Contemporary Race SOC 205
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study guide exam 2 SOC 205 Contemporary RaceEthnic Relations Exam 2 Study Questions 7 Week 6 These study questions are intended to help you focus your efforts as you study for the second inclass exam which will be administered on Monday April 4 during our regular class period The exam will consist of multiple choice and truefalse questions Please bring your student ID number and a 2 pencil to the exam Disclaimer You are responsible for the material that has been covered in the readings lectures videos and class discussions during the second section of the course All of the material in this document may not be covered on the exam Conversely there may be material on the exam that is not on this study guide Key Terms and Concepts Overt Discrimination open blatant outright a person intends to discriminate can be physical or subtle but the main element of overt racism is that it is intentional Covert Discrimination Covert racism is a much less public and obvious form of racism or overt racism It is hidden in the fabric of society covertly suppressing the individuals being discriminated against Covert racially biased decisions are often disguised or rationalized with an explanation that society is more willing to accept These racial biases cause a variety of problems that work to empower the suppressors while diminishing the rights and powers of the oppressed Covert racism often works subliminally and often much of the discrimination is being done subconsciously Privilege White Privilege Key Questions to Consider Week 6 7 The Continuing Significance of Race and Ethnicity Drawing on the statistics presented in class on February 23 respond to the following questions How widespread is racial discrimination in the employment sector housing market the military and the criminal justice system What do survey data suggest regarding White Americans perceptions of discrimination How would you explain the gap between White perceptions and the contemporary reality of discrimination What are the seven indicators of social and economic wellbeing that Rebecca Blank identifies Using these indicators which groups seem to be faring the best Which are faring the worst Where have there been major improvements over the past several decades And in which areas are racial gaps widening At the end of the S F Equot 9 1 reading Blank offers three overarching conclusions based on the data that she presents in the chapter Brie y identify and explain each of those conclusions 1 populationdemographic change 2 education labor markets economic status health status crime and criminal justice and housing and neighborhoods Best Whites and Asians Worst Blacks and Hispanics Explain the major demographic shifts that are likely to occur over the coming decades in terms of the racial and ethnic composition of the United States see 2 2311 slides Explain Peggy McIntosh s notion of White Privilege and offer examples of the daily effects of White Privilege Why does McIntosh use the metaphor of an invisible knapsack to explain the concept of White Privilege I have come to see white privilege as an invisible package of unearned assets which I can count on cashing in each day but about which I was 39meant to remain oblivious White privilege is like an invisible weightless kapsack of special provisions maps passports codebooks visas clothes tools and blank checks Key Terms and Concepts Color blindness Income Economic gain from wages salaries and government aid Wealth Represents the total value of economic assets including income savings stocks and property Transformative Assets Assets that individuals receive typically from parents or grandparents that socially and economically transform their lives For example getting a down payment for a house in a neighborhood you could not afford otherwise having your parents pay for your college education so you start your professional life without any college debt or receiving an inheritance Asset Poverty Individuals and families that experience asset poverty may have enough income to survive but they have few or no assets in the form of savings stocks bonds retirement accounts property etc An assetpoor household is one in which a sudden halt in incomeidue to a death in the family illness orjob loss for exampleiwould have serious consequences immediately In the United States racial and ethnic minorities are much more likely to be asset poor than their White counterparts Poverty Threshold 1 The minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living The poverty threshold is sometimes referred to as the poverty line 2 The poverty threshold is the dollar amount used to determine poverty status Poverty thresholds vary according to family size and the ages of family members The US Census uses the same thresholds throughout the nation ie they do not vary geographically The poverty threshold is updated annually for in ation Absolute Poverty The condition of being destitute living well below the poverty line where life is dictated by uncertainty over the essentials of life food water shelter and clothing Relative Poverty 1 A sense ofbeing economically underprivileged relative to some other person or group 2 People are considered relatively impoverished if the customary average standard of living in their society requires more spending than the income they have available Key Questions to Consider Week 7 7 Poverty Wealth and Employment Compare and contrast the two competing perspectives on race relations that we discussed in class the color blind ideology and the continuing significance of race argument Specifically identify and explain the defining characteristics of colorblindness What are the rules of the color blind universe Why do opponents of this perspective argue that the ideology of color blindness is so unrealisticiand even damagingiin terms of its perspective Hint Review the reading by Gallagher and see your class notes on the major problems with color blindness We have moved from a place where race was explicit where it was used in overt ways to subjugate and separate to a place less so 1 An idea that we should live in a society here people are treated equally regardless of skin color 2 Embedded and often mobilized we are now a color blind society where race no longer matters or shapes life changes in any significant way Either a cultural ideal or a cultural reality but these ideas are always present when talking about whether we live in a color blind society Four Key Rules of the Color blind Universe 1 Race is all skin color 2 Recognizing race is unacceptable especially when it is used as a group category to mobilize group action it is rooted in an incorrect biological notion that has been biologically disproven study of 17000 families 75 of white families never or almost never talk about race within their households Nonwhite familiesparents were 3X more likely to talk about race 3 Racism is a personal problem 4 Class