Laboratory in Principles of Physiology
Laboratory in Principles of Physiology BMS 302
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This 35 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theresa Emard on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BMS 302 at Colorado State University taught by Connie Vader in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/210036/bms-302-colorado-state-university in Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
24 January The rate of conduction of action potentials along a neuron will be increased by myelinating the neuron Basic Principles Charged Particles Opposites attract electrical gradient from to Energy must be used to separate charged particles ofopposite signs Resting Membrane Potentials Property of all living cells Measure of the potential energy difference between the inside and outside of a cell membrane Neurons have resting membrane potential of 70 mV Electrical neutrality small Inside and outside of cell is neutral Localized separation of charges Development and Maintenance PKlKvut l PNa N our l PClClinl PKlKinlPNa NainPczClou Vm 61 log NalK pump Net movement Establish gradient Membrane potential more negative on inside Role of ATP Differences in Concentration K greater inside Nal greater outside Cl39 greater outside A greater inside Differences in Permeability Kl l 1 NaKJ 004 CI l 045 A J large protein molecule does not pass through membrane Channels Leakage Gated Chemically ligand Voltage Driving Force Describes movement of ions across membrane Dependent on both electrical and chemical concentration gradients The cell membrane is relatively impermeable to sodium and anions Nerve and Muscle Cells Resting membrane potential all living cells Action potentials Generate action potentials excitability Propagate action potentials conductivity Action Potentials Stimuli electrical chemical or mechanical All or none principle 55 mV threshold for neurons Stimulus 9 Na influx 9 depolarization 9 repolarization 9 K efflux 9 hyperpolarization Absolute refractory period cannot generate an action potential Relative refractory period can respond to stimulus but must be greater than original stimulus Both electrical and chemical forces contribute to ion movement across the cell membrane 21 February Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels Pancreas Isles of Langerhans B cells 01 cells 236 million 78 have diabetes Diagnosed 179 million 7 h leading cause of death in US Glucose moves into the cell by facilitated diffusion Must have a gradient Insulin dependent Skeletal muscle Adipose cells Most other cells Noninsulin dependent Nervous tissue Liver KidneyRBCsintestinal Effects of insulin synthetic Glucose uptake into cells Decrease blood glucose levels Glycogenesis liver and muscle Lipogenesis Protein synthesis Effects of glucagon Increase blood glucose levels during fasting Glycogenolysis Gluconeogenesis Lipolysis glycerol fatty acids Protein degradation amino acids Ketogenesis from fatty acids Other hormones stress Epinephrine sympathetic nervous system and adrenal gland Other stress hormones Gluconeogenesislipolysis Cortisol Growth hormone Prolactin Insulin Glucagon ratio Large carbohydrate meal 701 Small meal 71 Overnight fast 231 Starvation 041 Diabetes Mellitus Group of diseases Marked by 4 blood glucose Defects in Insulin production andor nsuin action Type 1 nsuin dependent Type 2 nsuin independent 17 January Physiology What is physiology Physiology is defined as the branch of biology dealing with the functions and vital processes of living organisms Homeostasis Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains within limits a relatively stable internal environment Set point is average value for range trying to achieve Control Systems Nervous amp endocrine systems in the body Maintain homeostasis Starts with input stimulus 9 sensorreceptor 9 integrator 9 effector 9 output response Effectors in the body are glands and muscles Glands exocrine or endocrine Muscles smooth cardiac or skeletal Basic Overview of Nervous System Central nervous system brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system has afferent and efferent sides sensory and effector Efferent includes somatic and autonomic nervous system Somatic controls smooth muscle Autonomic controls everything else sympathetic and parasympathetic systems Cell Membrane Transport Passive vs active Passive is simple diffusion high 9 low no energy required sometimes use carrier Active is low 9 high against concentration gradient energy required ATP always requires carrier Simple vs Facilitated Diffusion Simple can travel straight through membrane Facilitated uses channel protein Simple diffusion Brownian motion Any molecule above absolute zero has energy moves randomly Collide 9 direction change Greater molecule in any area more likely to collide Velocity dependent on mass and temperature of molecule Fick s law of diffusion where QV rate of diffusion of substance Y from Area A to Area B 5y Q39YA Y3Dxry XM Wyxg Q rate of