Methods of Sociological Inquiry
Methods of Sociological Inquiry SOC 311
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Sampling 9272013 70400 PM The Basics o The unknown eg population amp what is to be studied eg the sample o Historical blunder FDR I Why sample o 1 Representing the many with a few 0 a Extract a small collection of cases from a larger population does NOT have to be people o 2 Efficient amp cheap way to do research o 3 Samples are ALWAYS estimates 0 a The goal maximize sampling accuracy II Types of Sampling Schemes o 1 Representative or Probability sampling 0 a Quantitative research 0 b Based on probability theory for statistics 0 c Allows for generalization to a larger population or reliability o 2 Nonprobability o a Qualitative research 0 b Seek indepth discussion from sample studied 0 c Low reliability higher validity III Nonprobability Sampling types o 1 Available subjects convenience or Haphazard sampling 0 persononthestreet whoever s available 0 high risk of error in the sample o 2 Purposive or Judgmental sampling 0 researcher s need for unique cases 0 helpful for difficult to reach populations handicapped homeless o researcher s theoretical interests o 3 Snowball sampling Network chain referral 0 Social associations one contact produces many sociograms matrix of connections 0 Helpful for difficult to reach populations o 4 Quota sampling 0 sample relevant characteristics in the population create variation 0 Nonprobability or probability win each category o 5 Informant o specifictargeted sampling o 6 Deviant Case Extended Case Method 0 Purposive or theorydriven sampling that seeks out deviant cases 0 Challenges theory by extending the analysis o 7 Sequential Sampling 0 sample until new information is exhausted IV Probability Sampling 93013 o Must be able to develop a sampling frame a known listing of the individuals from that population o Babbie to provide useful descriptions of the total population a sample of individuals from a population must contain essentially the same variations that exist in the population o Inference sampling frame 9 empirical testingdata 9 inference back to population generalization 0 Ability to make claim back to pop o Sampling ratiosample size in comparison to population o Sampling element individual case drawn amp put into my sample V Probability Sampling Types o 1 Simple Random Sample SRS 0 Can be w or wout replacement Why can t you do probability if you don t have a good sample frame It s a KNOWN list you will know what the probability is Must have an accurate sampling frame Why random sample A Reduce bias to better represent the larger pop B Allows the use of probability theory C Assume the sampling distribution normal curve 0 O n Based on the Law of Large Numbers amp the Central Limit Theorem o 2 Systematic Sampled 10113 0 0 Sample in interval eg k 7th element Sample ratio number of elements drawn o 3 Stratified Sampling 0 0 Divide population into substrata A Interstrata heterogeneity B Intra stratum homogeneity Sample representative of the stratum but distinct from other strata o 4 Multistage Cluster Sampling 0 O O O No single sampling frame exists World country county city neighborhood household Multilayered sampling process Probability proportionate to size when the clusters to be sampled are not the same size directed sampling win a cluster VI Sample Size amp Error o 1 Sample size depends on accuracy population diversity variables being tested 0 The greater each one is larger sample required o 2 Sampling Error difference bw the population parameter amp the sampling statistic 0 Never fully known 0 Ways to reduce error A Increase sample size desired B Decrease sample diversity not desired Experimental Research 10413 introduce stimulus observe the response provides nice environment for measurement o stimulus independent variable response dependent measure change that takes place I The Power of Experimentation o 1 Useful tool for determining causal explanations o A tool of the natural sciences amp quantitative research and Behaviorism o 2 Maximizes the researcher s CONTROL over the environment 0 Offers the test of causation by Controlling temporal ordering Eliminating rival explanations Allows for statistical measurement II Logic amp Experimental Components o 1 Start with a hypothesis specific AND testable o 2 SamplingRandom assignment of subjects into groups 0 Experimental treatment group 0 Control comparison group o 3 Pretest establish a benchmark o 4 Introduce stimulus or treatment IV o 5 Observe measure changes DV o 6 Posttest make before and after comparison IIIWhy randomize o Eliminate researcher bias o Use of probability theory randomize error o Allow for unbiased comparison bw experimental amp control groups o Random assignment vs matching 0 What is relevant o Doubleblind experiments groups are randomized to the researcher IV Internal Validity in Experiments o 1 Internal Validity eliminate alternative explanations for the dependent variable o 2 Threats to internal validity a Selection bias violation of equivalence b History event bw pre amp posttest c Maturation changes in subjects d Testing pretest biases the experiment e Mortality dropout of subjects f Instrumentation change in instrument over time new statistical technique 9 Statistical regression regression to the mean 0 h Contamination Compensatory Behavior Subjects in comparison groups will communicate Control group emulates the experimental group 0 i Experimenter expectations demand characteristics subjects perform to perceived researcher expectations guess research goals amp act accordingly 0 O O O O O O V External Validity Experiments o 1 External Validity generalize experimental findings about the artificiality of the design o 2 Threats to External Validity o a Generalizability can an experimental result be applied to the population Does it represent the real world 0 b Naturalism Mundane realism artificiality of experimental design 0 c How relevant is this design when can we use it o d Reactivity what are the subjects responding to Hawthorne effect subjects respond to researcher amp technique NOT the stimulus Experimental realism subjects get caught up in the experiment 0 e Theoretical Relevance can the empirical findings be liked to one s theory VI Ethics in Experimentation 10713 o 1 Applicable for sociology Should we attempt such control and manipulation o a Field and Natural experiments o 2 Role of the Researcher o a Deceive failure to disclose 1 Achieving Voluntary amp Informed Consent o b Confederate pretend to be a research subject o 3 Intrusion amp Participant Protection