricting allows erection maintenance Erection parasympathetic Ejaculation sympathetic End of corpus spongiosum glands penis 22 August Evolution theory anthropologists Brain developed 9 tools usage 9 became bipedal Lucy bipedal with small brain Theory reorganized Bipedal 9 tools 9 brains Regions of the lower limb Gluteal L5 last lumbar vertebrae 9 Hip bone pelvis bone os Buttocks posterior gluteal fold coxae liac crest Posterior region 9 Femur Anterior knee Knee Great toe has two phalanges others have three Singular phalanx Plural phalanges Functions of the lower limb Bipedal equilibrium Bear body weight Locomotion Laetoli Evidence of Bipedalism Laetoli hominid Lucy quot 3 feet tall small brain Knee area hip footprints prove bipedalism Hip bone pelvis bone os coxae 3 bones posterior ischium anterior pubis superior ilium lschium pronounced as if it has a k iskeyum Meet at acetabulum Last bones in body to fuse 18 20 years old Pelvic girdle hip bone sacrum Male vs female female has larger opening in pelvic canal differing angle Articulations Where bones meet each other Fibrous nonmovable Sutures in skull teeth Cartilaginous held together by cartilage Slightly movable Between adjacent vertebrae intervertebral disc Synovial freely movable Hip knee elbow ankle Uniaxial one axis of motion Elbow Biaxial two axes of motion Wrist Multiaxial at least three axes of motion Hip Characteristics of synovial joints Articular cartilage on ends of all bones in joint Synovial membrane surrounds entire joint Ligaments surround entire joint including synovial membrane Makes up joint capsule Joint cavity potential space between synovial membrane and joint capsule Articulations of the Pelvic Region Lumbosacral joint L5 51 lumbar sacrum Cartilagenous liosacral ligaments limit rotation of Lson 51 Run from ilium to sacrum Prevent anterior dislocation of L551 Sacroiliac joint Draw two ilia together keeps sacrum from falling downward Posterior and anterior sets Sacrospinous sacrotuberous ligaments Prevent sacrum from rotating Therefore energy transferred vertically to lower limbs Otherwise energy would not reach femur Hip joint Multiaxialsynovial ball socket Flexionextension Abductionadduction Rotation Rim of cartilage Around acetabulum Acetabular labrum Deepens socket of hip joint Flexible Seats over V2 head of femur Ligaments from joint capsule lschiofemoral posterior liofemoral anterior quotYquot ligament Limits hip extension 10 October Lab exam thoraxabdomenpelvis 3850 77 157 AB Lecture exam 4150 82 188 AB 79 overall average Zinjanthropus 175 million High eye sockets in skull Small brain Australopithecus africanus Homo erectus 5 2 million Neanderthal 30K 5 million Frontal lobes of cerebrum grown Cranial vault grown Cranium skull Neurocranium bones surrounding brain cranial vault Named for lobes of brain next to Visce rocra nium face Neurocranium Unpaired bones frontal occipital sphenoid ethmoid Paired bones parietal temporal Viscerocranium Unpaired mandible vomer Paired maxillary palatine zygomatic nasal lacrimal conchae llCheek bones zygomatic frontal temporal Cavities of the skull Orbital eye Nasal nose Cranial brain Middle ear ossicles Sinuses of the skull All are paranasal reside on either side of nasal cavity Lighten weight of skull resonance of voice thermoregulation of brain All communicate with nasal cavity Frontal reside above eyes in frontal bone Maxillary superior to upper arcade of teeth Sphenoid inferior to pituitary gland Ethmoidal Articulations Nonmovable fibrous sutures Sagittal frontal to occipital joints parietal bones Coronal frontal from parietal Lamboid parietal from occipital Separated in infant Soft spots fontanelles Anterior closes after 2 3 years and posterior closes after less than year Bones can overlap during birth reposition in 2 4 days Access to venous system judgment of health high intracranial pressure dehydration Synovial Temperomandibular joint TMJ Between condyloid process of mandible and mandibular fossa of temporal bone Hinge Open mouth 9 depress mandible Close mouth 9 elevate mandible Gliding Swing left or right Protract mandible stick out Retract pull back Grind food Articular disc cartilaginous between bones Internal anatomy Nasal cavity Conchae increase surface area of nasal mucosa Superiormiddle are portions of ethmoid inferior is its own bone Spaces in between conchae meatus Where air passes through Cranial fossae Anterior above eyes Floor of frontal lobes of brain supports Cribiform plate sievelike tiny holes af ferents pass through from nose to brain Middle Supports temporal lobes Foramina allowing passage of vessels Sella turcica houses pituitary gland hypophysial fossa Posterior largest Supports cerebellum Foramen magnum allows passage of brainstem to spinal cord 21 September Pericardium Serous membrane of heart Visceral pericardium Stuck to heart Aka epicardium Parietal pericardium Serous fluid between Fibrous layer of pericardium s not serous true connective tissue Single layer around all Attached to diaphragm sternum Anchors heart llRight heart Involved in pulmonary circulation Right ventricle has thinner walls llLef39t hea rt Left ventricle very thick Systemic circulation Veins any vessel that brings blood into the heart irrespective of oxygen content Arteries any vessel that takes blood away from the heart When right atrium fills contracts slightly Right AV valve has 3 cusps Heartstrings llchordae tendinae Run from valve flaps to papillary muscles Papillary muscles Projections of myocardium