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Horticultural Science

by: Mr. Javier Swaniawski

Horticultural Science HORT 100

Mr. Javier Swaniawski
GPA 3.95

David Whiting

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David Whiting
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Javier Swaniawski on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HORT 100 at Colorado State University taught by David Whiting in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/210054/hort-100-colorado-state-university in Agriculture and Forestry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Hort 100 Unit B Study Guide CH2 1 Define Terms a 57 Horticulture the science and art of cultivating flowers fruits vegetables turf and ornamental plants in an orchard garden nursery org greenhouse on a large or small scale Horticultural an adjective used to describe something relating to horticulture or produced under cultivation Botany a branch of biology dealing with plant life anatomy taxonomy genetics physiology ecology etc The science of applied botany deals with plants grown in uncultivated settings Agronomy a branch of agriculture dealing with field crop production and soil management Forestry the science of developing caring for or cultivating forests the management of growing timber Community forestrya branch of forestry dealing specifically with the unique growth limitations and needs of trees in the landscape setting 2 Why do gardeners use plant classification 3 a b Ease of discussion To group for ease of care Define Terms a 50539 57 r In 7 Warm season plants thrive in warm temperature 6590 degrees daytime and are intolerant of cool temperatures Examples include com tomatoes and squash Cool season plants thrive in cool temperatures 4070 degrees daytime and are somewhat tolerant of light frosts Tender plants are intolerant of cool temperatures frost and cold winds Hardy plants are tolerant of cool temperatures light frost and cold winds Hardiness refers to a plant s tolerance to winter climatic condition Factors that influence hardiness include minimum temperature recent temperature patterns water supply wind and sun exposure genetic makeup and carbohydrate reserves Hardiness zone refers to the average annual minimum temperature for a geographic area Temperature is only one factor that influences a plant s winter hardiness Annual complete life cycle within a single growing season i Summer annuals germinate from seed in the spring and complete flowering and seed production by fall Germinate from seed in the fall with flowering and seed development the following spring followed by plant death Biennial complete life cycle within two growing seasons Biennials germinate from seed during the growing season and often produce and overwintering store root or bulb the first summer P l Iquot S P i Perennial live through several growing seasons and can survive a period of dormancy between growing seasons j Herbaceous plants plants have nonwoody stems 7 Woody plants plants have woody stems that generally live for several years adding new growth each year Diagram the taxonomic breakdown of ferns cycads ginkgos conifers and angiosperms with monocots and dicots Why do horticulturists typically deal with plant families a b Families have primary importance in gardening as they generally share comparable cultural requirements and similar insect and disease problems Pest management and cultural techniques are often discussed at the family level Give protocol for giving scientific names a First word capital second word lowercase italicized or underlined b Difference between sp And spp required b4 third word i Sp Singular ii Spp plural Define terms a Variety subculture showing different traits within a species b Cultivarsubgrouping of species assigned to cultivated plants which display rather unique differences and when reproduced by seeds or cuttings retain its distinguishing characteristics i Ex genus john species smith cultivar J David S Relationship of cells tissues structures and plants a Cellsindividual building blocks for life processes and growth site of sugar production b Tissues groups of cells that are similar in appearance and function c Structures groups of tissues working together with a common function i EX roots stems leaves flowers fruits and seeds d Plantsmade up of a number of coordinated structures to form a working unit Function of Xylem and Phloem a Xylem inside the phloem water b Phloem transports photosynthates 3 primary functions of the root a Anchor and support plants b Absorb and conduct water and minerals c Store products of