and culture not institutional racism historical inequalities it is all about class and culture that determine and are responsible for inequalities most of what whites know about people of color is through passive media consumption Problems with Color blindness l Impossible to be colorblind in the contemporary United States empirical research proves this 2 Racial inequality is not a problem of individuals 3 Color blindness using this ideology color blindness masks entrenched racial inequality deliberate political project to stop talking about the issue unwittingly Are White or nonWhite families more likely to talk about race in their households What does the research evidence suggest regarding the importance of talking to children about race At what age do children begin to recognize racial differences study of 17000 families 75 of white families never or almost never talk about race within their households Nonwhite familiesparents were 3X more likely to talk about race What is the difference between income and wealth Which is a better indicator of progress toward social and intergenerational equality Why What is asset poverty What are transformative assets and how do they affect the lives and livelihoods of children Why does Thomas Shapiro argue that our society should focus more seriously on minimizing the wealth gap total value of economic assets including income savings stocks and property ability to be safe How much wealth does the top 10 of the American population hold Hint Remember the Snickers bar exercise we did in class and check out the 3211 slides Top 10 own 715 of all the wealth Based on wealth indicators Whites have a median net worth that is about ten times that of Blacks Hispanics and Native Americans and more than three times higher than Asian Americans Identify the factors that help explain the racial wealth gap in the United States On average what percentage of White vs Black households will likely receive a substantial inheritance What is the mean value of White vs Black vs Latino retirement accounts Why is there such variance in the amount of their retirement accounts and what does it have to do with the historical legacy of discrimination and exclusion Median Net Worth by Race Ethnicity 2005 White 88651 Black 5988 Hispanic 7932 Native American 6002 Asian 27136 What is the GI Bill How did it contribute to the creation of an educated White middle class in the postWorld W ar 11 United States Why weren t African American veterans as likely to gain the same benefits from the GI Bill GI Bill provided college or vocational education for returning World War H veterans commonly referred to as Q as well as one year of unemployment compensation It also provided many different types of loans for returning veterans to buy homes and start businesses Since the original act the term has come to include other veteran benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service Review the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC statistics on employment discrimination According to these statistics which characteristic e g race gender age etc is most likely to prompt discrimination in the workplace Race 30510 What percent of j obs do not appear in classi ed advertisements 7085 ofjobs not in ads Explain what professional discrimination testers do for a living What have audit studies taught us about the invisible forms of discrimination as they relate to a person s name race and ethnicity Employers are less likely to consider applications interview offer j obs to minorities Names 4 resumes 7 2 higher quality 2 lower quality 1 each with a Black or White sounding name Race Skin Color Black 7 White Testers in Milwaukee 23 years old college students similar verbal skills and interactional styles physically attractive 5 10 6 similar dress tester training resumes made to appear similar Review the reading by Amy Braverman How does the quality of a resume and a person s namerace affect who gets called back for job interviews Review the reading by Devah Pager and then answer the following questions Where were the audit studies conducted Why did the location matter so much How were the discrimination testers selected and trained What percentage of the White male testers without and with a criminal record were called back for an interview What percentage of the Black male testers without and with a criminal record were called back for an interview Drawing on the class lecture on Pager s more recent work on race and employment in New York City answer the following questions What percentage of White Latino and Black male testers were called back for interviews What types of jobs were they seeking What do these findings say about the racial hierarchy in employment Pager s work reveals that the chance for fair treatment or discrimination occurs at several different phases in the hiring process Please explain the three categories that she used to describe the process of discrimination that occurs in employment hiring Key Terms and Concepts Achievement Gap Resegregation Graph depicting national school segregation required no legislation optionallimited forbidden titled Educational segregation in the Us prior to the 1954 Brown vs Topeka KS Board of Education Ruling Why was Kansas the ideal state to fight against school segregation on a federal level Racial Tracking About differential teaching expectations Mandatory Desegregation desegregation plans that are mandated by federal lawfederal legislation forced integration to prompt federal intervention local actions that tempted to prompt federal actions ex Little Rock Nine The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell Voluntary Desegregation Magnet Schools in inner city areas would be exceptional schools in inner city areas that would draw in suburban people provides higher opportunities for inner city children won t hurt middle class students but it will positively affect lower classimpoverished students Key Questions to Consider Week 8 7 Education Who was Horace Mann What did he contribute to American public education Be ashamed to die until you have won some victory for humanity 7 Horace Mann 17861859 Horace Mann had about 8 weeks of education knew this was wrong spent time in the Brown University library educating himself named the first ever Secretary of Education established the first public school in all of the US that had a 6 month school believed if we could provide quality education to every child in the US there would be nothing to hold this country back The United States became the most powerful nation in the world because we have been educating our children during times when other nations were only allowing the elite to educate their children How many public school districts are there in the United States Approximately what percentage of American students attends public schools What are the three main sources of public school funding What is the percentage contribution of these sources What factors contribute to the