from o a Social Legal Physical amp Psychological harm o b Pygmalion Effect spurters amp teacher expectation participant in the research starts to perform based on what they think the researcher wants not acting naturally Reactivity is reacting to the design itself not a person 0 c Stanley Milgram s Obedience Experiments Survey Research 9272013 70400 PM Survey as SelfReporting o a One s behavior o b Attitudes amp Beliefs o c Characteristics and Attributes o d Expectations Hopes Desires o e SelfClassification o f Cultural Knowledge I What is survey research o 1 Research tool used to gather data based on selfreporting from respondents o a What people say NOT what they do o 2 Opportunity to research a broad or large population o 3 Provides ability to compare across populations amp time o a Standardize instrument to produce variation in responses o 4 Technique has a very long history think the US Census but it was popularized around WWII o a Government commitment to largescale amp statistical social science research 0 b Crowded out case study amp fieldbased research 0 c Today a problem of overuse Can become nontheoretical market research II Logic of a Survey o 1 A positivistic method usually coupled w sampling and used in quantitative research o 2 Sample many respondents asking the same question or questions 0 a Survey questions ARE measures of variables operationalizing o 3 Seek statistical correlations through control variables 0 a Elaboration Model III Types of Survey Research o 1 Mail most popular 0 a Advantage cheap amp confidential o b Disadvantage low control amp response rate o 2 Telephone 0 a Advantage easy access to respondents o b Disadvantage costly limited time for openended questions 0 c LAN line extinction o 3 Facetoface o a Advantage highest response rate amp indepth o b Disadvantage very costly amp labor intensive o 4 Web Surveys 0 a Adv Immediate returns inexpensive amp becoming popular 0 b No control over WHO responds misses those wout internet access IV Steps in Survey Research o 1 Develop theory research question amp hypothesis o 2 Identify target population amp sampling scheme o 3 Construct a survey instrument or questionnaire 0 a Questions should avoid confusion amp be written w respondents in mind o 4 A researcher operationalizes their conceptsvariables as SURVEY QUESTIONS 0 A Where your hypotheses are tested o 5 Question types Closedended openended and contingency questions o 6 Conduct a pilot study optional o 7 Send out surveys or conduct an interview schedule for administering of questions o 8 Plan the recording and coding of responses 0 a Consider coding AS you write questions o 9 Collect and analyze data 0 a 75 is a GOOD response rate V Questioning Survey Questions o 1 Keep questions clear simple and directed to your respondent o 2 Avoid 9quot p Pquot Fquot l a jargon prestigeexpert b ambiguous or leading questions c emotional language amp prestige bias d doublebarreled questions e questions that conflate your belief amp respondents reality leading questions amp false premises overshoot respondents abilities LEASE common denominator Sensitive questions 0 1 How old are you T0 In what year were you born 0 2 People with AIDS deserve to have the disease yes or no TO People with AIDS should be given more help yes or no 0 O O O O Ambiguous Questions 101413 0 1 Is your work made more difficult because you are expecting a baby Yesno o 2 Have you felt calm or peaceful o 3 Do you eat out often No way to determine what often is DoubleBarrel Questions 0 1 Do you agree that acquired AIDS can be transmitted by shaking hands with a person w AIDS or through other means of physical contact 0 2 Do you support or oppose The Affordable Health Care act and increased spending for the military 0 3 SOC311 is interesting and challenging Jargon o Uncommon words assistconsider 9 help employinitiate 9 use quantify 9 measure 0 1 To maintain a healthy economy a steady state economy must be developed 0 2 Is RDS an effective tool for sampling FSWs in China Be careful w acronyms Faulty Measures 0 1 How important is health to you on a scale of 1 to 3 Unimportant 1 2 3 Important Scale of 1 10 is better o 8 Leading Questions 0 1 Do you do physical exercise such as cycling 0 2 Big oil and energy corporations receive billions in corporate welfare while despoiling the environment and preventing renewal energy development Agree Disagree Not Sure o 9 Open Versus Closed Questions 0 Closed Ended External validity Advantages n Easier to answer amp code a Greater response rate a Able to ask sensitive issues Disadvantages a Limited to response categories a Anyone can fill them out n Can t assess respondent s interpretation 0 Open Ended Internal validity Advantages n Allow for creativity amp selfexpression n Unexpected responses Disadvantages n Variation can be difficult to interpret a Difficult to code a Time consuming to analyze VI Interviews amp interviewer Role conversation w a purpose o 1 Stages in Interviewing o a Establish a special relationship unfamiliar w the need for disclosure 0 b Asking questionsprobing o c Record answers can be intimidating o d Exiting the encounter o 2 Avoid interviewer bias 0 a Nonjudgmental be neutral amp objective 0 b Appearance fit in o c Confidentiality explicit o d Sensitivity take advantage of the human interaction VII Survey Ethics o 1 Ethics in Survey Research 0 a Confidentiality the privilege of privacy 0 b Always voluntary o c Pseudosurvey manipulation of respondent misuse of information o d Intentional designs question phrased with answer revealed VIII Index and Scales o 1 Measure dimensions and indicators of concepts intensity amp rank ordering o a Index a composite of several scoresattributes or variables think SES Income Education Occupation o b Scales preferred assign scores to the pattern of survey responses o 2 Depending how complex a concept it may require multiple indexes and scales to measure VIIII Types of Scales o 1 Bogardus Social Distancing o a Social Matrix dimensions of interaction 0 b Based on level of comfort 0 c Willingness to interact or be close o 2 Thurstone numerical scae eg 110 0 a A group of judges are given a set of indicators of a concept to rank the agreement is used in a survey a interval eve equivalence o 3 Likert agreedisagree o a Ordinal eve additive amp ranked 0 b A measure of intensity 0 c include a neutral response o 4 Semantic Differential Scale o a Use opposite adjectives to measure feelings or thoughts on a topic eg Obamacare compassionate vs obtrustive 9272013 70400 PM Ethics in Research 9112013 71300 PM I Celebrated Cases o A Stanley Milgram s