in ventricles Prevent valve from blowing backwards everting under ventricular pressure Blood gathers in pulmonary sinus Left AV valve mitral valve Also has chordae tendinae and papillary muscles Common place for valve failure Enlarges right ventricle Difficulty breathing Heart must work harder In space above cusps of aorta semilunar valve aorta sinuses 2 coronary arteries branch off right and left 5 November Macula Fovea in center Fine vision In line with optic axis Large number of cones Vitreous body Gelatinous mass Contains vitreous humor does not turn over Supports lens and retina Refractive media Cornea most refractive Aqueous humor Lens Vitreous body 17 September External Anatomy of Spinal Cord Segmented A segment is that portion of the spinal cord that gives rise to the roots that will form a bilateral pair of spinal nerves 31 pair therefore 31 segments Ends at bony level L2 Two enlarged areas Cervical enlargement corresponds to upper limb Lumbar enlargement corresponds to lower limb n fetal life goes down to level of S2 About equals growth of bony column 7 h 8 h month of in utero development Slows growth Growth of bony column speeds up Differential growth rate Cord tapers to an end conus medularis From L2 S2 cauda equine Collection of spinal nerve roots butnot spinal cord Segments 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 3 coccyxael Enlargements are more prone to damage Rule of 1 s Bony level C1 cord level C1 Bony level T1 cord level T1 Bony level T11 cord level L1 Bony level L1 cord level 51 To see which part of cord will be affected given injury at certain bony level lnternal Anatomy Not segmented Long continuous columns of white and gray matter Gray matter neuronal cell bodies White matter myelinated nerve cell processes axons dendrites Central butterfly shape cross section gray matter Dorsal gray made of cell bodies of connector neurons Ventral gray alpha motor neurons lower motor neurons final common pathway Only way to get information from brain to target organ lf cell bodyaxon destroyed 9 flaccid paralysis Organ cannot respond lf cell body is destroyed will not come back Muscle will eventually atrophy turn into fat Lateral gray cell bodies that belong to autonomic nervous system White matter 3 bundles Long ascending tracts direction of nerve impulse is towards brain Carry sensory information Go to thalamus brainstem cerebellum Information to thalamus registered consciously Long descending tracts Motor Cerebrum brainstem cell body locations Upper motor neurons Initiation of voluntary movement Injury 9 spastic paralysis Target organs hypertonic contracted hyperreflexive paresis weakness Short propriospinal tracts Processes of interneurons Connect cord levels and sides Meninges of CNS Connective tissue membranes Protects and supports CNS 3 layers Deepest layer Pia mater Adherent to CNS quotVascular layer Pia filum terminale attaches to bone Intermediate Arachnoid Developed with pia Strands attach to pia arachnoid trabeculae Subarachnoid space between arachnoid and pia In life filled with cerebrospinal fluid Outer Dura mater Attached to arachnoid and bony column in some places Suspend CNS 7 November Head and neck exam Lab Average 38 Median 40 Lecture Average 388 Median 40 Upper limb Manipulative appendage Muscle action muscle function Shock absorber for quadrupeds Very mobile unstable as a result Bony attachment clavicle 9 sternum All movement is directed to hand Area Name Bones ShOUlder Shoulder Sca ula clavicle ectoral irdle Trunk 9 arm p 39 p g Arm Brachium Humerus Shoulder 9 forearm Radius thumb side ulna pinky Forearm Antebrachium sIde Halld Carpus Carpals WrIst Metacarpals Palmdorsum Di its Phalan es sin ular39 halanx Fingers g g g 39 p Scapula Upper limb muscle attachments Clavicle Only bony attachment of upper limb to axial skeleton and sternum quotStrutquot to project limb away from body laterally Humerus Movementmuscle attachment Movements Flexion arm parallel to floor in front of bodyextension Abductionadduction Rotation medial and lateral Articulations Sternoclavicular Synovial saddle Can rotate Sternoclavicular ligaments Rarely dislocated due to strength of ligaments Acromioclavicular Synovial gliding Nonaxial Corococlavicular ligament Holds joint together Tom 9 shoulder separation dislocation of joint quotScapulothoracicquot Scapula floats over posterior rib cage No articulation Elevate scapula depress abduct adduct rotate Glenoid fossa is comparable to acetabulum True shoulder joint glenohumeral joint Between head of humerus and glenoid fossa of scapula Synovial multiaxial ball and socket Flex extend abduct adduct rotation Very shallow unstable Glenoid labrum Cartilage ridge around glenoid fossa Deepens articulation Ligaments joint capsule Very loose Strength of shoulder relies on muscles Rotator cuff Very strong in a posterior and superior direction Shoulder dislocation Head of humerus pops out of glenoid fossa Almost always head moves inferior and anterior Shoulder separation dislocation injury to acromioclavicular joint Shoulder dislocation head of humerus glenoid fossa Clavicular fractures Most broken bone in body 22 August Evolution theory anthropologists Brain developed 9 tools usage 9 became bipedal Lucy bipedal with small brain Theory reorganized Bipedal 9 tools 9 brains Regions of the lower limb Gluteal L5 last lumbar vertebrae 9 Hip bone pelvis bone os Buttocks posterior gluteal fold coxae liac crest Posterior region 9 Femur Anterior knee Knee Great toe has