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Equine Management

by: Nella Weber III

Equine Management ANEQ 203

Nella Weber III
GPA 3.86

Tiare Santistevan

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Tiare Santistevan
Class Notes
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This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nella Weber III on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANEQ 203 at Colorado State University taught by Tiare Santistevan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see /class/210049/aneq-203-colorado-state-university in Animal Science at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
2242011 Herdllealth Ix o m Infectious Disease Control Depends Primarily on Good Management r3 Novax Iion program in the world can ma v up for poor management Preventing Infectious Disease Good management Helps prevent evem disease Vaccination diseases Not all awilable Vaccines are e icacious Vatcination I Why To prevent or limitthe degree of disease I Limitations 7 Not a 100 guarantee Antibody response duration of protection Specificitvforstrain Cost I Benefits Local requirements lstable show etcl Prevention ofdisease 2242011 VaccInanon IS an AID39 In CJrIerI 3 Infectious Diseases Vaccination protocol should be tailored to each horse and each operation bytheir veterinarian Managing EmCsLns Rush Pom n Liv Horse L 711339t I Health requirements forvisiting horses I Health requirements for new additions I Precautions when horses are returningto the home operation after being at equine events I Segregation by grouping horses by risk level Isolation and monitoring of new additions Monitoringfor signs of disease in horses and having a plan of action if abnormalities are detected Example of Health Requirements Certificate of Veterinaw Inspection health certificate 39 39 g ofexamination versus arrival ofthe orse Ask about past medical histow Hasthis horse been sick recently or have others it has been exposed to been sick ifyes what was the problem I Examine horse when it arrives at the premises I Testingfor infection EIA or Coggins test most commonly required test thers Screeningfor shedding Dr treptococcus equl 2242011 Equine Herpesvirus EHV4 upper respiratory tract Devastating unpredictable abortion fatal neonatal disease neurologic disease mieloencephalopathy EHVl less common EHV2 pathology unclear EHV3 coital exanthema l L 2 Cy Central Role 0 Latency Latenlly Infected Garvin Huts Latency Rnl lvlllun Recrunmelu of New Hosts Cycle lnlncllan al ung Horses Abortion wwwmubedu1luck ihlinEHVl232 2242011 Respiratory Disease Severity Signs fever102106 25 d nnapetence Lethargy Cough Serous nasal discharge becomes mucoid Cough induced Lymph nodes Respiratory Disease Foals 28 months Fever Ceratoconjuctivitis Cough Mucopurulent nasal discharge Mandibular lymph nodes 4 Lungsounds Rhodococcus Respiratory Disease Diagnosis Treatment Vaccination EHVl EHV 4 39 DECREASES DURATIONAND SEVERITY 0F DISEASE BUT DOES NUI PRE ENI thtL I 34 MONTH INTERVAL VACCINE HORSES HIGH RISK I 46 month age primary 3 doses monthly intervals Myeloencephalopathy Common central nervous system CSN disease EHVl rarely EHV4 2242011 Aboution Most important cause of infectious abortion EHVl sporadic EHV4 Infection by inhalation of virus or manifestation of asymptomatic carrier Infection of fetus Aborted fetus highly infectious Abomon Vaccination Diminished incidence Pregnant mares EMT 9 h mo inactivated vaccine 3 Outbreak vaccinate all Abortion of mare members of herd should remain on the farm several mont s 2242011 The Prevalence of EHV1 Abortion and the Population of Thoroughbred Mares in Kentucky 19572003 2o 7 r 7 3 5 syuzsnulul saiuw luzil md Abnnmns per vnousana ngnam Mams Influenza Most common viral respiratory disease Highly infectious contagious Outbreaks large groups of susceptible horses 1530 animals Economic impact Transmission nasal secretions fomites halter brush hands Influenza Clinical signs Feverluplo 106 Fl coughing mucopurulem nasal 39 harge malaise innapelence dyspnea Complicationsibacterial pneumonia pleuropneumonia persistent coughing limb ede a nE awn sin 2 mm 4Illliun 2242011 Influenza Management Rest limited exercise Diagnosis Sudden appearance of paroxymal coughing High fever mucopurulent nasal discharge Lab tests