Obedience Experiments 0 19605 brought in people amp told them it was for teaching but it was to test obedience actor in other room and the subject would have to shock them if the actor answered the question wrong 0 How far will people go o B Laud Humphreys Tearoom Trade 0 Homosexual behavior went to gay bars to observe people going into bathrooms to have sex 0 Took license plate numbers down to find the people for interviews breach of confidentiality o C Phillip Zimbardo s Prison Experiments 0 Mock prison got out of control guards beating inmates conflict of interest bc he was the warden amp the researcher II Understanding Ethics o 1 Ethics concerns dilemmas and conflicts over the proper way to conduct research 0 A Ethics as Principle DO NOT degrade or cause unnecessary harm DO obtain voluntary consent 0 B Situational Ethics ethics on the fly o 2 The KnowledgePower Connection 0 NO research is valuefree 0 public sociology Michael Burawoy o 3 The critical clash of values 0 A Pursuit of scientific knowledge vs the rights of those being studied 0 B ASA Committee on Professional Ethics COPE to promote ethical conduct by sociologists at the highest professional level training review and sanctioning III Ethics in History 91313 o 1 Established in wake of Nuremberg Trials amp Nazi treatment of Jews o A Use of medical and psychological professions to advance Nazi research 0 B Crimes Against Humanity 2 Development of Institutional Review Boards 0 A Independent oversight of research IV Ethics amp the Scientific Community 91613 1 Ethics is a personal responsibility 2 Do not exploit for personal gain 3 Secure consent when possible avoid coercion amp respect privacy 4 Use appropriate research method amp be transparent w findings 5 Identify amp make sponsor known V Typical Ethical Issues 1 Scientific Misconduct o A From research fraud to plagiarism 2 Protection of Participants from Harm o A Physical rare 0 B Psychological abuse stress loss of selfesteem o C Legal acts witness to o D Social livelihood relationships create new inequalities 3 Voluntary amp Informed Consent o A Avoid deception amp misrepresentation Do covert research only as a last resort 0 B Informed Consent agreement to participate Subject s right to know Avoid coercion 4 Anonymity privacy of IDENTITY o A Sociology vs Journalism Nondisclosure of researcher source 5 Confidentiality identity known but PARTICIPANT amp INFO kept secret o A Protect sensitive information amp its source 0 B Protect participant from harm 6Special or vulnerable Populations The less powerful amp those w restricted rights V H o A Prison inmates disabled poor the institutionalized o B Studying down versus up Principles of Informed Consent 1 Purpose of study including potential risks or harm 2 Guarantee anonymity amp confidentiality 3 Identify the researcher organization amp contact information 4 Statement of voluntary nature of research AND the right of refusal 5 Benefit of participation 6 Willingness to release findings VII Issues with Sponsors 1 Whistleblowing on unethical research 2 Manipulating one s findings to fit with sponsor interests 3 Sponsor suppressing findings Research Design 9112013 71300 PM I Deciding Upon Research o 1 Research designs are strategies for combing the why theory amp how method of knowledge o 2 Dependent upon Purpose Scope Time Use If the research is quantitative or qualitative II Purpose of a Study Issue Why is research done o 1 Exploration Key Question What is it o A Familiarize Little is known on a topic Seek not answers but clarity o 2 Description Key Question How Who When 91813 0 A Seek more refinement Paint a picture 0 B Begin establishing situations events relationships build classifications o C What most social science research is Build a more diverse dataset that allows for hypothesis testing and causality o 3 Explanatory Key Question Why 0 A Benefits from previous research types to formulate specific testable relationships 0 B Oriented around theory testing and development 0 C Extend insights to larger cases 0 D Use of quantitative methods III Scope of Design o 1 Ideographic seek exhaustive understanding towards exploratory o A Micrological there are no statistical tests 0 B Data or experiential immersion o C Rely on verstehen o 2 Nomothetic NOMOS Greek for law broad general causal claims more explanatory type research 0 A Probabilistic from causation to correlation o B Hypothesis testing to eliminate spuriousness IV Necessary amp Sufficient Cause o 1 Necessary must be present o 2 Sufficient Not necessarily the only cause but guarantees the effect Units of Analysis 9112013 71300 PM Examples o Beyonc 0 Units performer celebrity woman 0 Level sex sells o Relationships o Social Artifacts o GroupsOrganizations o Ecological Fallacy unit of analysis is the group but the theoretical argument is being made at the level of the individual o Reductionism unit is the individual but the level of analysis is the group I Time Dimension o 1 Crosssectional quick snap shot 0 A Single point in time o 2 Longitudinal o A Time series multiple snap shots 0 B Panel Study longterm study of a selected group o 3 Cohort Analysis longterm study of a general group w common life experiences not identifying individuals 0 A Babyboomers or Millennial generation o 4 Case Study intense study of one or a small set of cases Long term study on one community or group 0 A Great depth captures complexity amp validity accuracy 0 B Holistic comprehensive understanding II What to Study o 1 What issue are you interested in o A Personal Experience amp values 0 B In the mediapopular culture Hot topics social premiums 0 C Everyday life practical living o 2 State of the knowledge in the field o 3 Addressing a social problem III Reviewing the Literature o 1 Scholarly books ampjournals 0 Peer reviewed yet technical o 2 Semi professional popular publications Psychology Today Nature Magazine 0 Written by professionals yet w less substance o 3 Practitioner or trade publications 0 Very current yet narrow focus o 4 Popular amp Opinion magazines People Magazine Newsweek o Widely accessible yet superficial and biased IV Using the Internet o Pros O O O O o Cons O O O FWNquot Accessible fast amp cheap Has links to other sources Globally network Widerange of sources 1 Quality control 2 What about information NOT on the internet 3 4 Access to archival material Source of information not always obvious V Develop a Research Question o 1 Incorporates the dimensions of research o 2 Must be empirically testable o Is the sexual abuse of children more common in households who adhere to conservative Christian beliefs 0 