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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Daphney Will on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 352 at Colorado State University taught by Tara Shelley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/210069/soc-352-colorado-state-university in Sociology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Criminology SOC 352 Spring 2011 Exam 1 Review Sheet NOTE This is a general guide to assist you prepare for the exam It should not be treated as an all encompassing list of material we covered in class or your readings Complete all reading assignments and review your lecture notes for a complete review Readings Adler Chapters 14 only pp 5265 of chapter 3 Crime Focus Topics 219230 235238 Lombroso The Criminal Man see electronic reserves Stafford and Warr Reconceptualization of Deterrence Theory see electronic reserves Handouts amp Other Resources Theory presentation PowerPoints available on RamCT Conservative versus liberal crime ideology handout Phrenology handout Study Tips Complete all readings and take notes Review all lecture notes repeatedly amp prompt yourself to recall things Know all bolded amp italicized terms in your book TIP Make Flashcards Pay close attention to lists in your lecture notes There are numerous questions to test your reading comprehension ie items not covered in class Review notes from class presentations paying close attention to how your colleagues applied their assigned theories You should understand the reasoning behind their applications ie be able to explain how a theory was demonstrated by a movieyoutube clip Themes I Criminology and Crime 101 o What is criminology according to Sutherland I The body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenom It includes within its scope the process of making laws breaking laws and of reacting toward the breaking of laws 0 What is the objective of criminology I The objective of criminology is the development of a body of general and veri ed principles and of other types of knowledge regarding this process of law crime and treatment or prevention 0 What do criminologists do I Collect information for study and analysis in accordance with the research methods of modern science 0 What is crime What is deviance I Crime any human conduct that violates a criminal law I Deviance Criminal behavior that violates social norms o What is the difference between criminology and criminal justice O O O O I Criminology studies crime and criminality CJ studies decisionmaking process operations efficacy of courtpolicecorrectionsjust treatment of offendersneeds of victims Compare and contrast the consensus versus con ict view of law and crime I Consensus expresses the views of whether the majority agree or disagree with if something is bad and deserves punishment I Con ict says law re ects the values of the ruling class and what bene ts their positions and C is designed to control who has power What are the ingredients elements of crime Hint see chapter 2 I Act consciously doing something I Legality it must be against a law I Harm you have to cause some kind of harm I Causation your effort has to be what completes the crime I Mens Rea Guilty Mind you knew it was wrongillegal I Concurrence criminal act should be equal to the intent I Punishment a criminal act must have a punishment What are common typologies of crime Hint see p26 I Violent crimes I Crimes against property I Whitecollar and corporate crime I Drug Alcohol Sex related crimes How do criminologists measure and study crime eg primarysecondary data surveys experiments case studies etc I Primary data facts and observations researchers gather for purpose of a particular study I Secondary Data government sources or stuff from a previous investigation I Surveys surveys of people criminalsvictimswitnesses etc I Experiments making an experiment to measure something I Case studies an analysis of all pertinent aspects of one unit of study What type of data do criminologists use to study crime eg police statistics NCVS self report studies I Police statistics Con Accuracy I Crime Rates I Victim Surveys NCVS National Crime Victimization Survey Con victimless crime Self report surveys criminals anonymously report their previous crimes Con truth petty crimes not being reported 0 Understand proscons of each What is a crime rate How is it calculated I The amount of crime over a given areapopulation 0 Crime Rate reported crimestotal population X 100000 Understand crime trends amp characteristics of crime see pp 3750 I Age location gender race class time severity Theory 0 What is theory Bohm and CurranRenzetti I Bohm An explanation empirical generalizations examples I CampR a set of interconnected statements or propositions that explain how two or more eventsfactors are related to one another 0 What is an empirical generalization