photosynthesis Define a Primary roots first root main highway if you will b Lateral rootsside root Squot 9 Tap root system main downward growing root with limited branching where soils permit i EX carrots beets radishes Fibrous roots system profusely branched roots that occupy a large volue of shallow soil around a plant s base i EX petunias beans peas Describe and identify the vascular bundles for all stems NodesSegment of stem where leaves and lateral buds are attached nternodes section of a stem between two nodes Terminal budBud at the top of a stem Sometimes produces a hormone that prohibits growth on lateral buds Lateral budgrow from the leave axils on the side of a stem Terminal bud scar annual growth rings Leaf scarmark left on stem where leafwas attached Bundle scar marks left inside the leaf scar from the vascular tissue attachment Explain the use of terminal bud scars to evaluate tree health 5 6 Stem ID a b c d e f g 7 8 Internal stem IDquot a b c d e f Solid Hollow Chambered pith Star shaped pith Triangular pith Rounded pith 9 Stem Terms a b c d e f Twigwoody stem less than one year old Branch woody stem more than one year old Trunk main support stems of woody plants Cane stems with relatively large pith and usually living for only one to two years Sucker juvenile adventitious shoots arising from the roots generally rapid upright growing Water sprout juvenile adventitious shoots arising on a branch generally very rapid uprightgrowth and poorly attached to the main limb 10 Terms that reference modified stems 75 Squot d ID leaves from conifers ginkgo monocots and dicots a Bulb thickened underground stem with fleshy storage leaves attached at base Stolonhorizontal above ground stems often forming roots and or plantlets at their tips or nodes Rhizomehorizontal underground stem typically forms roots and plantlets at tips or nodes Tuber enlarged rhizome containing stored food Conifers b c d Ginkgo Monocots parallel venation Dicot either pinnately veined or palmately veined 12 Leafterms anhsvsnprrm 43159 r 13 With co a Leaf blade flattened part of the leaf Leaf tipend farthest from the petiole Leaf baseend closest to the petiole Midvein or midrib main vein of the leaf Lateral veins extend from the midrib Petiole leaf stalk Stipules leaflike appendages at the base of the leaf Bud Pinnate venationveins extend from a midrib to the edge Palmate venation veins radiate fan shaped from the petiole Parallel venation veins run in parallel lines Simple leafleaf blade is one continuous unit Pinnately compound leaf leaflets arranged on both sides ofa common rachis like a feather Palmately compound leaf leaflets radiate from one central point Double compound leaf double set of compound leaflets Alternate leaf arrangementarranged in staggered fashion along stem Opposite leaf arrangement pair of leaves arranged across from each other on the stem Whorled leafarrangementarranged in a ring mpound leaves how can you tell what is a leafand what is a leaflet There is no bud node where leaflets attach to the petiole but a leaf petiole attaches to the stem at a bud node 14 How do you identify monocot and dicot flowers 15 ID flower parts sup0575 Sepalsprotective leaflike enclosures for the flower buds usually green Calyx collection of the sepals Petals usually colorful petallike structures making up the flower Corolla collection of the petals Stamen male flower organ i Antherspollen producing organs ii Filament stalk supporting anthers Pistil central female organ of the flower Generally bowlingpin shaped and locatred in the center of the flower Stigma receives pollen typically flattened and sticky Style connective tissues between stigma and ovary iii Ovary contains ovules or embryo sacs iv Ovules unfertilized immature seeds Receptacle base of the flower h Pedicel flower stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence i Floret small flower making up the head of a composite flower 16 Flower and plant terms a Complete flower flower containing sepals petals stamens and pistil b Incomplete flower flower lacking sepals petals stamens and pistil c Perfect flower flower containing male and female parts d Imperfect staminate flower flowers only male parts e Imperfect pistillate flower flowers w only female parts f Hermaphroditic plant plants with perfect flowers g Monoeciousplant plants with separate male flowers and female flowers on the same plant h Dioecious plant plants with male flowers and female flowers on separate plants 17 On a seed identify the following parts a Seed coat outside of seed b Endosperm food supply containing 3 sets of chromosomes 2 from the