Do cycles of economic change influence prison populations o 3 Do research questions operate at the level of unit of analysis or level of analysis Theoretically or how you want to measure empirically Level of analysis Evaluation Research 1112013 70900 PM I Evaluation Research o 1 A form of applied research which assesses social interventions and their intended results 0 a Evaluation id usually relevant to a specific community or issue 0 b Can be highly political o c Types Needs Assessment ActionOriented client empowerment promotion of social change CostBenefit Monitoring or program assessment Social Impact Assessment impact on society 0 d Campbell s Law The more any quantitative social indicator is used for social decision making read evaluation the more subject it will be to corruption pressures and the more apt it will be to distort and corrupt the social processes it is intended to monitor II The Process o 1 Formulating the Problem What is to be evaluated o 2 Issues of Measurement 0 a What is the stimulus policy amp how is it being measured Specifying the intervention IV Specifying the population Who New or existing measures 0 b What is the intended result and how is it measured Outcome assessment DV If it s unmeasureable it cannot be evaluated 0 c Operationalize success and failure o 3 Research Designs types of measurements 0 a Experimental Design Randomization Control amp Experimental Groups Pre amp Posttesting o b QuasiExperimental Designs TimeSeries Designs measures taken over time n Usually involves the experimental group Nonequivalent control group find a control group similar to the experimental group Multiple TimeSeries Designs gather data well before and after the program 0 c Qualitative Interviews Fieldwork o d Unobtrusive Research Social indicators like the Happiness Index Use Existing Statistics 9 Look at Variation 9 Infer Back to WHY III Politics of Evaluation Research o 1 Social Context Logistics of administering the program amp gaining access to do evaluation research o 2 Ethics of Evaluation Research 0 a Who is in CONTROL of the evaluation b Conflict of Interest c Can the researcher be objective or even neutral d Evaluating sensitive issues 0 O O Qualitative Analysis Research 1112013 70900 PM I Qualitative vs Quantitative o Similarities o 1 Data gathering amp Inference conclusions by reasoning a Inductive vs Deductive o 2 Demonstrable public amp accessible 0 3 Comparison amp relationships win data 0 4 Both claim valid theory based on the data a Avoid error o Differences o 1 Qualitative analysis is less standardized o 2 Qualitative data analysis is iterative a constant back amp forth with the data 0 3 Qualitative theory development is much closer to the data 0 4 Grounded Theory lower level of abstraction II Grounded Theory Constant Comparative Method o 1 Build categories out of your data amp identify a concept arising out of a single case situation or event 0 a Compare with other cases o 2 Integrate categories by building relationships among concepts o 3 Inferential Delimit a theory by identifying pattern of relationships bw concepts 0 a Theory becomes simpler or more parsimonious o 4 Analytical Writingup theory involves the process of discovery researcher s experience in the field III Semiotics The Meaning of Language 11613 o 1 Linguistic turn in philosophy from language as a system grammar to language in use speech 0 a Wittgenstein language games the meaning of language originates in its use in context Different subcultures will have their own language games o 2 Saussure sign word used signifier directed to an object significationsignified meaning that is given to that object 0 Meaning is arbitrary in that it s based on difference and relationally o 3 A how language is used and how we as researchers use language 0 Content Analysis 0 Manifest and Latent Coding IV Conversation Analysis Ethnomethodology o Built on the assumption that conversations are the bedrock of all interpersonal relationships and meaning systems o 1 Taking of detailed notes on conversational transactions verbal nonverbal pauses o 2 Conversations are presumed to be orderly accounts 0 a Use argots of those studied o 3 Conversations are achievements in meaning construction by the participants o 4 Conversations develop as sequential organization o 5 Conversations are managed on a turnbyturn basis iterative back and forth between participants 0 Expose power of actors amp the importance of context V Types of Field Notes o 1 Jotted Notes notes on the run o 2 Actual observations detailed amp structured o 3 Inferential Notes impressions o 4 Analytical Notes summations amp conceptual insights o The beginning of theory construction o 5 Personal Notes intimate comments amp feelings VI Coding Qualitative Data 11082013 o 1 Coding is the process of theory development Conceptualization amp Operationalization o a How the researcher makes sense of the data 0 b Importance of Unit amp Level of analysis o 2 Begins as soon as you read through and ask critical questions of the data O a Less a clerical task entering data than a creative theoretical act 3 Qualitative coding develops concepts that are grounded in the data 0 a Develop Categories 9 Cases 9 Comparison 9 Concepts connect theory amp data VII Types of Coding 1 Open Coding first data encounter O O O O O a attempt to condense raw data reduce the volume of it b begin development of analytical categories c identify events actors amp themes d remain flexible and open e pull concepts amp themes from deep inside the data 2 Axial Coding seconds pass through the data 0 O O O a Maybe stimulated by a return to the field b collectionamp early organization of codes c identify connections patterns tacit understandings d identify a few analytics axes or central principles 3 Selective Coding last pass through the data 0 O O O a Establish deeper structural relations amp conceptual conclusions b Establish strong examples amp relations c Hypothesis development d Identify a central theme VIII Analytic Strategies for Data Analysis 1 Ideal Type Max Weber 2 Analogy amp Metaphor Connection by affinity O a Methods Class is like taking a warm bubble bath 3 Illustrative Method make categories amp fill them up w observations 4 Domain Analysis connect to a cultural domain 0 eg What does Starbucks represent in society Leisure relaxation timeliness o 5 Narrative Analysis detailed study of stories amp conversation Telling a Story o 6 Negative Case Method focus on anomalies o 7 Network Analysis Flow Charts Mapping Diagrams Analyzing Quantitative Data 1112013 70900 PM I The Logic of Analyzing Data o 1 Condensed picture