diffusion of substance Y from Area A to Area B YA YB concentration gradient between Area A and Area B TV temperature of diffusing molecules Sy solubility of substance Y in solvent or membrane MWV molecular weight of substance Y A cross sectional area through which diffusion can occur or area of membrane through which diffusion is occurring D distance between Area A and Area B or thickness of membrane Less surface area 9 lower rate of diffusion f surface area is reduced as in emphysema concentration gradient can be increased to compensate No lecture on days of exams exams during lab time 31 January Functional Anatomy Sarcolemma cell membrane surrounding muscle fibers T tubule provides pathway into cell through sarcolemma Sarcoplasmic reticulum holds Ca2 Lateral sacsterminal cisternae sarcoplasmic reticulum comes into contact with T tubules ExcitationContraction Coupling Excitation Action potential along motor neuron Ca2 5x greater outside cell than inside Channels open Ca2 causes vesicles to fuse release acetylcholine Ligand binds to Na channel on sarcolemma Na enters Action potential generated is propagated along sarcolemma and down Ttubules Calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Sarcoplasm at rest 01 uM Sarcoplasm during contraction 10 uM n sarcoplasmic reticulum always greater Contraction Myofilaments Actin globular actin tropomyosin blocks binding sites troponin calcium binds to move from sites Myosin Each power stroke 1 shortening of overall muscle Average contraction 30 shortening Ca2 pulse 2 30 sec Role of ATP Relaxation Calcium ions resequestered into sarcoplasmic reticulum via active transport Release myosin head from actin binding site Contraction Energize myosin head Power stroke 9 ATP binds to myosin head 9 myosin released from binding site in actin molecule 9 ATP hydrolyzed 9 myosin in energized state binds to actin Types of Muscle Contraction Single muscle twitch Contraction and release phases Latent period action potential until contraction begins Motor units motor neuron muscle fibers w neuromuscular junctions Eye muscles 5 fibersunit Gastrocnemius 2000 fibersunit Average 150 fibersunit Muscle Tone All or none principle Asynchronous firing of motor units Multiple motor unit summation Greater stimuli greater number of motor units recruited greater force of contraction Wave summation Apply second stimulus before full relaxation Tetanus sustained contraction 10 April Blood Pressure Measurements SystolicDiastolic Upright vs Prone Positions Provide sufficient pressure to perfuse brain Mean Arterial Pressure Formulas units mm Hg Ps PD 3 PD CO x PR Cardiac Output litersmin Peripheral Resistance mm ng min liter Systolic pressures reflect cardiac output Diastolic pressures reflect peripheral resistance Factors controlling cardiac output Heart rate Stroke volume Ejection fraction EDV which depends on venous return Skeletal muscle pump Thoracic pump Venoconstriction Factors controlling peripheral resistance Blood viscosity Length of vessels Diameter SANS Local control 9 metabolites acids 4 C02 adenosine J Oz Other vasoactive hormones 24 April 1 calorie amount of energy taken to raise 1 gram of water 1 C Metabolic Terms F02fraction of inspired oxygen 02093 FICOZ 00004 FEOZ 016 017 FEco2 003 005 VE volumetime V02 volumetime STPD Calorimetry Indirect calorimetry Measures oxygen consumption Energy equivalent of oxygen 48 kcal heat produced per liter of oxygen consumed 48 kcalL Oz Units used for human metabolic rate Kcalmzx hr Goes up during pregnancylactation Lower for women than for men otherwise Dietary Induced Thermogenesis DIT Ingestion 5 10 I in MR Absorption amino acids 30 I for 3 12 hours Body Temperature Fever 15 4 MR per C 4 in body temp Thyroid Hormones Thyroxine Stimulate heart activity Increases respiration Increases cellular metabolism Increases body temperature Stimulates gastrointestinal activity Hyperthyroidism Graves disease Nervous Excitable Tremors Sweating Rapid pulse 4 appetite Weight loss Hypothyroidism Cretinism Myxedema Cold sensitive Puffy face Pale dry skin Weight gain Muscle weakness Lethargy Mental quotdullnessquot Basal Conditions BMR Fasting for 12 hours or more After restful night s sleep 4 SANS Awake and reclining no prior activity Room temperature thermoneutral Body temperature normal Metabolic Intensity Body exchanges heat with environment at surface skin Greater surface areamass ratio greater heat loss to environment Need to produce more heat per unit mass to compensate for increased heat loss 17 April The Lungs Functional Anatomy Upper airways Nasal passages Lower airways Trachea Bronchi Bronchioles Pulmonary Region Alveoli Capillaries Role of the ANS Sympathetic nervous system 9 bronchodilation 9 J airway resistance 9 l airflow Parasympathetic nervous system 9 bronchoconstriction 9 l airway resistance 9 J airflow Lung Volumes and Capacities 500 mL target tidal volume Amount per inhalation while at rest Residual volume amount that remains in lungs after full exhale Vital capacity RV TV ERV Minute Volume Ventilation