unequal funding of public schools in the United States approximately 15000 school districts in the United States we have one of the most decentralized education systems in the entire world historically had a lot more exibility within school about what can be taught approximately 53 million schoolage children 90 of children attend public school 8 of children attend lowtuition private schools Catholic school 1 private school 1 home school when we talk about inequality within schools we will be concentrating on public schools because that is predominantly where our children attend school State Legislative Appropriations 47 only half of the funds for public schools come from state legislated appropriations Top 5 1 New Jersey 2 New York 3 DC 4 Connecticut 5 Vermont Bottom 5 1 Utah 2 Arizona 3 Idaho 4 Mississippi 5 Oklahoma Local Property Taxes 44 44 of public school funds come from local property taxes Federal Government 9 9 of public school funds come from the federal government What is the racial achievement gap What do reading and math scores and high school graduation rates reveal regarding the WhiteBlack and WhiteLatino achievement gap in the US What factors explain the racial achievement gap for younger children and for older children How do these factors vary across time ie What are the most potent predictors of academic achievement for the youngest children versus older children Racial Achievement Gap Observed racial disparities across a number of educational attainment measures ACTSAT scores graduation rates standardized tests Racial Achievement Gap White average as higher than the minority average has remained stagnant for math scores and reading scores Why did I separate out 13 of the class using duct tape What was that activity meant to illustrate How this affects students life chances because of mistreatment in education Compare and contrast the experiences of high school dropouts and college graduates in terms of employment rates single motherhood poverty incarceration rates and lifetime net fiscal contributions Identify and clearly explain the issues with public schools that we discussed in class How and Why do public schools perpetuate inequality Unequal funding in the US funding is vastly unequal Inequality Within public school districts today s reading from Jonathan Kozol s Savage Inegualities one of the things that Kozol identified is that our school districts are vastly unequal recognizes different tiers Higl1er tiers tend to be the most academically advanced schools have AP programs located in nicer neighborhoods low drop out rates majority white students have more educated teachers send children to the most prestigious universities in the nation tend to be heavily resourced Middle tiers offer many of the same programs as higher tier schools drama art extracurricular teachers are good teachers that have been there for a while some drop out issues Gateway High School vs Grandview High School comparison on RamCT Lower tiers racially segregated within minority students making up an overwhelming amount of the population most likely to be underfunded and resourcestrapped have the fewest extra curricular activities available health resources nurses and counselors minimal lower quality teacher much higher rate of teacher turn over There is inequality across states but what about inequalities within states A lot of that inequality has to do with local property tax contribution within states 90 of US students attend public schools US has decentralized schools Why do teachers matter so much in terms of student outcomes What percentage of elementary and high school teachers and college professors are Black or Latino Importance of good teachers Good teachers matter more than anything they are astonishingly important It turns out that having a great teacher is far more important than being in a small class or going to a good school with a mediocre teacher A Los Angeles study suggested that 4 consecutive years of having a teacher from the top 25 of the pool would ERASE the BlackWhite testing gap Kristof 2009 hope for ending racial and class inequality in the Us However great disparities remain in the quality of education that students receive in our public schools What are the differences between higher middle and lower tier schools Drawing on the Kozol reading provide examples of the various economic material teaching physical etc resources that were available or not available at the higher and lower tier public schools in New York City that he described Based on our discussion and the Kozol reading what tier would you classify your high school as Can you compare your former high school to the schools that were discussed in the Kozol reading Hint In order to answer this last question you must have completed the Kozol reading and you must be able to identify speci c examples from the reading I will ask you about the Kozol reading on the exam and remember you only had to read the rst half pp 8399 posted on RamCT What was the signi cance of the 1954 Brown V Topeka Board of Education ruling Why was Kansas selected as the state where the battle against school segregation would be fought Why does school segregation matter so much What is the connection between school segregation and educational inequality more generally minority schools are highly correlated with high poverty schools lowest parental involvement signi cance lack of resources monetary books higher teacher salaries social capital cultural capital less experienced and credentialed teachers higher teacher turnover diminished achievement higher delinquency These educational inequalities createexacerbate other social inequalities Identify and explain the forms of mandatory desegregation that we discussed in class Identify and explain the forms of voluntary desegregation that we discussed in class Who were the Little Rock Nine What was one way that school districts tried to avoid mandatory desegregation orders which was ruled unconstitutional in the Keyes v Denver case and led to City Suburban desegregation plans Desegregation Plans the 1954 Brown vs Board of Education did not stipulate how states were go to desegregate Mandatog Desegregation desegregation plans that are mandated by federal lawfederal legislation forced integration to prompt federal intervention local actions that tempted to prompt federal actions ex Little Rock Nine The Problem We All Live With by Norman Rockwell Desegregation Busing even if schools wanted to desegregate as long as communities were segregated where children went towalked to school would not change and segregation would remain Index 100highest rate of integration 0lowest rate of integration CitySuburban Plans Keyes vs Denver Schools 1973 said that Latino and African American students cannot be considered desegregating one another Two minority classes cannot desegregate one another Also said that whites and people of color live in completely different urban areas Which of the various desegregation