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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christian Stamm on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Note at Colorado State University taught by Zoology in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/210055/note-colorado-state-university in Botany at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
April 15 2011 Chapter 30 Animals Part I 301 Evolutionary Trends Among Animals 0 Domain Eukarya kingdom Animalia 0 Characteristics of animals 0 Heterotrophic o Locomotion o Multicellular high degree of cell specialization 0 Adult is diploid 0 Sexual reproduction with embryo undergoing developmental stages 0 Type of Symmetry o Asymmetrical I No particular symmetry 0 Radial Symmetry I Circular organization can be bisected in any plane to produce mirror images some sessile o Bilateral Symmetry I De nite right and left halves only a cut down the midline will produce mirror images accompanied by cephalic O Level of Organization 0 Cellular I No true tissues sponges 0 Tissue I Have ectoderm and endoderm cnidarians like hydra 0 Organ I Have ectoderm endoderm and mesoderm majority of animals 0 Embryonic Development 0 Animals with three tissue layers are either I Protostomes or deuterostomes o Differentiated by three major events 0 Cleavage o Fate of blastopore o Coelom formation I Deuterostomes echinoderms and chordates I Prostomes o Ecdysozoa molt their cuticle o Roundworrns and arthropods o Trochozoa have trochophore larvae o Flatworms annelids mollusks April 15 2011 Chapter 30 Animals Part I 302 Introducing the Invertebrates Phylum Porifera sponges Phylum Cnidaria jelly sh Phylum Plathyhelminthes atworms Phylum Mollusca mollusks Phylum Annelida segmented worms earthworms leeches Phylum Nematoda roundworms Phylum Arthropoda arthropods April 13 2011 Chapter 28 Microbiology 281 The Microbial World Microbiology 0 Study of bacteria archaea protests fungi viruses viroids and prions 0 Many microbes provide important bene ts 0 Normal micro ora on and in our bodies 0 Ecosystems I Decomposers bacteria and fungi I Photosynthesis 0 Industry I Food processing I Medicine I Biotechnology 282 Bacteria and Archaea 0 Domain bacteria and domain archaea 0 Molecular and cellular differences separate the two 0 Both are prokaryotes I Do not have nuclei or the membranebound cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotic cells 0 Bacteria I Most between 0210um in size I Can occur singly or in particular arrangements clusters or chains I All have a plasma membrane I Cell wall containing peptidoglycan I Gram stain based on differences in cell walls 0 Bacterial infectionsdiseases of humans 0 Streptococcus pyogenes causes the most diseases of any strep I Pharyngitis commonly called strep throat I Impetigo mild skin disease I Scarlet fever strain produces red rash I Rheumatic fever from endotoxins I Necrotizing fascitis esheating bacteria 0 Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA I About 20 of people are carries on their skin without symptoms I Disease usually linked to skin infections I A strain resistant to methicillin is called MRSA 0 Bacterial diseases 0 Tuberculosis TB I 13 of the world s population is infected I Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis April 13 2011 Chapter 28 Microbiology I Active lesions in lung causes tubercles from immune response 0 Food poisoning I Bacteria causes food poisoning by two methods 0 Produce a toxin while growing in food 0 Clostridium botulinum 0 Causes an infection while growing in the intestines o Salmonella 0 Drug control of bacterial diseasesinfections o Antibiotics inhibit bacteria by interfering with a unique metabolic pathway 0 Problems related to antibiotic therapy I Potentially fatal allergic reactions I Killing off of normal ora I Bacteria resistance 0 Biology of Archaea 0 Many inhabit extreme environments I Extreme thermoacidophiles live in habitats with high temperature and low pH I Methanogens live in anaerobic environments I Halophiles live in salty habitats 283 Protists 0 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protista o Unicellular o Structurally diverse 0 May have cell wall shell or test 0 May have organelles not found in other eukaryotes o All reproduce asexually I Sexual reproduction occurs in some species I May form spores I May have complicated life cycles 0 Flagellates o Giardia lamblia I Causes giardiasis backpacker s disease traveler s diarrhea o Trypanosoma brucei I Cause of African sleeping sickness is transmitted by the tsetse y 0 Chagas disease I Caused by T cruzi is transmitted by the kissing bug O Sporozoans phylum Apicomplexa 0 Produce spores 0 Generally nonmotile with complex life cycles April 13 2011 Chapter 28 Microbiology 0 Intercellular or extracellular parasites o Apical complex used in attacking host cell 0 Malaria o Caused by Plasmodium species 0 Transmitted by mosquitoes O Other sporozoan diseases 0 Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma o Cryptosporidium 285 Viruses 0 Viral infectionsdiseases in humans 0 Rhinoviruses cause colds Flu is caused by in uenza Viruses Smallpox Polio Measles mumps rubella Chickenpox Ebola HPV Herpes HIV OOOOOOOOO
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