Be able to provide an example I An Empirical Generalization is a Belief about reality based on strong deep extensive broad and widely shared accepted evidence 0 Components of Theory I What are Concepts 0 Age location gender race income education I Conceptual De nitions 0 Nominal dictionary de nition 0 Operational the operations used numerical de nition I What is a Proposition 0 What is a Positive Linear Relationship Be able to provide an example 0 One goes up down the other does too UnemploymentACrimeA o What is a Negative Linear Relationship Be able to provide an example 0 One goes one way the other the opposite Incomecrime o What is a Curvilinear Relationship Be able to provide an example 0 The example of crime over your lifetime starts low as kid then up as middle age then down again once your older 0 What are Philosophical Assumptions Be able to provide an example 0 Ideasbeliefs that cannot be tested empirically Parts of social life and can in uence how we process knowledge Ethical Epistemological Metaphysical I What are Ethical Assumptions Be able to provide an example 0 Beliefs about whats right and wrong good and bad etc o Politicial Conservative Liberal Radical I What are Epistemological Assumptions Be able to provide an example 0 How you know what you know Parents books friends I What are Metaphysical Assumptions Be able to provide an example 1 What is Ontology Human Nature free will 2 How do the following philosophers view human nature a Hobbes humans evil by nature b Locke humans born w blank slate c Rousseau humans are inherently good 3 What is Cosmology Nature of society a Be able to differentiate between consensus and con ict models i Consensus law re ects interests of most people in society ii Con ict Law disproportionately re ects the interest of a powerful minority within society 0 What is a Paradigm I De ne 0 Organizational scheme worldview school of thought framework I Be able to differentiate between criminological paradigms o ClassicalNeoclassical Positivismdeterminism labeling criticalradical I What is a Paradigm Shift Has Criminology had a paradigm shift 0 When ideas shift Never happened Classical School 0 O O O O O 0 Identify the background issues that gave rise to classical criminology eg enlightenment rejection of demonology view of property sources of knowledge etc I Before the enlightenment criminology was controlled by the church What are the main assumptions of classical criminology eg rationality utilitarianism etc I Utilitarianism hedonistic behavior rationality cost vs benefit ontology free will Identify key people associated with the classical school amp know why they are important I What were Beccaria and Bentham s reform ideas What did they think about social contract laws punishment public education administration of justice and crime prevention 0 Beccaria social contractpunishment law should be created by legislature and restricted in scope Punishmentcrimenot the offender certainty celerity swift public proportional severity curtailed Innocent until proven guilty due process 0 Bentham utilitarianism I How did they view human nature and society I What aspect of Beaccaria s work did Bentham specifically focus on o Achieving the greatest happiness to the most people What are the criticisms of classical criminology eg legal reform not theory assumes consensus ideological justification etc I People didn t choose on there free will to commit crime rather there was scientific explanations for it Not a theory of crime assumes consensus difficult to measuretest detterance explains property crime better than violent crime What is a neoclassicist How are they different from a classicist I A contemporary classicist modified understanding of free will reluctant to accept the idea of constrained choice they believe more in deterrence theory rational theory and routine activities Review the application of Classical theory to the medical marijuana case conducted in class Deterrence Theory 0 need punishment to deter crime I Differentiate between specific and general deterrence o Specificimpact of punishment on punished offenders 0 General knowledge of punishment from the experiences of others Stafford and Warr s Reconceptualization of Deterrence Theory I The Role of DirectIndirect Punishment Avoidance o Directcrimes committed by offender but never punished 0 Indirect knowledge of others who avoided punishment for criminal activity I The Role of DirectIndirect Punishment I Biological and Psychological Positivism O OO 0 000 Background Issues eg reaction to classical school logic and empirical science etc I Guided by empirical scienti c study intemal external forces cause crime not free will Identify the three types of positivism What are the main assumptions of positivism e g determinism pathology etc I Determinsm Biological because of your genes and psychological you are that way because of