plans proved most successful in integration CitySuburban Plans however citysuburban plans have still historically become more segregated since the 1970 s after it was first introduced Voluntary Desegre gation Magnet Schools in inner city areas would be exceptional schools in inner city areas that would draw in suburban people provides higher opportunities for inner city children won t hurt middle class students but it will positively affect lower classimpoverished students According to Erica Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee public schools in the South were the most racially integrated of any schools in the nation by the 1970s Why was this so Explain the differences in school segregation trends for Blacks and Latinos in the postBrown era Many of the same districts in which Latinos are exposed to the highest percentage of White students are also districts Where blacks experienced high levels of integration With Whites Table 17 shows that there are more Southern districts With higher levels of Latino integration By contrast more western districts had higher exposure of blacks to White students This could be explained due to the fact that blacks are a much larger fraction of enrollment in the South and both Latinos and Asians have larger proportions of enrollment in the West than blacks In addition these districts have very small Latino populations and large white populations in eighteen districts Latinos comprise six percent or less of total enrollment Similar to districts with high blackwhite exposure in Table 15 the LatinoWhite exposure index for most districts in Table 17 is similar to the district s WhiteWhite exposure index indicating that the Latino students are fairly evenly dispersed throughout these districts Beginning in the 1980s the Us Supreme Court began authorizing the termination of school desegregation orders What was the result of the end of these desegregation programs Before they started being rolled back by the courts which desegregation programs were the most effective in terms of encouraging BlackWhite integration Hint In order to answer this question you will need to carefully review the Frankenberg and Lee reading Make sure you evaluate the data tables to see which of the programs encouraged the highest rates of integration Also see the summary handout posted on RamCT and the slides from 3911 which summarize some of the key statistics Noah see the slides According to Frankenberg and Lee what are some of the bene ts of desegregated schools for both White and minority children Key Questions to Consider Week 10 7 Political and Legal Representation Compare and contrast the electoral and popular votes received by the ObamaBiden ticket versus the McCainPalin ticket How did voting for these candidates vary along racial lines What did the historic election of President Obama reveal about race in the United States Where are there signs for hope And how did the election open up racial fault lines Clearly describe the various challenges to minority voting rights and political representation that we discussed in class What was the ultimate consequence of these legal and social challenges to minority voting rights Why was the passage ofthe 1965 Voting Rights Act so significant How did the registration on minority voters in the Us South change after the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act Why was it necessary to pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act when postCivil War legislation had already given these rights to minorities A Reynaldo Contreras identi es several interrelated factors that affect political participation among minorities today What are those factors and why do they matter so much Currently among non Whites which racial minority group is the most likely to vote What percentage of adult Latinos and Asians did not vote during the 1990s What explanations does Contreras give for their low voter participation rates Key Terms and Concepts Affirmative Action Remove raceethnic gender bias out of any institution Stop job discrimination in the work force Increase the number of minorities in the work place CompleX policies and procedures that have been implemented in this country in the last few decades there is no ONE de nition of af rmative action Racial Pro ling read March 28 notes Key Questions to Consider Week 11 7 Affirmative Action and The Criminal Justice System Review the Reskin reading and your notes and then answer the following questions Antidiscrimination laws and af rmative action regulations emerged as a result of the sweeping changes brought about by the 1964 Civil Rights Act What is the intent of antidiscrimination laws How are they similar to and how do they differ from af rmative action programs Why is it so dif cult to de ne af rmative action Even given the dif culty can you offer a general de nition that highlights the two primary goals of af rmative action Why did the political leaders who established af rmative action believe that it was important for promoting equality Which underrepresented groups are most frequently included in af rmative action programs Of these groups which group has been the primary bene ciary of af rmative action African Americans Asian Americans Native Americans Latinos persons with disabilities women and veterans According to the US Department of Labor White women are the primary bene ciaries of af rmative action programs We discussed several different types of af rmative action programs in class You should be able to identify and brie y explain what each one of these programs consists of in terms of the actions they encourage Also you should be aware of how public support for each of these different types of af rmative action varies What would you say to someone who says that af rmative action is a program based on quotas When if ever are quotas used in af rmative action decisions Quota systems have been outlawed since the late 1970s Quotas are m legal when courtordered typically after an employer has been found guilty of discrimination Make sure and familiarize yourself with the af rmative action mythsrealities handout on RamCT under the handouts folder What are some of the primary disadvantages that persons of color experience in the US labor market and what are some of the primary advantages that Whites experience Drawing on the statistics presented in class what percentages of Whites are lawyers doctors reporters CEO s of Fortune 500 companies and political leaders in the US Senate and US House of Representatives How does unemployment vary by race and ethnicity Which college graduates have been hit hardest by the economic recession See 32811 slides under the facts and figures folder Identify the major steps in the criminal justice system and describe what happens at each step Draw on the Reiman reading to explain why this system acts to weed ou the wealthy at each step in the process which ultimately results in the poor and racial and ethnic minorities disproportionately