of the data 0 a From descriptive to inferential o 2 Coding the systematic reorganization of raw data by assigning numbers to conceptual attributes categories or variables 0 a Coding should emphasize VARIATION o b Remember numbers are simply symbols to represent our concepts or ideas 0 c SB 13011 a senate bill signed into law by Hickenlooper to allow for civil unions o 3 Precoding think about how you are going to present the data first 0 a Saves time format data to be machine readable o b The importance of levels of measurement o 4 Coding Error 0 a Coding procedures should be highly accurate amp dictated by a set of rules 0 b Coding can obscure the meaning of the data 0 c Triangulation multiple coding schemes II Descriptive Statistics from univariate to multivariate 111313 o 1 Frequency Distribution 0 a Frequency Polygon o b Histograms o c Bar charts pie charts tables o 2 Measures of Central Tendency 0 Mode least useful amp can be bior multi modal 0 Median 50th percentile middle point a Ranks scores amp find 50th score b Highly stable nonreactive 0 Mean arithmetic average least squared distance from all numbers a most commonly used b highly subject to change very sensitive c need interval or ratio data relative or absolute zero o 3 Measures of Variation dispersion from the mean 0 Measuring variability a Epistemological implications a Center norm periphery deviation b Range high low c Percentile specific place d Standard deviation standardized dispersion from the mean u Interval amp ratio data 0 ZScores standardization using mean amp standard deviation a Standardizes the data to the same metric n 1 Allow data sets to be compared b Establish a zero point the mean c Zscores represent a relative score within a distribution versus an absolute value d Assumes a Normal Curve distribution III Bi amp Multivariate Analysis o Identify covariation statistical relationships OR statistical independence o 1 Scattergram interval or ratio 0 a Form linear nonlinear curvilinear o b Direction negative positive 0 c Precision dispersion o 2 Bivariant contingency or crosstabulation tables 0 a Raw andor Percentage scores 0 b Can use Nominal or Ordinal data o 3 Measures of Association 0 a A condensed expression of a relationship bw 2 variables 0 b The stronger the relationship the less error unexplained variance bw the DV amp IV Proportional Reduction of Error 0 c Measure used is dependent upon the levels of measurement o 4 Trivariate analysis and Statistical Control 0 a Elaboration Model Paul Lazarsfeld o b Types o 5 Regression 1 Replication reproduce relationship 2 Specification partial reproduction 3 Interpretation control variable as intervening 4 Explanation control becomes new IV 5 Suppressor Variable no bivariate relationship is found to exist 6 Elaboration Trivariate Model vocabulary n a ZeroSum Relationship original bivariate relationship b Test or control variable third variable introduced that is held constant c Partial Relationship the relationships observed when the test variable is introduced d Contingency Tables trivariate tables e Ex post facto hypothesizing after or pure inductive hypothesizing after the fact It gives you a way of understanding the change of n n n i one variable to another by looking at increments o a Y predicted score a bX e o b Create a regression line or BLUE best linear unbiased estimate 0 c Multiple Regression Y a b1X1 b2X2 e Introducing multiple independent variable o 6 Path Analysis 0 a The Use of Modeling 0 b Multiple Independent and Dependent variables 0 c Interactive effect nonrecursive feedbacks IV Inferential Statistics Hypothesis Testing 112013 o 1 Tests of statistical significance determines if one s statistical results are due to random chance 0 a Based on probability theory 0 b Test the null Hypothesis no relationship 0 c Use to infer from sample to population and evaluate the relationship bw variables o 2 Type I amp II Errors o a Type 1 False rejection of the null hypothesis False Positive state a relationship exists when there is none n More serious error 0 b Type 11 False acceptance of the null hypothesis False Negative state a relationship does not exist when in fact there is one Social Theory amp Paradigms 942013 70600 PM Although the empirical world is out there it is apprehended through our concepts I Theory amp Paradigms o 1 Social Theory systematically interconnects ideas that condense amp organize our knowledge of the social world Theory is a type of systematic story telling o 2 Paradigms A broad model or frame of reference through which to observe amp understand 0 A Theories derive from paradigms II Theory vs Ideology 9 Durkheim amp Weber o Ideology 0 Offers Absolutes 0 Provides a closed or fixed explanation o Confuses normative or value claims w empirical reality 0 Can t stand up to logical or public scrutiny OR be tested o Theory 0 Offers open or tentative explanations o Separates the IS empirical from the OUGHT values 0 Subject to testing amp falsification 0 Open to logical or public inquiry III Merton on Paradigms o Provide the researcher with a conceptual tool upon research behavior o Merton would use the term paradigms to refer to exemplars of codified basic amp often tacit assumptions problem sets key concepts logic or procedure amp selectively accumulated knowledge that guide inquiry in all scientific fields IV Kuhn on Paradigms o Paradigms provide the universally recognized scientific achievements that model problems amp solutions to a community of practitioners o and are based on shared rules to account for the group s unproblematic conduct of research or examples of successful practice 0 They become political challenging them comes problematic after a scientist is involved and one paradigm is successful o Paradigm Normal As field of discovery narrows the unknown starts to grow researchers start to produce anomalies 9 then creates a crisis 9 then creates new paradigm V Babbie on Paradigms o A model or frame od reference through which to observe amp understand 0 Theory development 9 Focus Research 9 Interpret Data I Parts of Theory o 1 Concepts an idea expressed as a symbol or as one or more words they are the building blocks of theory 0 A Because concepts are abstract they must be made observable by transforming them into variables Conceptualization define concepts Operationalization measure concepts 0 B Frequently Concepts are clustered together also referred to as constructs Years of Schooling Density of Population Socioeconomic Status education occupation amp income 0 Bring data down to variables to have a relationship with the empirical world o 2 Relationships