Prevention Vaccination quarantine 14 d early detection Vaccine 3 doses after9 months of age Equine Infectious Anemia I Clinicalsigns Acute gt 14 wk infection High fever 110ml gtgtTromocytopenia ilow plateletslrhemorrhages ventml edema Depression No appetite Chronic Recurrent cycles Una ppa rent gtgtAnemia edema weight loss Una pparent carrier Equme Infectious Anemia Diagnosis A Cogginstest 1 7 EL SA r Transmission 39 Vector horse flies deer flies Syringestube needles Transplacentalcolostral lacteal venereal Control Soronegative Vlldl El lcephalltides I Eastern Equine Encephalitis EEE Mosquitotransmitted 1273 spsl Horsesand humans dead ends Epidemics close to wetlands North and South America I Western Equine Encephalitis WEE Western EUA Outbreaks humans and horses I Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis VEE Enzootic areas close to forests Epizootic high mortality and morbidity 2242011 Viral Enceplialitides I Clinical signs lack of signs to neurological signs I During viremia fever lethargy stiffness Behavior changes excitability aggressiveness hyperestesia lethargy circling compulsive naiking pressing I Central blindness cranial nerve hypermetria ataxia paresia oftrunkan mbs Death preceded by recumbency Viral Encephalltldes EEE mortality 7595 WEE mortality 195m recoveiyform neurological signs VEE mortality mesona sustained fever and other signs I Prevention Diminish exposure to vectors Killed vaccines I Northern region 1Xyear before vector season EEE WEE I Southeastern region 4X year I Borderto Central America 2X year VEE I Start with 4 mo age 6 mo 12 mo revaccinations Vlldl Encephalitides West Nile Virus Encephalitis WNE August 1999 causative agent of encephalitis in birds horses humans NYC Suffolk County Humans horses dead ends Clinical signs Atagtltia rear limbs mainly Muscle fasciculations tremors nose and lips Transitow hypersensitivity 2242011 Viral Encephalitides Diagnosis WNE areas where disease occurs Labtesting serum whole blood Vaccination does not interfere with diagnosis Initial dose with 3 wk booster Efficacy we MlievnusTnnxmlsnluu cm Stl angles Highly contagious disease of upper respiratory tract Streptococcus eguf Incubation 314 d Clinical signs Fever 1031060F Depression inappetence Serous nasal discharge then purulent profuse Strangles Highly contagious disease of upper respiratory tract Streptococcus equi Incubation 314 d Clinical signs Fever 1031060F Depression innapetence Serous nasal discharge then purulent profuse 2242011 Strangles l39 g Classic signs lt 397 3quot J Lymphadenitis associated with metastasis S equi Submandibular parotideal lymph nodes firm swollen with abcessation retrophawngeal lymph node obstruct phawnx Morbidity 100 Mortality 810 Bastard strangles Purpura Strangles Diagnosis Epidemiology Horse to horse Contamination Apparent healthy horses carriers Control Prevention 10 Tetanus Tetanus or lockjaw Fatal disease bacteria in soil Infects contaminating wounds Vaccine Lesion sprayed with an iodinesurgical spirit solution 2242011 Tetanus PRIMARY COURSE lST Tetanus Toxoid after 3 months of age Followed b 2nd Tetanus Toxoid 4 to 6 weeks later Followed by A booster in 1 years time BOOSTER A booster should be given once every 2 years Tetanus Clinical signs stiff legged gait tense facial expressions inability to eat properly and breathing difficulties This often progresses to being unable to stand and death Most susceptible Vaccination combined with influenza Newborn foals should be protected against tetanus by an injection of tetanus antitoxin soon after birth Their navel should be dipped 11 Rabies I Sporadic Horse highly susceptible I Clinical signs Broad range ofclinical signs Ataxia Paresia Dysphagia Self mutilation 2242011 Rabies Death within 47 days Diagnosis postmortem Prevention Vaccination start 3 months age and revaccinate yearly Vaccinate animals bitten bywild animals observation Vaccination Vaccines given everywhere Tetanus i Influenza EHV Rhino EEEWEE WNV Strangles 12 Parasites and Deworming I Deworming Your Horse The latest information on deworming strategies and howyou can help prevent resistance to dewormers I Speakers Craig Reinemeyer DVM PhD East Tennessee Clinical Research Register for free on the horse and watch this webinar 2242011 I Videos 39 39 a m E 5 How to administer Inna muscular injections