getting caught up in the criminal justice system Violent crime rates steadily decreased throughout the 1990s and 2000s Yet the prison population expanded signi cantly Can you explain why The incarceration rate in the United States is now the highest in the nation s history How many Americans are currently behind bars l in 149 Americans behind bars 1998 l in 100 Americans behind bars 2008 Based on the factors we discussed in class why are the police so much more likely to detect street crime versus white collar crime street crime is easier to see greater fear of street crimehigher pressure to detect street crime At what step in the criminal justice process does racial pro ling play the biggest role Why does the type of court civil or criminal where a case is tried make such a difference Civil or criminal court only criminal court can send you to prison civil court you can spend time in jail or pay a fine but you cannot go to prison Beyond actual innocence or guilt what other factors predict whether someone is going to be found innocent or guilty in court access to competent legal counsel diverse representation of minorities on juries more diverse juries are less likely to convict FBI index crimes or street crime and white collar crime are the two major forms of crime discussed in your reading and in class What are the differences between these types of crime What are the similarities Which type of crime is more costly Does white collar crime ever result in death street crime is easier to see greater fear of street crimehigher pressure to detect street crime What is the crack vs powder cocaine sentencing disparity How has this disparity disproportionately affected racial minorities l Minorities commit the majority of crimes this myth come from the percentages of races behind bars 2 Minorities are more likely to be involved with illicit drug use Whites tend to be the most frequent users but minorities are more likely to be arrested and incarcerated Both of these statements are factually incorrect Federal laws require a mandatory veyear sentence for crimes involving 500 grams of powder cocaine or 5 grams of crack cocaine This yields a sentence for the rsttime offenders with no aggravating factors such as possession of a weapon that is longer than the sentence for kidnapping and only slightly shorter than the sentence for attempted murder54 About 90 percent of those convicted of federal crack offenses are black about 4 percent are white quotAs a result the average prison sentence served by Black federal prisoners is 40 percent longer than the average sentence for Whitesquot55 In 1995 the United States Sentencing commission recommended ending the 100to1 disparity between powder and crack penalties and in an unusual display of bipartisanship both the Republican Congress and the Democratic President rejected their recommendation56 Sentencing disparities between the races are of course not new An extensive study by the Boston Globe of 4500 cases of armed robbery aggravated assault and rape found that quotblacks convicted in the superior courts of Massachusetts receive harsher penalties than whites for the same crimesquot57 The authors of a study of almost 1200 males sentenced to prison for armed robbery in a southwestern state found that quotin 1977 whites incarcerated for armed robbery had a greater than average chance of receiving the least severe sentence while nonwhites had a greater than average chance of receiving a moderately severe sentencequot58 A study of 229 adjudicated cases in a Florida judicial district yielded the finding that quotwhites have an 18 percent greater chance in the predicated probability of receiving probation than blacks when all other things are equalquot59 A recent study of criminal justice systems in California Michigan and Texas by Petersillia confirms the continuation of this trend quotControlling for the she writes quotthe analysis still factors most likely to in uence sentencing and parole decisions found that blacks and Hispanics are less likely to be given probation more likely to receive prison sentences more likely to receive longer sentences and more likely to serve a greater portion of their original time 60 Myers found that quotharsher treatment of persons with fewer resources eg female unemployed unmarried black is pronounced in highly unequal countiesquot81 The federal government has introduced sentencing guidelines and mandatory minimum sentences that might be expected to eliminate discrimination and many states have followed suit The effect of this however has been not to eliminate discretion but to transfer it from those who sentence to those who decide what to charge that is from judges to prosecutors Prosecutors can charge in a way that makes it likely that the offender will get less than the mandatory minimum sentence SOC 205 Contemporary Race Ethnic Relations Exam 1 Study Guide This study guide is intended to help you focus your efforts as you study for the first inclass exam which will be administered on Monday February 21 during our regular class period The exam will consist of multiple choice and truefalse questions Please bring your student ID number and a 2 pencil to the exam Disclaimer You are responsible for the material that has been covered in the readings lectures videos and class discussions during the first section of the course All of the material on this study guide may not be covered on the exam Conversely there may be material on the exam that is not on this study guide Key Terms and Concepts Racial Group 1 Biological definition 7 A group set apart from others by obvious physical differences 2 Social definition 7 Racial groups are defined and constructed through the process of human interaction People learn through socialization and interaction processes to attribute certain characteristics to people who are classified into a racial category 3 Self definition 7 Race is defined at least in part by how persons designate themselves in terms of their racial group categorization e g verbally in written text on forms etc Ethnic Group A group of people who are generally recognized by themselves and by others as distinct based on national origin andor cultural patterns MajorityDominant Group Any group that is dominant in society that is any group that enjoys more than its proportionate share of wealth power or social status Minority Subordinate Group 1 Any group that is assigned an inferior status in society that is any group that has less than its proportionate share of wealth power or social status 2 A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs Emigrate To leave one country or region to settle in another Immigrate To come into a new country region or environment especially in order to settle there Immigration Stream Refers to the mass migration of people from a certain country or region of the world who usually share similar characteristics and who emigrated during a certain period of time or era Refugee A person who ees