VE VE Tidal Volume x Breath Rate mLmin mLbreath x breathsmin Target 6 Lmin Control System C02 and Oz levels in blood 9 chemoreceptors aortic arch carotid artery central in medulla 9 respiratory control center in medulla 9 respiratory muscles Regulation of Respiration Role of CO2 Healthy lungs Moderate altitudes lt 7000 feet Target resting 4 of blood gases Have to breathe when it reaches around 6 Hypoxia 9 unconsciousness CO2 is primary regulator of ventilation 28 February Refraction Bending of light by a transparent medium Degree of refraction determined by Difference in refractive index of two media Degree of angulation shape of cornea Basic Functional Anatomy Refraction system Cornea Aqueous humor Lens Vitreous humor 23 refraction occurs at the aircorneal interface Refractive indices Air 10 Cornea 138 Lens 14 Humors 13 Lens is only structure capable of changing its refractive power Photosensitive system Ciliary muscle iris pupil suspensory ligaments retina fovea optic nerve Optics Types of lenses Spherical lens Bends light in all axes Focal point Cylindrical lens Bends light in one axis Focal line Types of refraction Convex converging Concave diverging Calculation of diopters Refractive power diopters lfocal length m Problems with refraction Emmetropic normal eye Refractive power 10017 m 59 diopters Mismatch of focal length and refractive power Hyperopia far sightedness Refractive system too weak or eyeball too short Focuses behind retina Correct with Convex lens Converging diopter Myopia near sightedness Refractive system too strong or eyeball too long Focuses in front of retina Correct with Concave lens Diverging diopter Astigmatism Irregular lens or cornea Correct with cylindrical lens Near Vision Parallel vs diverging light Light rays arriving from a near source are diverging as they enter the eye Light rays arriving from a distant source become almost parallel as they reach the eye Accommodation reflex Ciliary muscle relaxed Distant viewing Flattens lens Ciliary muscle contracted Near Lens becomes more rounded Presbyopia Lens becomes less elastic 10 years old 9 cm 14 D 40 years old 9 cm 2 D 60 years old 83 cm 0 D Reading glasses necessary Pupillary reflex l parasympathetic circular muscles contract Pupil constriction l sympathetic radial muscles contract Pupil dilation These are multiunit smooth muscles Convergence reflex Somatic nervous system Can control or stop it from happening 3 April Control of Cardiac Function Autoregulation Length force relationship Starling s law Regulation of Cardiac Output CO mlmin HR beatsmin x SV mlbeat Applies under rest and repose conditions Autonomic Nervous Parasympathetic branch Innervation SA node right vagus AV node left vagus Atria only Neurotransmitter acetylcholine l W permeability SA node J membrane potential hyperpolarized J slope of prepotential Takes longer to reach threshold JHR Rest and repose vagal tone Intrinsic rate SA node Rest and repose l PANS Suppresses heart rate by 20 30 bpm Sympathetic branch Innervation SA node AV node Atria Ventricles Neurotransmitter norepinephrine l Ca2 permeability SA node I slope of prepotential Reaches threshold faster 4 HR Effect of SANS on action potential Shortens plateau phase and QT interval Effect of SANS on ventricular muscle 4 intracellular Ca2 stores More rapid and forceful contractions l ejection fraction 4 rate of reuptake of Ca2 by SR after contraction Sympathetic Branch Fight or flight SANS 9 l HR SA node SANS 9 l ejection fraction 9 I force of contraction or 4 stroke volume ventricles Compensates for reduced filling time seen with 4 HR 7 February Autonomic Nervous System Compared to somatic NS Ef fectors Structure Neurotransmitters Ef fectors Somatic skeletal muscle Autonomic smooth muscle cardiac muscle glands Structure Somatic single motor neuron Autonomic two neurons preganglionic originating in CNS postganglionic synpases at effector Ganglion site of synapse between pre amp post ganglionic neurons Neurotransmitters Somatic acetylcholine cholinergic nicotinic receptor Autonomic acetylcholine at ganglion cholinergic nicotinic receptor Sympathetic vs Parasympathetic Parasympathetic Long preganglionic neuron releases ACh Short postganglionic neuron releases ACh Sympathetic Short preganglionic neuron releases ACh Long postganglionic neuron releases norepinephrine Hormonal long preganglionic neuron no postganglionic releases ACh in the adrenal medulla causes release of epinephrine into the blood Functional differences Parasympathetic Rest and repose Feed and breed Sympathetic Fight or flight Pharmacology Terminology Cholinergic Acetylcholine Mimics or associated with parasympathetic nervous system activity Nicotinic synapse between pre and post ganglionic neurons Muscarinic effector Adrenergic Norepinephine noradrenaline Epinephrine adrenaline Mimicsassociated with sympathetic nervous system activity 01 or B Agonist Binds to receptors and has an effect stimulatory or inhibitory Antagonist blocker Binds to receptor and has no direct effect blocks agonist from binding