your psychology Identify the key people associated with the 39 39 know why they are important I Comte applies scienti c methods of physical science to social science Darwin evolution adaptive mutation natural selection Porta human physiognomy facial Features Gall phrenology bumps on the head the Italian School Lombroso Ferri Garofalocriminals are born and lower forms of humanity atavistic stigmataphysical features can be denti ed as characteristics for criminal beahvior Goring Hooten Sheldon Dugdale Goddard Freud Kohlberg Bowlby Bandura and Eysenck What is physiognomy facial features What is phrenology bumps on the head What is meant by atavistic stigmata Provide examples I The shape of your head can show criminal traits What is the somatotype school 0 the link between physical characteristics and crime I Differentiate between endomorphs mesomorphs ectomorphs o Endoshort stocky mesoathletic endo all I Criminals are most likely to have what body typebuild Meso Crime as an inherited trait I The Juke Family Case Study I The Kallikak Family Case Study Psychoanalytic Theory I What role do con ict and childhood play in this theory I What are the three potential causes of psychological con ict 0 Conscience so overbearing superego that is arouses feeling or guilt o Conscience so weak that is cant control the individuals impulses o The need to immediate grati cation and satisfaction I Describe the three basic components of the human psyche Hint the Id etc I Iandta I I 39 If uquot amp 0 Id 0 Consists of powerful urges and drives for grati cation and satisfaction 0 Ego o The executive of the personality acting as a moderator between the Id and the Super Ego 0 Super Ego o Acts as the moral code or conscience I What are some potential problems with Freud s theory 0 Moral Development Theory I What are the three stages of moral development 0 Preconventional 0 Conventional 0 Post conventional I Most criminals reason at what stage of moral development 0 preconventional I Review the in class application game 0 Maternal Deprivation and Attachment Theory I What is meant by attachment I What did Harry Harlow discover about maternal attachment in his study on monkey behavior I What role does anxiety attachment play in relation to criminal behavior 0 Social Learning Theory I How is criminal behavior learned I What are three modes of learning eg observation experience differential associationreinforcement Provide examples I How did Bandura s work in uence the development of social learning theory 0 Hint Bobo doll study on aggression I What is the general idea of Differential AssociationReinforcement Theory How is it different from the other social learning theories How is it the same 0 Conditioning Theory I Explain how this theory is biological and socialpsychological I Describe Eysenck s three personality dimensions 0 Psychoticism o Extroversion o neuroticism I How do criminals typically score on these dimensions higher I Which type of personality is the most difficult to condition and why 0 Extroverts I Proper conditioning is based on which central physiological factor 0 Cortical arousal 0 Why is this factor so important cortical arousal activates cerebral cortex which controls intellectual functioning information processing decision making 0 What is biocriminologystudy of physical aspect of psychological disorders 0 Biological Theory Genetics and Criminality I What is the XYY Syndrome How prevalent is it in the general population In studies ofprisoners Hint see pp 7576 1 in 1000 two y chromosomes from the father What were the main findings of the twin and adoption studies Hint focus especially on Mednick s Denmark study I Is there a direct link between genes and violenceNO 0 Biological Theory Biochemical Factors I How do food allergies diet hypoglycemia and hormones relate to criminal behavior I Who is Dan White What did he do What is the Twinkie Defense 0 Killed two people but plead he had diminished capacity because of his poor diet leading up to the murders he only got manslaughter Twinkie defense is a plead that the person was similar to dan and acted out of a poor diet high in sugar I Crime Focus 0 O 0 0000000 What is homicide Killing of a human being by another What is justi able homicide Policemilitary murders make my day What is the common law de nition of murder Intentional killing of another wmalie aforethought What is rst degree murder Intentional killing wpremeditation amp deliberation What is second degree murder Intentional killing lacking premeditation amp deliberation Compare and contrast serial versus mass murder Serialover time massat one time Are homicide rates increasing or decreasing over timedecreasing How does the US homicide rate compare to other countries What is the common law de nition of rape What is missing from this de nition Hint see class presentation
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