mother and 1 from the fathermonocot c Cotyledon seed leaf dicot cotyledon stores food d Plumuleshoot e Radicleroot f Hypocotyl stem dicot only 18 Difference between monocot and dicot seed dicot has two Cotyledon CH4 1 Give a simple equation for photosynthesis and respiration Photosynthesis 6C02 6HZO Energy CSHMO6 602 b Respiration CSHMO6 6027 6C02 6HZO Energy 2 Define these terms In Photosynthesis the synthesis of complex organic materials esp carbohydrates from 1 carbon dioxide water and inorganic salts using sunlight as the source of energy and with the aid of chlorophyll and associated pigments 57 Respiration the sum total of the physical and chemical processes in an organism by which oxygen is conveyed to tissues and cells and the oxidation products carbon dioxide and water are given off Transpiration the passage of water through a plant from the roots through the vascular Squot system to the atmosphere 3 List the 7 degrees of sun and shade d Full sun 7 direct sun for at least 8 hours a day including from 9 am to 4pm e Full sun with re ected heat 7 Where plants receive re ected heat from abuilding or other structure temperatures can be extremely hotThis situation signi cantly limits the choice of plants for the site f Morning shade with afternoon sun 7 This southwest and west re ected heat can be extremely hot and limiting to plant growth g Morning sun with afternoon shade 7 This is an ideal site for many plants The a emoon shade protects plants from extreme heat h Filtered shade 7 Dappled shade ltered through trees can be bright shade to dark shade depending on the tree s canopy The constantly moving shade pattern protects under story plants from heat In darker dappled shade only the more shade tolerant plants will thrive Open sh ade 7 Plants may be in the situation where they have open sky above but direct sunlight is blocked during the day by buildings fences and other structures Here only more shade tolerant plants will thrive Closed shade 7 The situation where plants are under a canopy blocking sunlight is most limiting Only the most shade tolerant plants will survive this situation like under a deck or covered patio 4 What is photoperiodism For long and short day plants give the response ie vegetative or flowering for long and short nights What happens if the night is interrupted 7 Short day plants ower in response to long periods of night darkness Examples include poinsettias Christmas cactus chrysanthemums and singlecrop strawberries Long day plants ower in response to short periods of night darkness Examples include onions and spinach m Day neutral plants ower without regard to the length of the night but typically ower earlier and more profusely under long daylight regimes Day neutral strawberries provide summer long harvesting except during heat extremes If the night is interrupted the plants will not ower if they require long nights or will ower if the night is long and they are short night plants 3 5 List the factors that influence plant hardiness o Photoperiod Genetics Low Temperature r421 Recent temperature pattern Rapid temperature changes Moisture Wind Exposure ltrquot Sun Exposure w Carb reserve 6 What does a hardiness zone map indicate x The average annual minimum temperature expected for geographic areas 7 How does a sudden dramatic drop in winter temperatures impact hardiness How does a gradual yet significant drop in winter temperatures impact hardiness How does early spring warming or late spring frost impact hardiness y Injury is caused due to sunscald and frost crack Z Root temperature injury aa Bud kill and dieback 8 How do temperatezone plants know when to start growing in the spring bb When the temperature hits the proper level ie warm plants germinate at 5090 degrees and cold at 4080 9 Give common symptoms of drought stress and waterlogged soils cc Drought Stress i Decreased growth ii Small off color leaves iii Decline from top down iv Early fall color v Reduced xylem growth vi May show up 5 years after dd Water Logged Soil i Root activity slows plants may show symptoms of drought ii Plant growth slows iii Leaves may wilt iv Root rot common v Leaves may yellow 10 Explain how a plant balances shoot growth with root growth ee Plant hormones auxins on terminal buds suppress side shoot growth and increase root growth ff Hormones in the root tip gibberellins stimulate shoot growth 11 Explain how a plant grows toward the sun Explain how a plant knows up from down gg Auxins accumulate on the shaded side of the stems and shoots elongating the cells and turning the plant toward the sun hh Auxins also accumulate on the down side