Multiunit or Single Unit Role of the Nervous System Multiunit Required to initiate contraction Single unit Not required Modifies activity Location Multiunit Ciliary muscle eye Iris Pilorector muscles Large arterioles Single unit Hollow visceral organs Bronchioles Arterioles Veins Motility contraction of visceral single unit smooth muscle of GI tract to mix and move propel digestive contents Hierarchy of Control Inherent rhythmicity Enteric nervous system Autonomic nervous system Inherent Rhythmicity Pacemaker cells Unstable membrane potential Waxing and waning of NalKi pump Ca2 action potentials Poorly developed sarcoplasmic reticulum Enteric Nervous System Coordinates inherent contractions Segmentation and peristalsis More neurons than in spinal cord Autonomic Nervous System Not needed for digestion to occur Modifies motility according to whatever else is going on in body Plasticity Plasticity vs elasticity Less organization of actinmyosin filaments Increased actinmyosin ratio Cross bridges can reform after stretching and still maintain original tension 20 March Action Potentials Slow response Pacemakers SA node AV node Ectopic foci can depolarize but are not SA or AV node Prepotential pacemaker potential I Ca influx l Nal influx through leakage channels J W efflux Depolarization CaH influx through voltage gated channels Repolarization W efflux through voltage gated channels Fast response Atrial muscle Ventricular muscle Bundle of His Bundle branches Purkinje fibers Resting membrane potential leakage channels Depolarization Nai influx through voltage gated channels Plateau phase Ca movement inward balances W movement outward through voltage gated channels Repolarization W efflux through voltage gated channels Measuring electrical activity Extracellular recording of electrical activity of heart Electrocardiogram Provides the following information Conduction disturbances Presence of ischemic damage Orientation of the heart in the thorax Mass of cardiac muscle hypertrophy Electrical effects of drugs and electrolytes Cannot provide information about Mechanical or contractile properties Voltage meter detects differences between two electrodes Left depolarizing and right at rest Left surface is negative with respect to right Voltage meter reading negative Left repolarized and right still at rest No difference between left and right Voltage meter reading 0 Left repolarized and right depolarizing Left surface is positive with respect to right Voltage meter reading positive Waves and Intervals P wave atrial depolarization QRS complex ventricular depolarization T wave ventricular repolarization Measurements P wave duration lt01 seconds PR interval Represents activation of SA node to the beginning of the ventricular muscle depolarization AV blocks if increased QRS duration Represents transfer of impulse throughout ventricular muscle Bundle branch block QT interval Varies with heart rate Difference in plateau phase Cycle length Inverser related to heart rate Einthoven s heart Einthoven visualized heart in middle of triangle formed by 3 bipolar leads Lead I II and Ill Einthoven s law Mathematical relationship between the QRS deflections of the three leads Li L L Mean vector sum of all the instantaneous vectors Mean electrical axis direction of the mean vector Target angle 59 60 Mean Electrical Axis of the Heart Approximate position of the heart in the thoracic cavity Potential hypertrophy of left or right ventricle Systemic hypertension left ventricular hypertrophy 9 left axis deviation Pulmonary hypertension right ventricular hypertrophy 9 right axis deviation LEAD II 60 angle direction of wave of depolarization Range 30 105 Right axis deviation gt 105 Left axis deviation lt30 6 March Role of the Immune System Nature self vs foreign nonself Antibodies are bivalent have 2 binding sites Antigenantibody complexes Inactivate by agglutination cellbound antigens neutralization In vivo within the living body In vitro within glass test tube artificial environment slide Blood Typing Unique cell markers ABO system most important blood group system Red cell antigens Hereditary Present at birth Naturally occurring antibodies Antigens similar to glycolipids found naturally in nature Rh blood type system Rh antigens C D E Rh positive Rh negative Antibody formation Not naturally occurring Blood transfusion of Rh positive blood into an Rh negative patient Pregnancy in Rh negative woman with Rh positive fetus ErythroblastosisFetalis 1st pregnancy Mother Rh neg Fetus Rh pos Rh positive fetal red cells escape into maternal circulation during delivery Following 1st pregnancy Maternal immune system responds by producing Rh antibodies During 2nd pregnancy Maternal Rh antibodies destroy Rh fetal red blood cells After delivery hemolytic disease of the newborn Treated with UV lights andor exchange transfusion Prevention following 1st pregnancy Give mother Rh antibody before her immune system can respond to presence of fetal Rh red cells RhoGam
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