two phalanges others have three Singular phalanx Plural phalanges Functions of the lower limb Bipedal equilibrium Bear body weight Locomotion Laetoli Evidence of Bipedalism Laetoli hominid Lucy quot 3 feet tall small brain Knee area hip footprints prove bipedalism Hip bone pelvis bone os coxae 3 bones posterior ischium anterior pubis superior ilium lschium pronounced as if it has a k iskeyum Meet at acetabulum Last bones in body to fuse 18 20 years old Pelvic girdle hip bone sacrum Male vs female female has larger opening in pelvic canal differing angle Articulations Where bones meet each other Fibrous nonmovable Sutures in skull teeth Cartilaginous held together by cartilage Slightly movable Between adjacent vertebrae intervertebral disc Synovial freely movable Hip knee elbow ankle Uniaxial one axis of motion Elbow Biaxial two axes of motion Wrist Multiaxial at least three axes of motion Hip Characteristics of synovial joints Articular cartilage on ends of all bones in joint Synovial membrane surrounds entire joint Ligaments surround entire joint including synovial membrane Makes up joint capsule Joint cavity potential space between synovial membrane and joint capsule Articulations of the Pelvic Region Lumbosacral joint L5 51 lumbar sacrum Cartilagenous liosacral ligaments limit rotation of Lson 51 Run from ilium to sacrum Prevent anterior dislocation of L551 Sacroiliac joint Draw two ilia together keeps sacrum from falling downward Posterior and anterior sets Sacrospinous sacrotuberous ligaments Prevent sacrum from rotating Therefore energy transferred vertically to lower limbs Otherwise energy would not reach femur Hip joint Multiaxialsynovial ball socket Flexionextension Abductionadduction Rotation Rim of cartilage Around acetabulum Acetabular labrum Deepens socket of hip joint Flexible Seats over V2 head of femur Ligaments from joint capsule lschiofemoral posterior liofemoral anterior quotYquot ligament Limits hip extension 20 August Anatomical position Hands feet face forward when standing upright Terms Anterior front Posterior back Medial close to the midline through nose belly button ampc Lateral away from the midline Superior towards the head Inferior towards the feet Superficial close to the skin Deep farther from the skin Proximal closer to the trunk Distal farther from the trunk Planes of section Transverse cross sections divides into superiorinferior parts Sagittal divides into leftright parts Frontal divides into anteriorposterior parts 5 Octo be r In female genital and urinary systems almost entirely separate from each other Urethra short distance so prone to bacterial infection Urethral glands Alkaline fluid counteracts acidity of reproductive system Glandular tissue anterior to vagina Gspot located around here Ligament of ovary ovary to uterus Ovary Endocrine estrogen Exocrine ova primary germ cell Stem cells are in ovary Possible to generate new eggs No direct duct there is a space between tube and ovary Uterine tube Runs from uterus to fimbriae Fertilization occurs here usually Fimbriae ciliated cells that bring ova from ovary to tube Ectopic pregnancy ova doesn t make it to tube fertilizes in peritoneal cavity usually on uterine tube Uterus Implantation ova attaches to uterine wall Most powerful muscle 600 lbsinch of force Tubal ligation uterine tubes tied off Cervix prone to cancer Pelvic inflammatory disease can result in scarring of uterine tubes Endometriosis lining of uterus found outside uterus ex behind eyeball Endometritis inflammation of lining of uterus Vaginal fornices circular space Broad ligament made out of peritoneum Ovary is completely wrapped in peritoneum Ova rips through peritoneum Vestibular glands underneath vaginal orifice Labia minora surrounds clitoris anteriorally and posteriorally Space vaginal vestibule Clitoral erectile tissue corpora cavernosa 20 August Anatomical position Hands feet face forward when standing upright Terms Anterior front Posterior back Medial close to the midline through nose belly button ampc Lateral away from the midline Superior towards the head Inferior towards the feet Superficial close to the skin Deep farther from the skin Proximal closer to the trunk Distal farther from the trunk Planes of section Transverse cross sections divides into superiorinferior parts Sagittal divides into leftright parts Frontal divides into anteriorposterior parts 26 September Abdomen Between thorax and pelvis Wall boundaries Superior lower 4 ribs and costal cartilage xiphoid process T10 Inferior iliac crest laterally pubic symphysis L5 Abdominopelvic cavity Superior boundaries respiratory diaphragm Inferior boundaries pelvic diaphragm sheet of muscle between legs forms perineum runs from pubic arch to ischial tuberosities sacrotuberous ligament and coccyx Aka pelvic outlet Divided into abdominal superior and pelvic inferior cavities Abdominal cavity Superior boundary respiratory diaphragm Inferior boundary pelvic inlet imaginary plane pubic crest 9 L5Sl Contents GI system Pelvic cavity Superior boundary pelvic inlet Inferior boundary pelvic outlet Contents urogenital system Functions of abdominal wall Trunk movement vertebral column movement Bipedal posture Increase intra bdominal pressure Speech Respiration Urination Defecation Childbirth Vomiting Sneezing Coughing Abdominal wall muscles Nerve supply T7 L1 Blood supply Anterior Superior epigastric artery lower intercostal arteries inferior epigastric arteries branches off external iliacs Posterior lumbar arteries