of horizontal stems and shoots causing cells to enlarge faster turning the stem upright Hort 100 Exam 2 Study Guide COMPLETE Section D Chapter 5 1 Define the following terms a Dominant gene Characteristics expressed Recessive genecharacteristic is masked by dominant gene Intermediate recessive genescharacteristics intermediate between genes Homozygouslike gene pairs Heterozygousunlike gene pairs Genotype genetic makeup of an organism PhenotypeCharacteristics expressed from the genotype and influenced by environment anhmmpgr Selfpollinated selffertile produces seed with its own pollen Cross pollinated selfsterile requires pollen from another line or cultivar Open pollinated designates the random movement pollen by insects and wind 2 Hybrid controlled crossing of two homozygous lines i F1 151 generation ii F2 2nd generation Polyploidy ie triploid tetraploid pentaploid etc i Diploidythe normal pair 2 sets of chromosomes ii Tetraploidy Three sets iii TentraploidyFour sets iv Pentaploidy Five sets v Hexaploidy six sets m Variety botanical variety plant group in the wild n Cultivar plant group from a cultivated variety 2 Diagram out the genotypes and phenotypes of crossing heterozygous and homozygous lines An F1 plant selffertilizes Truebreeding and produces homozygous game es F2 recess ve F1 Phenotypes Pare J Phenotypes m v x 3 391 3 f J Eruebreedlng A omoz OUS Aa dominelyg Aa It parent In Aa 39 39 Aa i le 33 1 cu 39 WWW 1 4 What time of year are the following types of woody plant cuttings take a Deciduous hardwood cuttings Dormant late winter or early spring b Semihardwood stem cuttings Midsummer following spring growth c Softwood stem cuttings new growth in spring after leafing d Conifer stem cuttings Early winter 5 You want to propagate a favorite wood plant how do you know what type of cuttings to make a Look it up 6 Describe the generic procedures for propagation by stem cuttings On stem cuttings what do you do about leaves that will be below the soil line a 053957 f Make top cut just above a nodebud Length 35 nodesbuds 26quot Remove leaves below soil line Dip cuttings in rooting hormone to stimulate rooting Make bottom cut just below a nodebud Plants know up from down keep stem tip up 7 Describe the following identifying the differences a 57 S3 Herbaceous stem cutting Herbaceous stem cuttings The type of stem cutting most suitable for propagating houseplants is the herbaceous cutting It is made from tender growth of terminal shoots Leaf cutting Leaf cuttings include only a leaf blade or the blade and a portion of the petiole Leaf cuttings of plants such as African violet should not be rooted with long petioles Leafbud cutting a small portion of the main plant stem containing a bud is included with the petiole Leafbud cuttings are used for many trailing vines and when space or cutting material is limited Each node on a stem can be treated as a cutting This type of cutting consists of a leaf blade petiole and a short piece of stem with an attached axillary bud Root cutting Root cuttings of woody plants are usually taken from plants during the dormant season when carbohydrate levels are high Root cuttings of some species produce new shoots which then form their own root system whereas root cuttings of other plants develop root systems before producing new shoots 8 Describe the influence of the following environmental factors on rooting c9591 Source of cutting material If source isn t healthy chances of success are lower Treatment with auxinlike plant growth regulators hormone promotes root growth Misting keeps humidity high available water is greater Bottom heat heat in soil 10 degrees greater than air temperature promotes root growth 9 Describe the following grafting terms a b c Scion top half used in whip grafting Rootstock bottom half used in whip grafting Whip grafting similar to splice grafting except that a cleft or slit is made in the end of both scion and stock in the direction of the grain and in the middle of the sloping surface forming a kind of tongue so that when put together the tongue of each is inserted in the slit of the other Used to pair scions with roots Cleft grafting a method of grafting in which the scion is placed in a cleft or slit in the stock or stump made by sawing off a branch usually in such a manner that its bark evenly joins that of the stock Bridge grafting used to bridge over damaged trunk area Stress until the grafts takes over makes it of questionable value Budding common method for propagating woody plants and fruits form of grafting in which only a single bud of a desired variety with little or no wood is