expressions between conceptsvariables o A Propositions statements connecting concepts 0 B Hypotheses conjectures or educated guesses connecting variables 0 C Propositions amp Hypotheses Propositions D levels of social solidarity determine anomic conditions a class consciousness produces revolutionary consciousness Hypotheses Gendered value sets determine occupational choices for males amp females An increase in housing density gives rise to juvenile delinquency Whites are more likely to binge drink than people of color a Watching television increases one s fear of crime n n II Aspects of Theory o 1 Direction of Theorizing o A Deduction from concepts to empirical world abstract 9 concrete Establish Theory amp hypothesis PRIOR to gathering data to avoidprevent bias Research is preplanned w objective amp precise measures Associated w quantitative methods 0 B Induction from empirical world to concepts concrete 9 abstract Descriptive based theory Theory is emergent develops on the fly and is based IN data Associated w qualitative methods o 2 Range amp Level of Analysis the analytical amp empirical dimensions under consideration 0 A Empirical Generalization Micro Descriptive summary of data 0 B MiddleRange Meso Explanatory issue group and location 0 C Theoretical Framework Macro Sweeping grand theory broad III Types of Explanation o 1 Causal empirical amp theoretical logical o A Criteria for Causation Establish a temporal order Show an empirical association Eliminate alternatives spurious Establish causal reasoning o B Can be positive or negative o 2 Structural explanation based on a larger arrangement of structures or patterned relationships 0 A Sequential Stages of Development 0 B Network Web of Relations 0 C Functional System Analysis o 3 Interpretative understanding based on explanation o A Sensitive to cultural meaning and emergent within the social world 942013 70600 PM 942013 70600 PM Quantitative amp Qualitative Research Designs 9202013 71200 PM I Quantitative o 1 Deductive o 2 Hard Data o 3 Variables amp Hypothesis Testing o 4 Reconstructed Logic o 5 Linear Research II Qualitative o 1 Inductive o 2 Soft Data use of lang amp symbols more interpretive o 3 Context amp Hypothesis Formation o 4 LogicinPractice o 5 Nonlinear Research III The Qualitative Research Design Interpretive Approach o 1 Epistemology conventional theory of truth based on what we choose to agree on o A Reality is based on conventions such as language o 2 Research questions are usually openended and general 0 A They are refined slowly throughout the research process o 3 Emphasis on interpretation how we assign significance 0 A Orders of interpretation First order subjects worldview Second order researchers reconstruction Third order readers interpretation o 4 Direction is generally INDUCTIVE and can be very nonlinear chaotic o A Design is emergent or Ad hoc o B Frequent entry amp exit from the research site 0 C Bricoage Researcher has to be a jackof all trades o D The development of grounded theory o 5 Emphasis on context amp cases 0 A Need researcher integrity due to lack of tests or controls IV Quantitative Design Positive Approach o 1 Epistemology correspondence theory of truth 0 A Knowledge should correspond w larger truths or laws o 2 Research questions are preplanned formally stated and empirical o A Facilitates objective amp precise measures o 3 The language of variables and hypotheses o A Variables observations of concepts 0 B Hypothesis statement connecting variables Independent dependent intervening o 4 Testing amp refining hypothesis 0 A Crucial Experiments test competing explanations looking for the strongest o B Null hypothesis test the opposite or no relationship from the research question Based on Falsification o 5 Research direction linear amp top down DEDUCTIVE o A Establish theory amp hypothesis PRIOR to gathering data 0 B Research is preplanned w a fixed sequence irrespective of results o 6 The researcher as expert V Validating Research Designs o 1 Quantitative o Remain distant from data 0 Explicit amp standardized procedures 0 Statistical testing of data 0 Formal publication of findings o 2 Qualitative o Gain a closeness to the data 0 Seek first hand experience 0 High volume of descriptive data 0 Create intimate relation for the reader VI Errors in Causal Explanation o 1 Spuriousness amp the presence of a rival hypothesis 0 A An unseen cause of third variable 0 B Tautology circular reasoning eg which comes first The chicken or the egg A Cause Effect B Not testable o C Teleology unclear ultimate first cause A The Devil made me do it B Not subject to falsifications Measurement in Social Research 9202013 71200 PM I What is measurement o 1 Measurement the transformation of ideas and observation into specific and concrete data 0 a Not simply counting but a way of bringing precision to the social world 0 b Making the invisible abstract visible 0 c Much of the measurement sociologists do is of the NON physical world II Conceptualization o 1 Conceptualization The mental process whereby fuzzy amp imprecise notions concepts are made more specific amp precise o 2 Think through the meaning of a concept by giving it a conceptual definition which is linked to theory 0 a Specification making concepts specific 0 b Nominal amp iterative process v real or essential o 3 Dimensions or aspects of the concept o 4 Reification regarding concepts are real III Operationalization o 1 Operationalization the development of specific research procedures that result in empirical observations representing concepts o 2 Operational definitions establish 0 a Indicators sign of the presence or absence of a concepts b Attribute characteristic or quality c Range of variation d Degree of precision O O O o 3 Modernity amp Social Intelligence 0 Social Intelligence the ability to interpret and respond to sequences of social behavior Social vs Emotional IV The Consistency of Measurement 1 Reliability whether a particular technique when applied repeatedly will yield the same results how the measure holds up to the test of time 2 Types 0 a TestRetest Pre amp Post Testing 0 b SplitHalf Method multiple measures eg personality tests 0 c Worker reliability training triangulation 1 Validity extent to which an empirical measure accurately reflects the meaning of a concept The voracity of a measure 0 a How the conceptual amp operational definitions fit together 0 b More difficult to achieve than reliability 2 Types of Validity o a Face validity does it seem reasonable which is determined in a research community 0 b Criterionrelated predictive is the measure