off aorta roughly 4 pair Venous drainage Anterior veins matching arteries Posterior azygous vein Muscles Rectus abdominus Lower ribs costal cartilages 5 7 Has tendinous intersections Others referred to as flat muscles of abdomen External abdominal oblique Fiber direction superior 9 inferior lateral 9 medial Internal abdominal oblique Transversus abdominus Thick connective tissue midline linea alba All flat muscles connect to each other here quotRectus sheath Layers of flat muscles surrounding rectus abdominus muscles Posterior abdominal wall Vertebrae Psoas Quadratus lumborum nguinal canal Anterior inferior lateral abdominal wall inguinal region Oblique canal just superior to inguinal ligament through wall Lateral to medial Male spermatic cord Women round ligament of uterus uterus to labia majora Deep ring in transversus abdominus Superficial ring in external abdominal oblique Abdominal contents can exit inguinal hernia More common in men larger canal due to large spermatic cord Peritoneum Serous membrane Peritoneal cavity contains serous fluid Visceral directly attached to gut parietal attached to wall GI system is intraperitoneal 8 Octo be r Brain and spinal cord Cranial nerves from brain spinal nerves from spinal cord Cranial nerves have special sense spinal nerves do not Cranial and spinal nerves have somatic and autonomic functions ANS autonomic nervous system Involuntary unconscious Controls smooth muscle gut blood vessels Controls cardiac muscle Controls glandular tissue Motor system visceral efferent Sensory input Somatic afferents Visceral afferents not consciously perceived Eg COzreceptors acid receptors water balance blood sugar blood pressure Sent to hypothalamus part of brainstem Visceral afferents are dull unlocalized Always painful Either ischemia cramping or distension Sympathetic energy consuming fight or flight fast widespread Parasympathetic energy conserving rest and relaxation digestion relatively slow localized Spinal nerves carry sympathetic nerve fibers Cranial nerves carry parasympathetic nerve fibers Most viscera organs have dual innervation both sympathetic and parasympathetic Body wall and limbs only have sympathetic Fright triggers both systems 2 motor neurons Signal can be modified at synapse First neuron in central nervous system Second in peripheral nervous system Ganglion collection of nerve cell bodies Motor In PNS First neuron preganglionic neuron Second neuron postganglionic neuron Sympathetic Preganglionic cell bodies found in spinal cord between T1 and L2 in lateral gray Thoracolumbar outflow Postganglionic cell bodies found in ganglia alongside vertebral column paravertebral ganglia and on anterior aspect of aorta preaortic ganglia Get to organ via spinal nerves skeletal muscle or own named nerves viscera Parasympathetic Preganglionic cell bodies found in brainstem and sacral regions of cord 52 S3 S4 lateral gray Craniosacral outflow Ganglia found in named ganglia in head or wall of target organ intramural ganglia Reach target organ via cranial nerves III VII IX X III VIII IX go to target organs in head X vagus goes to thorax abdomen down to descending colon 2 3 4 reach target organ via own named nerves pelvic splacnic 2 November Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal gland Upper lateral quadrant of the orbit V Facial Cornea nourishment Tear fluid Nasolacrimal duct Medial angle of eye Drains tear fluid to nasal cavity behind inferior nasal concha Conjunctiva contains vessels Conjunctivitis pinkeye Extraocular muscles CN III IV VI Elevate depress abduct adduct rotate globe Bony orbit 9 sclera of globe Layers of Globe External fibrous Posterior 56 sclera white of eye Anterior 16 cornea transparent Avascular Middle vascular Choroid Ciliary body Ciliary processes project out of ciliary body Attachment for suspensory ligaments of the lens Produce aqueous humor Similar to CSF Nourishes lens and cornea If not reabsorbed 9 glaucoma Ciliary muscles autonomic nervous system CN parasympathetic Control lens shape Close vision Ciliary muscles contract 9 loosen suspensory ligaments 9 lens thickens more circular Distance vision ciliary muscles relaX 9 ligaments tighten 9 lens gets thin Changing lens shape accommodation Posterior layer is anterior to lens Anterior chamber and posterior chamber filled with aqueous humor ris pigmented Pupil is aperture of iris ris change shape CN changes amount of light entering eye parasympathetic constriction Sympathetic dilate nner layer retina No photoreceptors in optic disk Macula indentation Fine vision 5 December Anatomical snuffbox Between tendons of extensor pollicis brevis and extensor pollicis longus Dishedout area Contains radial artery and scaphoid bone Intrinsics of hand Primarily ulnar nerve 3 groups Thenar muscles associated with thumb Thenar eminence beneath thumb Hypothenar muscles associated with pinky Short muscles lumbricals and interossei muscles Thenar muscles primarily median nerve hypothenar and short muscles primarily ulnar nerve Thenar muscles Adductor policis Deepest 2quotd and 3rd metacarpals 9 proximal phalanx ofdigit 1 Ulnar nerve M part of thenar eminence Adduct thumb Grasping muscle Opponens pollicis Deepest in thenar eminence Flexor retinaculum 9 1st metacarpal Median nerve Abductor pollicis brevis Flexor retinaculum 9 proximal phalanx of digit 1 Median nerve Flexor pollicis brevis Inserts on proximal phalanx ofdigit 1 Median nerve Median nerve injury very debilitating to thumb muscles Hypothenar muscles