inserted into the stockT budding or shield budding is a special grafting technique in which the scion piece is reduced to a single bud As with other techniques of asexual propagation the resulting plants are clones genetically identical plants reproduced from one individual entirely by vegetative means The plant being propagated represented by the bud is referred to as the scion while the plant being grafted onto is referred to as the rootstock or simply stock 10 Describe the following layering methods identifying differences a b C d Tip layeringThe tip of a branch touches the ground and roots form Tip layering simply mimics this natural process To tip layer dig a small hole several inches deep insert the tip of a current season39s shoot or cane and fill around it with soil The tip will turn and grow upward while the bend of the stem that stays in the soil will grow roots Care for the layered plant is the same as that used for simple layering Simple layering For simple layering a flexible stem is bent to the ground and a section 6 to 9 inches from the tip is covered with soil The stem will have a tendency to pull out of the soil so secure it with wire or wooden stakes The tip is left exposed If necessary give it support so that it will stand up straight Some plants will root more quickly if the section of the stem under the soil is wounded Twist the stem to break it make a notch in the stem or cut off some of the bark Dust the wound with rooting hormone before placing it in the soil Mound layering The original plant may be cut back to encourage many new shoots to grow from the base Then the following spring after the new shoots have grown approximately 8 10 inches mound soil containing sphagnum peat moss about 79 inches deep around the shrub Roots will grow into the surrounding soil from the new growth The following autumn or spring gently dig into the mound separate and transplant the new plants Air layeringIn air layering roots form on the aerial part of a plant after the stem is girdled or slit at an angle and enclosed in a moist rooting medium at the point of injury 11 List 5 plants typically propagated by division a b c d e f Runners strawberries Suckers raspberries Crowns peony Bulbs tulips and daffodils Stem tubers Potatoes Tuberous roots sweet potatoes 12 Describe conditions for optimum storage of common garden seeds a Dry Cool Dark Freezing won t hurt most seeds but repeated freezing and thawing may 13 How can the home gardener test seed for viability a Ragdoll Roll a few seed in a moist paper towel Place in plastic bag and set in a warm place for a few days Check germination in a few days 14 List the 3 steps of seed germination process a b c lmbibe water Activate hormones and enzymes Grow beings by cell division and enlargement 15 List 6 environmental factors that influence seed germination and explain gardening techniques to manage each a Chapter 6 Adequate moisture not too wet not too dry Management improve soil raised beds watch planting depth avoid planting into stormy weather Good aeration Management avoid fine textured potting soils cover seed trays with plastic to stabilize moisture don t let pots sit in water Proper temperature germination is a temperature response Management use soil thermometer for planting times raised bed helps keep soil dry and warm faster Shade soils for summer plantings Light or darkness some plant require light or darkness to germinate On some plants germination under light or dark conditions affect future flowering Freedom from disease organisms Beans peas and corn are examples of crops that readily decay from root rot diseases in wet soils Freedom from toxic levels of soil salt Common problem with use of manure or composted manure 1 Describe personal lifestyle considerations before building a greenhouse a Are you only interested in adding a few weeks to the harvest season Are you interested in year round gardening in a solar greenhouse OR do you need a winter break 2 Describe considerations for brick wall and milk jug water solar collectors a b c runs 7 Milk jugs develop leaks over time and require routine replacement Heavier weight jugs last longer Keep the size two gallons or smaller or water will stratify with hot on top and cooler on bottom Brick holds about 30 of the solar radiation water holds about 90 Milk jugs should be sprayed with flat black paint Milk jugs should also have a tablespoon of bleach perjug to prevent algae growth in the warm water Secure the cap back on the jug with a ring of caulk Do not stack jugs more than two high 3 Describe why a poorly built greenhouse cannot be effectively