from one s home or country to seek refuge elsewhere as in a time of war or of political or religious persecution In the case of the United States refugees are granted the right to enter the country while still residing abroad Asylum Seeker In the case of the United States an asylum seeker is a foreigner who has already entered the country and then seeks protection because of persecution or a well founded fear of persecution in one s homeland Xenophobia The fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners Nativism The practice or policy of favoring nativeborn citizens over immigrants Colonization A form of intergroup contact that occurs when one group migrates into an area occupied by another group and subordinates that indigenous group 1 Contemporary Immigration Refers to the period of largescale nonEuropean immigration to the United States that began to accelerate after the passage of the 1965 Immigration Act Assimilation To make similar to the dominant group Stereotype 1 An unreliable generalization about all members of a group that does not take individual differences into account 2 An exaggerated belief often associated with an entire group of people 3 The tendency to believe that anyone or almost anyone who belongs to a particular group will have a certain characteristic 4 A simplified picture we paint of an entire group of people The tendency is to generalize about everyone in that group based on ignorance limited information or prejudice Prejudice l A negative attitude toward an entire category of people 2 To prejudge having preconceived notions attitudes or negative attitudes about a group 3 According to Herbert Blumer 1958 there are four basic feelings that are always present in race prejudice in the dominant group They are a a feeling of natural superiority b a feeling that the subordinate race is intrinsically different and alien c a sense of proprietary claim to certain areas of privilege and advantage and d a fear or suspicion that the subordinate racial group is threatening or will threaten the position of the dominant group Discrimination l Involves behavior that excludes individuals or entire groups from certain rights opportunities or privileges because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons 2 The denial of goods and services to an individual or group for arbitrary reasons such as a person s race religion or nationality Racism l A doctrine of racial supremacy stating that one race is superior to another 2 The act of linking the physical attributes of a group with alleged sociocultural capabilities and behaviors to assert the superiority of one race 3 Any attitude belief behavior or institutional relationship that tends to favor one racial or ethnic group usually a majority group over another usually a minority group 4 The assigning of attitudes behaviors and abilities to individuals or groups based on skin color includes the institutional arrangements that privilege one group over another and the ideological apparatus that perpetuates and makes those arrangements possible Ethnocentrism The tendency to view one s own group as the norm or standard and to view outgroups as not just different but also strange and usually inferior The ways of the ingroup are seen as the natural way or the only way of doing things and become a standard against which out groups are judged Creed The belief system that people share Bigot Someone deeply committed to his or her own prejudices distortions or biases regarding other people Bigots are intolerant of difference Bigot Someone deeply committed to his or her own prejudices distortions or biases regarding other people Bigots are intolerant of difference Overt Discrimination Institutional Racism Describes public institutions social practices and societal patterns that have the net effect of imposing oppressive or otherwise negative conditions against identifiable groups on the basis of race or ethnicity Hate Crime An ordinary crime becomes a hate crime when offenders choose a victim because of some characteristicifor example race ethnicity or religioniand provide evidence that hate prompted them to commit the crime The National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS definition of hate crime requires that corroborating evidence of hate motivation must be present at the incident Speci cally under this de nition a the offender must have used derogatory language b the offender must have left hate symbols or c the police must have confirmed that a hate crime had taken place Key Theoretical Perspectives Theories of Prejudice Socialization Interracial Contact Labeling TheorySelfFul lling Prophecy Group Position Theories of Minority ImmigrationIntegration Assimilation Amalgamation Pluralism Key Questions to Consider Week 1 Sociology and the Study of Race and Ethnicity There were no lecture notes or assigned readings other than the syllabus for Week 1 We only had one day of class that week and on that day we reviewed the syllabus You should make sure that you have read the syllabus carefully as Imay ask you a question or two about it on the first exam Read the syllabus Week 2 Constructing Race and Ethnicity What obvious physical differences do Americans tend to use to categorize individuals into racial groups What five racial groups are typically included in most official US federal and state forms Are Latinos considered a racial group or an ethnic group by the US Census Identify the first year that a respondent to the US Census was allowed to select more than one race for his or her own classification The physical differences are Skin Color Hair Texture Facial Structural Features The 5 racial groups are White African American Asian American IndianAlaska native and Native Hawaiian other Paci c Islander Latinos are considered an ethnic group In the year 2000 After examining the Racial and Ethnic Origin Classi cations handout answer the following questions Would you say that the Census Bureau has been consistent or inconsistent in labeling racial and ethnic groups over the past two centuries Why What was the rst year that a person was allowed to determine his or her own racial identity rather than a Census taker determining race for the respondent In the year 1970 What does Taylor mean when he says that race is multiply de ned in this society Identify and brie y explain the different de nitions of race that Taylor introduces How do these multiple de nitions of race interact Do the different de nitions ever con ict with one another for example do our self de nitions of race always t with social or biological de nitions They are all creation of society Drawing on recent Census Data describe the population of the US by race and ethnicity How do the racialethnic makeup of Fort Collins and Colorado State University compare to the nation as a whole see l24ll slides United States Fort Collins CSU 158 97 and Colorado State University Fact Book What position does the American Sociological Association ASA take on the question