validated by an external criterion c Construct logical relationship amongst variables d Content does the measurement scheme CAPTURE ALL identified attributes O O 9202013 71200 PM Qualitative Field Research 10162013 71000 PM I Field Research o Strategy that gathers data and observations not easily reduced to numbers o Correlates w a specific type of research question o Often exploratory o Generates both data amp theory because it s being approached at an inductive level II Special Considerations o Role of the observer 0 Levels of participantness o Overt vs covert telling people if you are a researcher or not 0 Reactivity ppl start to act a different way around you because they know you re a researcher III Paradigms o 1 Naturalism Reality is out there to be discovered and documented 0 Ethnography Understanding cultural meaning from natives point of view To accurately describe what they re observing o 2 Ethnomethodology Reality is constructedlnot out there to be discovered we create world we live in o Uncovers HOW people make sense of everyday life o 3 Grounded Theory Constant comparison and checking of data against interpretations like a pinwheel to check assumptions based on what you ve seen in the data o 4 Case Studies based on your UNIT of analysis 0 indepth look at a few units or cases 0 Extended Case Studies expanding current theories by researching gaps o 5 Institutional Ethnography Focus on how experiences for oppressed groups uncover power relations o 6 CommunityBased Research Listening respecting involving and giving back to the community Going Into the Field 10162013 71000 PM IV Preparation for Observations o A Getting Access 0 What is your field Fields can be socially defined spaces 0 Deciding on your role amp level of disclosure 0 Gaining access use of a gatekeeper 0 Establishing rapport equivalent to being a good friend to someone about listening to people when they talk respecting their time letting them know you re invested in having a relationship w them o B Being in the Field 0 Learn the ropes amp normalize your presence 0 Avoid conflict or taking sides 0 Be interested and engaged but NOT a burden 0 Remember your dual role o C Collecting Data 0 Depends on your role as the observer 0 Take extensive descriptive notes if possible 0 Process them ASAP o D Leaving the Field 0 Logistically Leaving in as good of a standing w the ppl you have spent all this time with Leave it as unchanged as possible like you were never there 0 Emotionally Can end up w emotional ties but it is still for research This is about learning amp mutually helping each other not building a longterm friendship 0 Continuing the relationship Exit gracefully V Other data sources Qualitative Interviewing o A What s the same 0 Gatekeepers amp rapport o B What s different 0 Starting w more focus amp taking less notes Must still ask if you can record them Write down general themes if you are recording 0 Different from surveys because QI are more flexible than openended survey questions More like a normal conversation Words are data so try to get as many as you can o C Writing Interview Questions 0 Avoid yes or no questions 0 Use broad questions w probes to pull out more information 0 Good starters Tell me about How did you Practice Questions n Broad How have you adjusted to being homeless n Probe Tell me about what it s like to worry about where you are going to sleep each night Vi Focus Groups 102113 o A Group interviews of 515 people 0 Usually conducted by 2 people o B Pros lots of data in a short time gathering GROUP ideas rather than one person o C Cons susceptible to dominating personalities can ignore dissent VII Validity and Reliability A HIGHER in validity LOWER in reliability o B Ethics in Field Research 0 Deception Confidentiality Illegal Activity Should those studied be able to censor O O 0 VIII Overall Pros amp Cons o Pros 0 Can get at info that would otherwise be missed 0 Can be less expensive 0 Can be significantly more valid o Cons o Takes a LOT more time 0 Can be messier both in data and in relationships 0 Can be significantly less reliable Unobtrusive Research 10162013 71000 PM I Content Analysis o A Topics language what people are saying gender studies magazine advertisements o B Can be qualitative or quantitative II Sampling and Coding o A What content are you interested in 0 Sampling unit of observation vs unit of analysis o B Coding transforms raw data into understandable standardized data for analysis 0 Manifest andor latent codes III Pros and Cons o Very economical and easy to do and revise o Can capture long periods of time o No effect on subjects o Moderate reliability o Low validity o Limited in the subjects in can address IV Existing Statistics and Secondary Data o I Existing Statistics 0 1 Logic use already existing data or social indicators a Trends comparisons social change 0 2 Concerns a Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness because statistics exist we feel compelled to use them b Unit of analysis most secondary data is aggregate what if you want to talk about individuals Ecological Fallacy aggregate level data but are making claims about individuals V Concerns with Statistical Data 1 Validity o a Disagreement w Conceptualization have to fit theory to existing data o b No control over data gathering data may be irrelevant for your purposes 2 Reliability 0 a Changed data gathering techniques over time o b Consistency of reporting between agencies HistoricalComparative Research Researching the Past I The Epistemology of Time How do we claim to know time o 1 Past Known but whose past 0 Present perspective ON the past o 2 Present Myopia of Situation 0 What s relevant o 3 Future Can we Extrapolate 0 Modeling and educating GUESSES II Why conduct HistoricalComparative Research o 1 The Classical Methodology Devised by August Comte amp perfected by Max Weber o 2 In sociology used to study social change development social movements 0 a Asks the Big Questions 0 b Can be BOTH qualitative and quantitative III HC amp Field Research o 1 Similarities o a Data immersion Coherence Imposition avoid overordering the date 0 b Researcher interpretation amp inference SubContext recognize historical background Capacity Overestimation people s ability to act is bounded o c Use of grounded theory 0 d Historical cases amp situated processes o 2 Differences o a Use of secondary data 0 b Emphasis on causation big question big process often a concern with causality Seek deep historical structures 0 c Ability to make macromicro links amp connect theory to data 0 d More flexible use of time Longue duree historical