retrofitted with efficient solar collectors a More factors come into play than just solar collectors 39 Double glazing reduces heat loss Night curtains add an additional 3050 ii Walls should be insulated to R38 iii The foundation and floor must be insulated from heat loss to the ground iv Cold air infiltration should be kept to a minimum v East to west orientation is pivotal to success vi Slightly to the east offers faster morning warming Chapter 7 1 Explain how soils may vary horizontally and vertically a Horizontal variation in the soils are caused by five soilforming factors i Parent material Climate precipitation temperature wind iquot Topography iv Biologicalorganisms v Time 1 Precipitation and temperature cause weathering of rocks n dry climates like Colorado 2 Residual means the parent material for a soil disintegrated in place to form soil 3 In other cases the parent material is transported by water wind gravity or glaciers 2 Describe characteristics of the A B and C soil horizon a A horizon topsoil high biological activity with the greatest organic matter content It is also a zone of leaching As precipitation enters the A horizon it dissolves soluble soil organic compounds and minerals They then go downward Most plant roots are found in the A horizon b B horizon subsoil underneath the A horizon Usually less OM than surface layer but accumulates the dissolved materials leached from the A horizon B has more clay than A because it leaches down Products in B horizon increase over time as the soil forms c C horizon Unconsolidated material that has been minimally affected by the soil forming factors May or may not by the same as the parent material from which the soil formed 3 Describe how landscape soils differ from agricultural and native soils a During constructing soils have had the A horizon scraped off soil is compacted construction debris is buried in the soil and variability of content is increased b Crusting will be worse increased pH decreased drainage NO well defined horizons 4 Describe the typical percentage of air water organic matter and mineral solids for a native soil a Air 25 b Water 25 c Mineral 4549 d Organic matter 13 5 How does this change for a compacted landscape soil a Air 10 b Water 20 c OM 1 d Mineral 69 Chapter 8 1 Describe how organisms directly benefit the soil and plant growth a Organisms have symbiotic relationships with plants providing them nutrients and improving their tolerance of environmental stress 2 Describe how organisms indirectly benefit the soil and plant growth a They decompose organic materials creating nutrients for the plant b Organisms improve soil Tilth providing oxygen to the plant 3 Should gardeners inoculate their soil with rhizobia mycorrhizae and decomposers Explain your answer a NO If the soil will support these organisms they will already be present 4 What makes up the soil organic matter Give a soil scientist s definition of humus What are the benefits of humus a Soil organic matter is made of i 5 living organisms ii 10 dead organisms that have not begun to decompose iii 2045 dead organisms undergoing rapid decomposition iv 5080 HUMUS stabilized organic matter remaining after decomposition b HUMUS is stabilized organic matter that is finished decomposing i It improves soil over time and releases nutrients slowly over time ii Improves water retention iii Glues small particles together 5 How does a gardener enhance the living soil a Adding organic matter to the soil using organic mulch watering effectively avoiding rototilling and pesticides Chapter 9 1 Define the terms and explain how each are interrelated a Tilth soils ability to support plant life b Texture size and distribution of particles that make up the soil c Structure refers to the size and distribution of pore spaces in soil d Pore Space area between soil particles filled by air and water 2 Describe characteristics and management of the following soil types a Coarsetextured sandy soil low capacity to hold water and nutrients routinely apply organic matter b Finetextured clayey soil lack or large pore spaces for air and water routinely apply organic matter c Gravelly and decomposed granite soils large rocks and erratic bedrock depth make gardening difficult add organic matter 3 Explain what is significant about large pore spaces and small pore spaces a Large pore spaces hold air while small pore spaces hold water 4 Describe how water moves through small pore spaces and large pore spaces a Water coats small pore spaces but moves through large pore spaces readily 5 In relation to root growth air infiltration and water movement what happens