of whether social scientists should conduct research on race ie is the ASA in favor of studying race or against it Why did the ASA issue this statement on studying and collecting data on race Use the ASA reading to identify arguments against continuing to study race and arguments in favor of the ongoing collection of data on race and ethnicity The ASA reading also identi es four primary consequences of racial classi cation Can you explain those consequences What are the primary factors that led to the adoption of slavery in this nation How did constructing the rigid racial categories of Black and White and implementing a racial hierarchy contribute to the development and institutionalization of slavery How exactly was race codi ed in this nation ie what rules and laws were put in place to ensure that Whites and Blacks would think of themselves as separate groups Zinn argues that understanding that there is nothing natural about race opens up new possibilities for race and ethnic relations Why does he make this assertion How does the notion of biological race differ from the idea of race as a social concept Even if race is not real in a biological sense why is it important to examine race from a social scienti c perspective What did the Unnatural Causes video httpWWW 39 org video clips detail nhnres id70 reveal about health disparities among Black and White women What do scholars mean when they talk about a crisis of racial representation Week 3 Race Ethnicity and Immigration What is the difference between an immigrant a refugee and an asylum seeker What factors may promote or encourage immigration among individuals and groups What do immigration scholars mean when they refer to immigration push and pull factors Refer to the Selected Immigrant Groups handout that I passed out in class it is also posted on RamCT under the Handouts folder We discussed the countries of origin of the predominant ethnic groups that came to the US during the Colonial Era 1600searly 1800s the First Great Immigration Stream early 1800s1910s and the Second Great Immigration Stream 1960spresent Can you identify these different historical periods and name the main groups that arrived during these eras the Colonial Era 1600searly 1800s English Scottish and other Northern Europeans 1600s1800s Africans 1600s1800s First Great Immigration Stream early 1800s1910s Irish Catholics 1830s1860s Germans Scandinavians other Northern Europeans early 1800searly 1900s Chinese 1850s1882 Italians 1880s1910s Eastern European Jews 1880s1910s Japanese 1880s1908 New Immigrants Second Great Immigration Stream 1960sPresent 9 Mexicans 1910s2010s 10 Puerto Ricans 1940s2010s 11 Recent Latin American Asian Caribbean and Middle Eastern Groups 1960s2010s What role has immigration law played in shaping the racial and ethnic makeup of the US Hint Think about the speci c immigration policies that we discussed in class How did these policies promote or discourage immigration among particular groups from speci c countries of origin Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act enacted Why was the Chinese Exclusion Act so signi cant Why did the US pursue the Gentleman s Agreement with Japan What did the US and Japan commit to do as part of the Gentleman s Agreement Why was the National Origin System enacted Hint Think about the social political and economic context in the US at the time these immigration policies were passed What might have led the US to pursue such policies in terms of restricting immigration from particular countries What factors contributed to the passage of the 1965 Immigration and Naturalization Act ND I 90gter 4 Can you identify the differences between Assimilation Amalgamation and Pluralism theories of minority integration upon immigration We discussed a number of trends and patterns related to contemporary post1965 US immigration Approximately how many documented and undocumented immigrants are in the US today How do wars economic downturns and other societal upheavals tend to affect the arrival of immigrants Entry of Undocumented Immigrants Total of undocumented N 7ll million undocumented 30 million documented Immigrants make up about what proportion of the population in the US today Do immigrants make up a larger or smaller proportion of the population than their immigrant counterparts of a century ago How has the number of immigrants arriving to the US changed over time How has the geographic settlement of immigrants changed and it what ways is geographic settlement similar 2 Number of Immigrants Absolute of immigrants that are in the US today highest in US history Yet smaller proportion of overall population foreign born 15 of the total population in 1900 foreign born 12 of the total population in 2005 How have the sending countries changed over the past century Where do most undocumented immigrants come from As a group how do today s immigrants compare to the larger US population in terms of educational attainment high school and college degrees and in terms of occupational diversity 96 of all border crossers are from Mexico border crossers people crossing the border illegally Describe the general trend of English language acquisition among Spanishspeaking immigrants Despite what the data tell us why do so many Americans believe that Spanishspeaking immigrants are not learning English First Generation 72 Spanish dominant 4 English dominant Second Generation 7 Spanish dominant 46 English dominant Third Generation 1 Spanish dominant 78 English dominant It s not that people are not learning English it is that the most visible immigrants are the illegal immigrants that do not know English Are undocumented immigrants allowed to receive welfare assistance Are recent immigrants more or less likely to be incarcerated than native born citizens undocumented immigrants are barred from welfare No Portes and Rumbaut argue that three factors must be present to drive migration What are those three factors What do Portes and Rumbaut say about why it is so rare for the poorest of the poor to migrate to new countries they lack the necessary contacts and information to make such a move even ifthey somehow become aware ofthe migration alternative they would still lack the economic means to implement it Portes and Rumbaut offer a typology of contemporary immigrants to the United States How do these immigrants vary in terms of human capital and legal status Areas of concentrated immigrant entrepreneurship are known as ethnic enclaves Their emergence has depended on three conditions rst the presence of a number of immigrants with substantial business expertise acquired in their home countries second access to sources of capital and third access to labor Week 4 Stereotypes Prejudice and Discrimination Merton offered a typology to try to better explain the complex relationship between prejudice and discrimination Explain the differences between the following categories Type I Unprejudiced NonDiscriminator at their core they represent the