All ulnar nerve Opponens digiti minimi Deepest Flexor retinaculum 9 metacarpal 5 Abductor digiti minimi Most medial of hypothenar muscles Inserts on proximal phalanx ofdigit 5 Flexor digit minimi More towards midline of hand Inserts on proximal phalanx ofdigit 5 Lumbricals Come off tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Insert on extensor expansion Found on radial side of tendon Abduct digits 2 and 3 adduct digits 4 and 5 V2 median V2 ulnar Median 2 and 3 ulnar 4 and 5 nterossei Between metaca rpals Palmar and dorsal sets Metacarpals 9 extensor expansion All ulnar nerve PAD palmar interossei adduct DAB dorsal interossei abduct Can flex MP joints and extend IP joints simultaneously 29 August Nerve plexus Ventral rami of spinal nn Network join together to innervate skin and muscle of body wall and limbs with sensory motor and autonomic nn Cervical neckbrachial upper limblumbarsacral Lumbosacral plexus Ventral rami of spinal nn L1 S49 spinal nn together Supplies motor sensory and autonomic nerves to Inferiorlateralanterior abdominal wall Pelvic viscera S2 S4 Perineum Gluteal region Entire lower limb System is somewhat redundant Pa resis weakening of movement Lumbar plexus L1 L4 Sacral plexus L4 S4 Femoral nerve Anterior thigh Hip flexors Knee extensors Obturator nerve Medial thigh Hip adductors Sciatic nerve Posterior thigh amp leg Hip extensors Knee flexors Split from sciatic Common fibular n Doris flexors of ankle Tibial n Plantar flexors of ankle Tibial n amp branches Posterior leg amp sole of foot Medial amp lateral plantar nn Sole of foot Common fibular n amp branches Lateral amp anterior leg amp dorsum of foot Superficial fibular n Deep fibular n Heart 9 aorta 9 abdominal aorta 9 common iliac artery on right and left 9 each split into external and internal iliac arteries Internal iliac arteries take care of pelvic viscera and gluteal region External iliac arteries take care of lower limb Becomes femoral artery Collateral circulation Arteries come off main artery and join together If main artery is obstructed collateral arteries compensate Cannot handle permanent damage if called upon quickly If taxed slowly over time they grow larger At articulations heart and brain Don t work as well at heartbrain Anastomoses where arteries or veins join together Can be arteries directly into veins External iliac at inguinal ligament junction between abdomen and thigh 9 crosses ligament renamed femoral artery 9 mm brr muscular branches take care of anterior thigh Femoral artery 9 profunda femoris takes care of posteriormedial thigh deep Femoral artery passes through adductor hiatus 9 renamed popliteal artery 9 genicular aa branches Popliteal artery 9 distal knee splits into anterior and posterior tibial artery Anterior tibial a takes care of anterior leg passes between tibia and fibula 9 becomes dorsal pedis a at ankle 9 at distal ankle becomes arcuate artery 9 metatarsal aa 9 digital aa Posterior tibial goes down posterior leg 9 fibular a takes care of lateral leg is a branch Posterior tibial at medial malleolus 9 splits into medial plantar a and lateral plantar a Medial plantar a 9 turns into deep plantar arch 9 plantar metatarsal a 9 digital a Deep plantar arch and arcuate form anastomoses both surfaces of foot Veins of limbs Have oneway valves Deep set of veins have same name accompany arteries One on either side Venae comitantes Artery pulsationsmuscular contractions push blood up Superficial veins Specific names Great saphenous vein Dorsum of foot Ascends medially Empties into femoral vein Small saphenous vein Dorsum of foot Ascends posterior Empties into popliteal vein 15 October Stroke cerebral vascular accident CVA Basically heart attack except in brain Off of subclavian arteries 9 left and right vertebral arteries Head directly to brain some spinal cord Common carotid arteries head and brain Split quot 0 External carotids head face neck Internal carotids brain External carotid arteries Superior thyroids thyroid gland neck region larynx Lingual tongue follows twelfth cranial nerve Facial face muscles of expression Left and right form extensive anastomoses with each other Lingual and facial can come off as single trunk before splitting Occipital posterior scalp External carotid terminates as Superficial temporal scalp Maxillary upper and lower arcades of teeth nasal cavity oral cavity muscles of mastication Middle meningeal branch dura mater Pterion region bone thin here sphenoid temporal parietal come together Hit can lacerate middle meningeal bleeding Space occupying lesion compromises brain Middle meningeal blood results in epidural hematoma Venous return Internal jugular vein Brain cannot store energy needs constant blood supply 2 vertebral arteries Arise from subclavians Ascend neck in transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae Enter cranial vault through foramen magnum 2 internal carotids Ascend neck enter carotid canal in base of skull external opening Runs through inner and outer layers of sphenoid bone Enter cranial vault through internal opening Vertebral and internal carotid arteries join together to join cerebral arterial circle circle of Willis Not functional in a hurry Internal carotid system Internal carotid arteries Posterior communicating Middle cerebral lateral cerebral hemispheres Anterior cerebral medial cerebral hemispheres Anterior communicating Vertebrobasilar system Vertebral arteries spinal cord Join to form basiliar artery cerebellum brainstem Bifu rcates