when the soil has a texture interface a Water cannot penetrate it because of the vast difference in pore space size thus roots will not grow through it Chapter 10 Dealing with soil compaction 1 In terms of pore space water movement and air infiltration describe soil compaction a Soil compaction makes pore spaces so tiny that neither water nor air can readily penetrate the soil making growth nearly impossible 2 Describe methods to help manage soil compaction b Adding organic matter Managing traffic flow Using mulch Aeration Avoid excessive cultivation 052quotme Avoid cultivating overly wet or dry soil h Avoid fill over compacted soil 3 What about adding sand and gypsum to deal with soil compaction a Sand has limited or negative effect on soil gypsum will only increase the calcium content of the soil 4 Describe how to calculate the Tree Protection Zone a The TPZ is the trees circumference C at 45 feet high divided by two i c2TPZ radius Chapter 11 1 Define soil amendment mulch and compost a Soil Amendment any material mixed into the soil b Mulch any material placed on the soil surface c Compost may refer to any soil amendment 2 Explain how organic soil amendments improve a clayey soil a sandy soil a Organic soil amendments increase the particle size in clayey soils b They swan zHuw mare nmnentsznd ncrezsed waterhmdmg czpzbmty m sandy ans 3 Descnbecunswderztmnsm se edmn 2 sun amendment zsn remesm wefuuuwwg 2 edresu tsicunader rslwaterhu dwrgmmrwe mum c b mamammutmezpphczmnrwmtsunufpuntmummezppmuums fezswb e c Lungmyrhuwwungme pruducthstln wszdd nmnentsfaslurs uw y uvemme d Sa tihuwszkythe amendment 5 can kmmmsmuuszuy In ammath Cumunslmade mng whh manure w insali 5 Ian c xheszu mmem vs hnknuwn ism Onehm apw 5 What sthe precautmn 2mm uverapphcztmn at uneume What sthe preczuuun avers permd ufyezrs nethmg can damage p zntsmzkmgthesm mu any unuu gh enzm numents b Overapphcztmn m 2 swrg e gm can cause mg 52th 4 H r Luw mtrugen frumtheueup ufmtrugen duetu 2 carbuntu mtrugen dmgtuu much we er mums bums rants and ezves u s can resun m v v Hugh 2m 9 Overapphcztmnuvermznyg i High salts ii Excessive N P or K iii Ground water contamination iv Micronutrient imbalance 6 Explain the use and limitations on using manure as it relates to a E coli i Fresh manure should not be used but if it is wait AT LEAST 4 months before harvest meaning apply in the fall and then let sit all winter before harvest b Nitrogen release rates i Slow release rate c Salt i Very high in salt d Weed seeds i Can contain these in high amounts 7 In summary list considerations in selection a soil amendment for a specific garden site a Cost i Local availability ii Cost of product iii Size of area to be treated quantity needed iv Depth of incorporation application rate quantity needed v Transportation costs b Need for fertilizer after amending i Soil organic content ii Precautions with specific products iii Salts manure and biosolids iv Weed seeds manure and compost v Plant pathogens compost vi Human pathogens manure c Alternatives to amending i Potential to incorporate amendments ii Accepting a reduction in plant growth and vigor iii Accepting increased maintenance requirements iv Selecting plants more tolerant of poor soils v Avoid crowding plants competing for limited soil resources vi Mulching with organic mulch to slowly improve soil over time vii Container and raisedbed gardening viii Preventing compaction force Chapter 12 1 8 Describe the use and limitation of compost at it relates to the following a Salts i Compost from plant materials is very low in salt but can become high when food materials are mixed in b Nitrogen release i Slow release c Weeds and disease problems i Can transmit weed seeds and plant disease if you are not careful do not include tomatoes or potatoes because of their high risk for disease transmission What should and should not be put into a compost pile a Should i Leaves ii Garden debris free of disease and weeds iii Kitchen scraps iv Shrub and tree pruning s smaller than Mquot v Hay straw and other plant residue b Should Not i Weeds I Disease plants iii Large tree branches iv Meat and dairy products v Fats oils and grease v Feces vii Wood ash or lime Chapter 13 1 5 Describe the benefit of using mulch a Reduces evaporation from soil surface cutting water use by 2550 b Organic mulches promote soil microorganism activity which in turn improves soil tilth and helps lessen soil compaction c Stabilizes soil moisture d Prevents soil compaction e Controls weeds which rob soil moisture f Moderates soil temperature extremes g Controls erosion h Gives a finished look improving