researchers can use a long period of time if they need to IV The Logic of HistoricalComparative Research o 1 How does the researcher remain sensitive to history while developing sociological theory 0 a Historiography researchers adopt points of view o 2 Sociology versus history 0 a History descriptive narrative historicism o b Sociology history is mediated through amp by theory building amp comparison Inductive case study or Deductive nomothetic V Types of Comparative Research o 1 Single Case Study 0 Internal comparison w NO generalization o 2 Culturalcontext rich vivid ethnography 0 Explore the historical context o 3 Crossnational interaction of cases 0 develops analytical amp empirical variation o 4 Transnational Research General model 0 Apply nomothetic model to history VI Types of Data o 1 Primary firsthand accounts o 2 Running records government data amp newspapers o 3 Secondary Historian s accounts studies amp articles o 4 Recollections personal accounts amp oral histories Reading amp Writing Research 10162013 71000 PM I Research Proposals o 1 Problem or Objective o 2 Literature Review o 3 Subjects for Study o 4 Measurement o 5 DataCollection Methods o 6 Analysis o 7 Schedule o 8 Budget II Organizing a Literature Review o 1 Organize the literature around your research question or central concepts o 2 It s not volume but substance o 3 Use snowball technique and seek core sources o 4 Taking advantage of abstracts o a determines relevance 0 b established the articles framework o 5 Use research monographs III Evaluating Social Research o 1 Theoretical Orientations o 2 What is the Research Design o 3 Measurement scheme o 4 Sampling Technique o 5 Datagathering Approach Experimentation Survey Field Research Content Analysis Existing Statistics Historical Research Evaluation Research o 6 Data Analysis QualitativeQuantitative or both o 7 How was the research reported IV The Internet o 1 Whowhat is the author of the website o 2 Is there a point of view or bias o 3 Does the website site sources are they accurate o 4 Is the data uptodate and official o 5 What relationship does the website have to universitybased research o 6 Is the data consistent w other sources 0 What should be cited from the internet 1 URL 2 Date amp time of access 3 Who is the author VI Organizing Social Research o 1 Purgose amp Overview be brief o 2 Literature Review only include what s relevant to the present research o 3 Avoid Plagiarism Looking for Reality 8282013 71400 PM Agreement Reality Those things we know as part and parcel of the culture we share with those around us Epistemology the science of knowing based on systems of knowledge that answer the question How do I know what I know Methodoogy Science of discovery based on empirical procedures of investigation I Ways of Knowing o 1 Personal Ordinary Experience or common sense Experiential Knowledge 0 a Subjective amp nontransferable o b Practical Rationality o 2 Tradition knowledge based in the past 0 a Religion amp Mythology Is what someone has told you in the past applicable today 0 b Halo Effect persuaded by status o 3 Experts amp Authority knowledge based on power Safe amp Simple o a False consensus group think 0 b Breakingdown with the information revolution o 4 Media based on stereotypes o a Knowledge vs Infotainment o b Amplification effect amp Misinformation echo chamber that mass media is o 5 Scientific empirical justifiable testable o a Science is only ONE way of knowing II Errors in Knowing o 1 Inaccurate Observations seeing the wrong this 0 a Unconscious or casual o 2 Overgeneralization premature closure 0 a One case is extrapolated to ALL cases 0 b Challenged through replication o 3 Selective Observation bias amp prejudice o a Dismiss deviance cases o 4 Illogical Reasoning Gamblers Fallacy 8282013 71400 PM Pillars of Science Research amp Theory 1 Research an ongoing process of producing systematic knowledge about the world o a Cumulative o b Methodical o c Empirical data driven o d Demonstrable to others IfI have been able to see further it was because I stood on the shoulders of giants Newton 2 Social Theory systematic explanation for the observations that relate to an aspect of the social world o a Interconnected abstractions or ideas that condense amp organize our knowledge 0 Logical ampTestable 0 Relevant but Parsimonious o b Concepts 9 Variables o Operationalization The Research Process connecting theory amp data Select topic focus question design study collect data analyze data interpret data inform others 1 Discover Social Regularities o a Avoid triviality amp recognize agency 2 Study Aggregates vs Individuals o a Suicide rates Emergence of Social Scientific Research Natural World Divine Spirituality As enlightenment science they re not equalnot linked changed our way of thinking from natural worlddivine amp its empirical reason amp understanding I Enlightenment o 1 Age of Reason 0 a Rational pursuit of truth 0 b Knowledge is empirical and NOT based in revelation or pure argumentation Importance of our sense amp experience Scientific knowledge is cumulative and progressive II Industrial Revolution o 1 The practical application of scientific research 0 a Technology amp the transformation of society 0 b Harnessing energy amp the rise of capitalism Marx o c Building of artificial worlds 0 d Research as a critical tool of social change III The Sociology of Research o 1 Research is done win a community organized around 0 a Universalism or openness b Skepticism or Critical Thinking c Objectivity or Nonbias d Honesty amp a code of ethics 0 O O Tensions in Social Research 1 Ideographic small scale micro vs Nomothetic Explanation large scale macro C Wright Mills grand theory 2 Inductive Empirical World to Abstract vs Deductive Abstract to Empirical 3 Determinism vs Agency 4 Going Qualitative vs Quantitative o a Quantitative numbers 0 Experimentation surveys secondary data existing stats o b Qualitative words images amp symbols 0 Content analysis field research historicalcomparative Dimensions of Research Research is done in different ways AND for different reasons A researcher has to make many decisions when conducting research 1 Use of Research Who is the research for o a Basic or theoretical research o b Applied Research most common 2 Purpose of a Study o a Exploration What is it o b Description How Who o c Explanatory Why 3 Time Dimension Comte o a Crosssectional snap shot o b Longitudinal when you look at something over a period of time eg census data o c Cohort analysis group w common experiences o d Case Study place
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