Posterior cerebral arteries occipital lobes inferior aspect of temporal lobe word comprehension Stroke CVA 80 ischemic lack of blood supply 20 hemorrhagic bleeding 31 October Larynx Functions Protective quotsphincterquot of trachea Build pressure in thoraxabdomen coughing sneezing ampc Valsalva maneuver Phonation produces raw sound Arytenoid cartilages sit atop crichoid cartilage Epiglottis attaches to thyroid cartilage Quadrangular membrane Epiglottis 9 arytenoid cartilages Inferior free edge vestibular ligament Vestibular folds when covered with mucous membrane false vocal cords Used in throat singing sonorous Superior to true folds Conus elasticus membrane Arytenoid cartilage 9 thyroid cartilage Upper free edge vocal ligament Vocal fold when covered with mucous membrane Rima glottides space between vocal cords Ventricle of larynx space between false and true vocal cords Area above vestibular folds vestibule of larynx Articulations Cricoarytenoid articulation Synovial gliding Arytenoids rotate Allow abduction of vocal folds more air in Allow adduction of vocal folds Cricothyroid articulation Synovial gliding Changes tension on vocal folds Muscles Lateral cricoarytenoids Adduct bring vocal folds together Posterior cricoarytenoids Abduct forced respiration loud voice Arytenoideus Adduct Above all effect cricoarytenoid articulation Cricothyroideus Changes tension on vocal folds Thyroarytenoideus acts same as cricothyroideus These two act on cricothyroid articulation Nerves Motor vagus CN X External laryngeal n motor to cricothyroid Recurrent laryngeal n motor to other laryngeal muscles sensory below cords Speech Air from lungs Phonation Resonance in pharynx oral cavity nasal cavity paranasal sinuses Articulation Tongue lips teeth mouth shape VII VIII IX x XII 27 August Functions of nervous system Transmit information from internal and external environments to the central nervous system CNS central nervous system analyzes and interprets information initiates and regulates appropriate response Neuron structural unit of nervous system Damage periphery grow back Reflex arc at least 2 neurons Receptor afferent neuron efferent neuron target organ Functional physiological unit of nervous system nterneuron makes connections to cerebral cortex different parts of nervous system Central NS 9 Brain spinal cord Peripheral MS 9 Cranial nerves from brain spinal nn from spinal cord Both kinds of nn have somatic function sensory information from skin motor information to skeletal muscle Body wall and limbs Afferent and efferent nerves Eg muscles of expression chewing tongue other skeletal muscles Conscious awareness consciously controlling Both kinds of nn have autonomic function Smooth muscle glandular tissue cardiac muscle Afferent and efferent nn Less localized sensation than somatic Pain sensations Not consciously controlled or perceived Cranial nn have special sense Hearing smell sight taste Somatic system involved with external autonomic with internal environment Cranial nn 12 pair bilateral left and right Have afferentefferent components Enterexit brainstem Through foramina of skull Somatic function Autonomic function Salivary glands mucus glands controlling pupil size Special sense Vision smell hearing balance taste 11 deal with structures in and around the head Tenth vagus goes to thoracicabdomen Spinal nn 31 pair bilateral Afferentefferent Enterexit spinal cord Through foramina of the vertebral column 8 cervical C1 C8 1st arises superior to first cervical vertebrae h h 8l arIses InferIor to 71 cerVIcal vertebrae 12 thoracic T1 T12 T1 comes out below 1st thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 3 coccyxael 17 October 100 mL of blood to brain per minute Arterial blood 9 brain tissue 9 veins 9 venous sinuses 9 internal jugular vein Arterial blood 9 choroid plexus 9 CSF 9 sub arachnoid space 9 venous sinuses 9 internal jugular vein Cranial meninges Pia mater Arachnoid Dura mater 2 layers outer attached to bone of cranial vault periosteal layer and inner meningeal layer fused together in most places nner layer infolds on itself compartmentalizes brain There is m epidural space Space exists between inner and outer dura at infoldings venous sinus Create venous pathway that will not collapse No valves Dural infoldings Falxcerebri Separates left and right cerebral hemispheres Runs down to superior aspect of corpus callosum Falxcerebelli Separates left and right cerebellar hemispheres Tentorium cerebelli Separates cerebellum from cerebrum Horizontal Tentorial notch Brainstem passes through Anterior Uedge of tentorium cerebelli Venous sinuses Falxcerebri creates superior sagittal sinus inferior sagittal sinus straight sinus is fed by inferior sagittal and great cerebral vein Converge as confluens of sinuses Tentorium cerebelli creates transverse sinuses x2 Form sigmoid sinuses x2 Form internal jugular vein atjugular foramen Sinuses receive blood from both deep and superficial parts of cortex These veins can be sheared from connection to sinus with violent brain movement 9 bleeding subdural hematoma Cavernous sinuses left and right drain anterior portion of brain From cavernous sinus superior petrosoal sinuses x2 empties into transverse inferior petrosoal sinuses x2 go to internal jugular vein Cavernous sinus also receives blood from face anastomoses 12 November Axilla axillary region armpit Anterior boundary pectoralis major pectoralis minor Posterior boundary latissimus dorsi teres major subscapularis Medial boundary