aesthetic Describe the use and limitations of woodbark chip mulch a Can create a nitrogen deficiency due to a carbonnitrogen imbalance b Ten or more years for chips to decompose in a typical soil c Can float away 3 Describe the use and limitations of grass clipping mulch a Use vegetable garden and around annual flowers b Limitations decompose rapidly requiring additional layers during the growing season c Thick layers will mat stink reduce air and water and become hydrophobic 4 Describe the use and limitations of rock mulch a USE Nonplant areas or in some specialty gardens like a cacti garden rock garden or alpine garden b Heat sink creates a significantly warmer afternoon evening and nighttime c Can warm people space to uncomfortable levels Rock mulch may interfere with shrub rejuvenation d Temperature increases may increase water requirements e If adjacent to lawn areas it can become dangerous when mowed if it gets in the equipment f Rock on black plastic will heat soils very much and either create very dry or very wet areas Chapter 14 1 Define plant nutrition and fertilizer a Plant nutrition the need for basic chemical elements for plant growth b Fertilization is the application of plant nutrient to supplement nutrients naturally occurring in the soil 2 Will addition of fertilizer help plant growth when soil compaction is the limiting factor Explain a No The addition of fertilizer will only benefit the plant if it remedies a deficiency f oxygen is lacking no fertilizer will help 3 What are the typical symptoms of nitrogen deficiency a Uniform yellowishgreen b More pronounced in older leabes c Small thin leaves d Fewer leaflets e High fall color f Early leaf drop g Shoots short small diameter May be reddish or reddish brown 4 What are the problems associated with excessive nitrogen fertilization a Tomatoes and vine crops will put on excessive cine growth at the expense of fruiting with excess nitrogen 5 In western soils under what situations will phosphorus levels likely be adequate and deficient a Adequate naturally adequate in the majority of western soils b Deficient most likely to occur in new gardens where the OM content is low and the soil has a high pH 6 How does one determine the need for phosphate fertilizer a Soil test In western soils under what situations will potassium levels likely be adequate and deficient d a Adequate Naturally adequate and even high in western soils b Deficient New gardens low in OM and in sandy soils low in OM 8 How does one determine the need for potash fertilizers a Marginal and interveinalchlorosis scorching Older leaves affected first Leaves may crinkle and roll upward Shoots may show short bushy zigzag growth 9 Define the following terms a Fertilizer a soil amendment that guarantees the minimum percentages of nutrients at least of nitrogen phosphate and potash b Organic fertilizer a soil amendment derived from natural sources that guarantee the minimum percentages of nitrogen phosphate and potash c Certified organic fertilizer only certain regulated products as listed by the Organic materials review institute d Soil amendment any material mixed into a soil 10 What does grade or analysis indicate about a fertilizer What is a fertilizer ratio a Gradeanalysis three number combination that D s percentages of Nitrogen Phosphate and Potash b Ratio a comparative proportion of nitrogen to phosphate to potash Remember ratios are written using s not 395 11 What is a fertilizer formulation a Defines what specific kinds of fertilizer are in the product 12 What is a complete fertilizer a Contains nitrogen phosphorus and potassium 13 When applying a complete fertilizer what is the application rate always based upon a The actual need for the product Most Colorado gardens do not need phosphorus or potassium Unnecessary phosphorus or potassium will raise soil salts 14 What is the routine application rate for nitrogen fertilizer a Based on the soil organic content b Low OM content 02 lbs N100 sq ft c Moderate level of OM content 01 lbs N100 sq ft 15 In relation to phosphorus water pollution what happens to phosphate fertilizers applied to a A lawn or garden areawhen applied correctly it usually moves less than 1 inch and thus must be tilled in If overapplied it will get into water supply b Overspread onto the street sidewalk or driveway straight into the surface water pollution c According to the research base what is the major source of phosphate water pollution from the landscape setting mowing sweeping or blowing of lawn clipping and leaves onto the gutter and street


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