I Easy restrainwel tolerated good dissipation of meds I lnflammationstif39f neck I Doses 13 How to administer intra musculat injections 39 Muscle I Kick inflammation Thigh 2242011 14 2242011 15 2182011 Herd Health ANEQ 203 I Horse goes 39off39 its food I Elevated temperature may spike at certain times in da I Slight changes in behaviouramp attitude I Manure aspect I Selective appetite I Group Depression 2182011 I Temperature 3 05 C 98 to 1015 F variation I Pulse 3040 bpm 24to 48 heart beat facial artew I Respiration 616 bpm Rectal Temperature I Below range I Hypothermia Above normal I Infection heat exhaustion exercise I Thermometer I Color I Moistness Pink Darkbrown Pale Blue line around rims eelh Capillary refill time CRT Normal less than 2 seconds Skin pinch time Gastrointestinal sounds Present or absent Frequency Fluid or gas 2182011 Wound first aid y Prevent further injuly Slow or stop blood loss Inimlze contamination Coverand protect promptly 2182011 Initial wound management Wound assessment Physical exam Contro hemorrhage Determine severity of wound and damage to underlying structures Vet may recommend 39 Ultrasound Radiography Jointtap Wound preparation Step 1 Restraint and analgesia Sedation local anesthetic Adequate General anesthesia Wound Preparation Ste 2 7 Contamination Ciip hair Protect wound from nairegsteriie waterbased iube uze I 2182011 Wound Preparation Step 3 Wound Cleansing Disinfect surrounding skin using either povidoneeiodine or chlorhexidine solutions Wound lavage Mechanicalremovalof contamination Delivery of antiseptic preparation 2182011 Topicalwound cleaning Need 7 psi 1015 psi provides 80 effectiveness in removal of soil and micro organisms Use a 30 cc syringe with an 18 gauge needle 7psi Topical wound cleansers Decrease bacterial load eliminate necrotic tissue Physiologic saline to cleanse Tap water ok cell destruction Antiseptics not in clean wounds Hydrogen peroxide toxic to fibroblasts okfor chemical debridement 2182011 I eantm Ocularioxiciiy Antiseptics Povidone iodine diluted to 0102 lOZOmI of lOL Kills bacteria in 15 seconds inaciivaieci by organic maieriai and blood 5 o E w m 3 uai e Active in presence of blood pus and organic maieriai Wound Preparation Step 5 7 W1qu DEbndEmEm RENEVa m dEad ussuE armreng padesfmm Wuund Sharp mssmmn 5 prEfErrEd mEtHnd EEdEd PmmntE dramagE Wm H 2182011 Wound Deb dement Sharp Dissection Debrided Laceration Wound Management Supportive Medical Treatments amp Antimicrobials Considertetanus prophylaxis Nonrsteroidal antieinflammatory agents Systemic antibiotics Topical antibiotics amp antiseptics 2182011 Topical antibiotics Most effective when applied within 3 hours ofinjury 0r nt 3 er debriderne Triple antibiotic ointment Silver sulfadiazine Nitrofurazo ne Wound dressings Moist dressings Free of infection Enzymes from white blood cells This occurs 7296 hours afterwounding 2182011 Moist wound healing Prevent formation of scab can trap white blood cells Reduced pH Prevent bacterial contamination from outside More rapid epithelialization Bacteria might proliferate Wound dressings Gauze d ressing Peel offfibrin debris and necrotic tissue Wet with dilute povidoneriodine chlorhexidine or physiologicsaline Change evew 24h lavage wou nd and apply anotherwet to dw ressing lto 3 applicationsforeffective debridement 39 Don t use afterwou nd if effectively debrided and granulationtissue forms 10 2182011 Wound dressings Gamgee Absorbent cotton in nonadhesive cover Highly absorbent Protection support and insulation Wound dressings Hydrogels hydrophilic polymers water 9095 Idealwound dressing Hydrate a dwwound Moist interface so no adherence Cooling effect Can absorb some fluid from wound Can help debridement 11 2182011 Bandaging materials Foot bandage I Abscess sole frog corona ry be h I Padding roll cotton sheet cotton I Bandage elastic I Waterproofbarrier Footbandage 393 f g w 5 4 5431 f I It 39 12 2182011 Standard Leg Bandage I Padding roll cotton cast padding eg duilts I Security ayerstretch gauze I Elasticbandagevetrap 39 astikon Standard Leg Bandage 439 F Hock bandage knee bandage I Padding sheet cotton cast padding leg duilts I Security stretch gauze 1 Elastic bandage vetrap r 7 elastlkon 7 7 g V 13 2182011 Hock Bandage Hock bandage rf 14


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