ribs serratus anterior Contents of axilla Brachial plexus Axillary artery and vein Fat Lymphatic tissue nodes vessels Breast quotPhasesquot of activity Susceptible to neoplastic changes Definitions Mammary glands accessory organs of female reproductive system Located within breast Breast group of modified sweat glands packed in fat supported by fibrous ligaments which are borrowed from local fascia covered with delicate skin Superficial fascia Lactiferous sinus provides place for milk to accumulate Glandular lobules secrete milk 9 lactiferous duct 9 lactiferous sinus Suspensory ligaments travel from skin to deep fascia Fibrotic cysts Mobile Wax and wane with menstrual cycle Present as lump Pigmented skin surrounding nipple areola Breast carcinomas Most located in upper lateral quadrant Lymphatic drainage takes metastasizing cells into axillary lymph nodes Parasternal lymph nodes also drain breasts Radical mastectomy pectoralis majorminor removed as well 28 September Urogenital system only partially covered by peritoneum Retroperitoneal Peritoneum does not have to be entered for surgery on UG organs kidneys bladder ureters ampc Mesentary double fold of peritoneum suspends gut from wall Provides route for vessels arteries veins nerves Type of peritoneum Omentum double fold of peritoneum Greater overlies abdominal viscera facilitates movement of gut along wall Runs from greater curvature of stomach to transverse colon Supplied with lymphatic tissue Lesser omentum between stomach and liver GI system viscera primarily resides in true abdominal cavity Most organs of U6 system reside in pelvic cavity Nerve supply Autonomic nervous system Smooth muscle and glandular tissue Parasympathetic involved in energy conservation Cranial nerve X Vagus Down to descending colon 2 S4 rest of GI system Sympathetic energy consuming Blood vessel smooth muscle innervation Path of food Oral cavity 9 pharynx 9 esophagus both skeletal and smooth muscle Peristaltic action 9 Runs through diaphragm cardiac sphincter 9 stomach three regions fundus body pyloric region 9 pyloric sphincter 9 duodenum food triggers release of digestive enzymes from pancreas and bile emulsifies fat from gallbladder 9 jejunum majority of nutrient absorption 9 ileum 9 large intestine cecum appendix lined with lymphatic cells ascending colon transverse colon descending colon sigmoid rectum 9anal canal 9 anus Hiatal or esophageal hernia Cardiac sphincter expands Stomach protrudes into thorax Glands Liver Detoxifies stores vitamins and minerals converts glucose to glycogen produces bile Pancreas Endocrine and exocrine organ Exocrine digestive enzymes released through ducts Endocrine produces insulin released into blood system Biliary tree made of hepatic ducts join to create common hepatic duct joins with cystic duct from liver to create bile duct Gallbladder removes water from bile concentrates it 9 bile salts Precipitate out 9 stones Small stones can get stuck in ducts 9 pain 9 surgery usually required Larger stones remain in gallbladder Large intestine resorbs water stores fecal material Spleen is immune organ shares venous return of guts 5 September Cruciate ligaments prevent hyperextension Knee naturally wants to hyperextend while standing Thigh Anterior Femoral nerve Hip flexors primarily knee extensors liopsoas Psoas iliacus Psoas lumbar vertebrae 9 lesser trochanter liacus iliac fossa 9 lesser trochanter Primary hip flexors of body First move of walking Nerve supply L2 amp 3 femoral nerve Sartorius Crosses anterior thigh obliquely Anterior superior iliac spine 9 medial proximal tibia Superficial Femoral nerve Quadriceps femoris Rectus femoris Superficial most anterior Only one that crosses hip Vastus lateralis vastus intermedius vastus medialis All converge on tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament Knee extensors Rectus femoris can be hip flexor Propulsive Posterior Collectively quothamstringsquot Arise from ischial tuberosity Sciatic nerve tibial portion Hip extensors knee flexors Control momentum Limit hip flexion Lateral area Biceps femoris Long head Ischial tuberosity 9 fibula Short head Linea aspera 9 fibula Only hamstring receiving nerve supply from peroneal nerve part of sciatic Medial area Semitendinosus More superficial Ischial tuberosity 9 proximal medial tibia Sciatic nerve Semimembranosus Deeper More fleshy Ischial tuberosity 9 posterior medial tibial conder Femoral artery and vein run under Sartorius Medial Femoral nerve artery vein lateral to medial Hip adductors Hip flexors Hip stabilizers Obturator nerve Focus on distal attachments Pectineus Descends to pectineal line of femur Floor of femoral triangle V2 femoral n 72 obturator n Adductor longus Superior pubic ramus 9 linea aspera of femur Adductor brevis Deep to adductor longus Obturator nerve lies over and under Inferior pubic ramus 9 proximal linea aspera Gracilis Crosses knee Inferior pubic ramus 9 medial proximal tibia Flex knee Adductor magnus Hamstring part Ischial tuberosity 9 adductor tubercle of femur Can extend hip posterior to hip joint Tibial part of sciatic n Adductor part Inferior pubic ramus 9 inea aspera of femur In between lies adductor hiatus Femoral Triangle Boundaries Lateral Sartorius Medial adductor longus Superior inguinal ligament Femoral nerve most lateral then femoral artery then femoral vein most medial Left heart can be accessed through femoral artery nguinal lymph nodes Pectineus floor Fascia lata roof Femoral hernia abdominal contents enter