American creed Has a core value that every single person is guaranteed all of the same rights Shortcomings l Fallacy of Group Soliloquies they tend to hang out with others that are unprejudiced nondiscriminators and therefore their ideals are not disseminated Preachin to the choir 2 Fallacy of Unanimity because they surround themselves with people with the same beliefs they assume that everyone thinks the same way when in fact this is not true 3 Fallacy of Privatized Solutions everything is in order in their minds and so they do not feel like they have to go out and make a difference Also they think if they can convince their individual friends then the right way will eventually reach everyone race and inequality is systemic so individual solutions will not solve these universal problems if you don t see it in your everyday life why would you worry about it painful to engage with people who do not think or act like you do Type II Unprejudiced Discriminator the fairweather liberal If conditions are right this person will behave in ways that adhere to their beliefs However if conditions are wrong this group will discriminate What would lead to someone feeling the wrong conditions peer pressurefamily traditions 7 social conditions economic reasons Type III Prejudiced NonDiscriminator those who are prejudiced but do not act on their thoughts What would keep someone who is prejudiced from not discriminated laws respect knowing the distinction to out numberedyou become a minority around the people you are prejudiced against Type IV Prejudiced Discriminator there is not mismatch between this person s thoughts and actions no guilt in thinking and acting on their thoughts and beliefs Merton says the two middle categories are the most interests because they prove that while the connection between our values and behaviors is strong that there is not always a match between our attitudes and our behaviors Sometimes people behave in ways that do not act with their beliefs Primary reasons Social and economic pulls Typology I Change I Which of the above two categories represent a mismatch between attitudes and behavior What might lead individuals to act in a way that fundamentally violates their belief system e g why would someone who is not prejudiced engage in discriminatory actions or why would someone who is prejudiced not discriminate Merton argued that even though the Unprejudiced NonDiscriminator group has the most potential to promote positive social change they often fall short because they suffer from three fallacies What are those fallacies Merton argues that each group has the potential to change and to move toward the American creed of equality and justice for all What would need to happen for each group to move closer to that ideal Change I Typology I The Unprejudiced 1 Need to move out to the masses and associate with others that do not Non Discriminator have the same beliefs that they have 2 They need to get rid of the assumption that everyone believes the way that they believe Appreciate the differing attitudes of all Americans 3 They need to get real about privatized solutions and that it will take social policies and social change initiatives to prompt any real change II The This is the group that is most amenable to change They want to move Unprejudiced into the first group Discriminator 1 Get them involved in the conversation group soliloquies be surrounded by more openminded people III The Prejudiced 1 Social policies rules and regulations will keep the prejudiced persons Non Discriminator from discrimination if they could have contact with persons of a different race but he acknowledges that these people are not the kind of people to go to a multicultural area or surround themselves with people who are not like them IV The Prejudiced l The main thing that would have to happen would be harsh legal Discriminator controls What were the three main findings highlighted in the Anderson Cooper CNN videos we watched in class See httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvDYCz lpijiM and httpwwwyoutubecomwatchvE 2ACkg5i4AYampfeaturefvw Identify and explain the theoretical explanations for prejudice that we discussed in class What are socialization agents How do they affect the development of stereotypes and prejudice among individuals Do sociologists believe that an individual s social context determines their behavior What did the 2006 study cited in class find regarding levels of interracial contact in this country see 29 11 slides According to Blumer what four feelings are always present in race prejudice in the dominant group Which feeling does Blumer argue is most critical in terms of igniting prejudice among the dominant group Why might the dominant group come to fear that a subordinate group is threatening their way of life Why does Blumer reject psychological or individualistic explanations for prejudice Week 5 Dominant Group Responses to Minorities Describe the different types of discrimination that we discussed in class What is the difference between overt and covert discrimination Which type of discrimination are we more likely to discuss and by extension attempt to address in this nation Those who adhere to the perspective of institutional discrimination contend that inequality is not fundamentally a matter of private individual intentions but rather a matter of public institutions and practices that create or perpetuate racism Identify and explain the major themes that help us better understand the concept of institutional discrimination Based on FBI hate crime data what form of bias is most likely to motivate hate crimes Why is underreporting such a serious problem with hate crimes Make sure you explain your response by discussing why a victim would not report a hate crime but also why local or state authorities may not record or report hate crimes to the federal government recording crimes as a normal crime without the added hate crime emphasis lack of evidence fear of backlash victim was uniformed of the law bystander effect historical mistrust fear of being outed or public humiliation gay and lesbian hate crimes are the most underreported second big reason that hate crimes are not reported by gay and lesbians is because they think that they will be revictimized by authorities underreporting by law enforcement officers Drawing on information from the Southern Poverty Law Center s hate groups map please describe where hate groups are most likely to be located in this nation see 21611 slides What social and historical factors help explain this trend What factors help explain why hate crimes are considered a special category of crime and thus involve harsher penalties for the perpetrators We discussed a typology of hate crimes in class Identify and describe the three categories in the typology How do these categories vary in terms of the perpetrators motives of the perpetrators and the victims who are targeted
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