triangle More common in women Deep to inguinal ligament 19 September Thorax Between neck and shoulders Inner thoracic cavity surrounded by thoracic wall Functions of thorax Protective Respiration Supportive upper limbs Attachment for muscles Any muscle that attaches to the thorax has the potential to affect respiration in some way Boundaries of thoracic wall Posterior 12 thoracic vertebrae Posteriorlateralanterior 12 pair ribs Anterior costal cartilage and sternum Inferior diaphragm Superior 1st rib 1st thoracic vertebra manubrium of sternum thoracic outlet Blood supply of thoracic wall Internal thoracic arteries Arise from subclavian Leads to anterior intercostal arteries Anterior intercostal arteries Internal thoracic and anterior intercostal arteries are anterior arteries Thoracic aorta portion of descending Posterior intercostal arteries Thoracic aorta and posterior intercostal arteries are posterior arteries Anastomoses between anterior and posterior intercostal arteries Internal thoracic veins Anterior intercostal veins Drain into internal thoracic veins Posterior intercostal veins Drain into azygous vein Azygous vein only one Drains into superior vena cava Nerve supply of the thoracic wall ntercostal nerves These are thoracic spinal nerves Between ribs Run with anteriorposterior intercostal arteriesveins Thoracic Cavity Pulmonary cavities Left and right House lungs Mediastinum mediastynum llMiddlequot Heart Esophagus Thymus gland Descending aorta Vagus nerve 10 h cranial nerve Vena cava Sympathetic chain Trachea Crosssections on the VHD look from the feet up Airways Nose 9 nasal cavity 9 pharynx 9 trachea 9 splits into left and right primary bronchi 9 split into secondary lobar bronchi 3 on right 2 on left 9 split into tertiary segmental bronchi 9 9 terminal bronchioles 9 give rise to alveoli Left primary bronchus has large bend right primary bronchus is straighter Blood Supply to Lungs Pulmonary arteries from right ventricles Deoxygenated blood Any vessel carrying blood away from the heart is an artery Pulmonary veins to left atrium Reoxygenated blood Nerve Supply to Lungs Autonomic nervous system Parasympathetic bronchiole constriction Vagus 10 h cranial nerve Sympathetic bronchiole dilation Both supply sensory information from lungs to central nervous system This is not nerve supply to respiration so to speak Serous membrane Thorax referred to as pleura Closed balloon Visceral pleura is adherent to lung tissue Parietal pleura stuck to diaphragm ribs In between two layers pleural cavity Little bit of serous fluid present Facilitates movement friction reduction Serous fluid creates surface tension between pleura layers Enlarging thoracic cavity using muscles 9 enlarges lung due to surface tension 9 volume increases air fills negative pressure passively Respiration Result of changing volume of thoracic cavity 4 volume J pressure Rib movement Ribs angled down at rest Drawn up Thoracic wall expands anterior 9 posterior Ribs rotate outwards laterally Transverse increase in thoracic wall Movement called llbucket handle effectquot Superior 9 inferior increase in thoracic cavity Due to diaphragm ntercostals provide rigidity between ribs do not so much move them Diaphragm Skeletal muscle Controllable Dome shaped Contracts flattens out Volume of thoracic cavity increases P 4 Volume of abdominal cavity decreases P 4 Controls 60 of respiration Urination defecation child birth coughing vomiting Motor supply from C3 C4 C5 phrenic nerves 12 September Vertebral Column Functions Bipedal posture Supportive skull upper limbs ribs Attachments Locomotion Protective spinal cord Transverse foramina of cervical vertebrae allows vertebral artery to pass to brain C7 vertebra prominens First one that can be felt on the neck Thoracic vertebra 12 Have costal facets articulating surfaces for ribs Lumbar vertebra Massive bodies Sacral vertebra Anterior sacral foramina allow passage of ventral rami Posterior allow passage of dorsal rami Movements Extension of column leaning forward anterior Flexion posteriorally Lateral extension Rotation Articulations General Intervertebral discs Cartilaginous Located between adjacent vertebral bodies Fused to body above and below Nonsynovial Superior and inferior articulating processes Aka facet joints zygopophyseal joints technical Synovial nonaxial gliding C19 skull occipital condyles Clnamed atlas quotYesquot joint Atlantooccipital joint Cl 9 C2 axis Axis has superior projection dens Projects into C1 Synovial articulation uniaxial rotational quotNoquot joint Atlantoaxial joint Sacroiliac Synovial nonaxial gliding Weight transfer Curvitures n utero C shaped 3 months Curve in cervical region develops Convex anteriorally 16 months Lumbar curve develops Convex anteriorally Thorax curve is still present anteriorally concave Sacral curve is also anteriorally concave Scoliosis lateral curvature Lordosis l lumbar curvature pregnancy beer bellies Kyphosis l thoracic curvature older women with osteoporosis Ligaments Anterior longitudinal ligament Runs down anterior surface of vertebral bodies Thick Limits extension Posterior longitudinal ligament Runs down center of posterior aspect of vertebral bodies Limits flexion More disk ruptures are posterior it is thinner These two run from sacrum to skull Ligamenta flava Unite adjacent lamina Yellow Interspinal ligaments Between adjacent spinous processes Supraspinal ligament Nuchal ligament Stabilizes head


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.