Contemporary Race SOC 205
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Daphney Will on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 205 at Colorado State University taught by Matthew Aronson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/210072/soc-205-colorado-state-university in Sociology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Soc 205 Final Exam Study Guide 1 The sociological de nition of racism is that it is not a belief opinion prejudice dislike or discomfort but it is a system of group privilege that favors whites either intentionally or unintentionally 2 African Americans are twice as likely as white Americans to have low birth weight babies due to more stress hormones from real or perceived racism 3 Saying that race is a structura phenomenon means that it is a social construct 7 the concept of race has not always existed it was created by society and is perpetuated by societal structure If we observe patterned regularities in people s life chances that correspond to racial categories race matters systematically Systematic differences are present in political attitudesin uences social status and esteem beauty standards wealth income and wages wealth and assets and unemployment 4 Racialization is the process of categorizing people or differentiating between people on the basis of skin color Examples Development of slavery as an institution that has a color to it Music Church 5 Ahistorical Fallacy events that happened long ago matter less than recent events Plessy v Ferguson and the MillionMan March Individualistic Fallacy assumption that racism is committed only by individuals not society Denying that institutions can have racist effects Straw Man Fallacy arguments that do not make sense or are not relevant 6 In 1964 the unemployment rate for blacks with four years of collegeeducation was more than three times the unemployment rate of collegeeducated white workers Whitewashmg Race 72 7 White middle class arose in American society after WWII largely due to the GI Bill which boosted white s upward social mobility by giving them larger pensionsmore savings job education and training programs making it easier to go to college VA mortgage loan programs Blacks were more prevented from enlisting in the military so these benefits automatically went primarily to white families Many govemmentsubsidized mortgages FHA used racist criteria to assess one s creditworthiness After the New Deal many blacks were denied Social Security benefits elderly poor assistance unemployment insurance and admission to colleges Urban Renewal policies led to relining and the formation of projects 8 Info Found on page 74 if reference needed In the 1970s the whitecollar breakthrough was possible because affirmative action policies and antidiscrimination laws were put in place in all industries Segregated jobs were abolished in the south allowing blacks to move from blue collar jobs to whitecollar jobs Gains in education did not produce the growth of the African American middle class rather the governmental policies did The growth of federal spending in the 1960s created more professional managerial and technical jobs in state and local government so most jobs gained by A As were in social welfare and education agencies Public sector created more jobs for them higher entrylevel wages more jobs Working for the government vs for McDonalds 9 What assumptions do conservative racial realists make about race and higher education 0 As stated on page 73 conservative racial realists make the assumption that the gains in education for the African Americans in the 1960s produced the growth of the AA middle class 72 They also assume that income always rises with the increase of education because educated black workers were more vulnerable to unemployment and wage discrimination than uneducated blacks That standardized test scores predict success job world That if a black person graduates from college the will have higher lifetime earnings While these two things are correlated they are not as strongly correlated as other predictors 10 How do the authors of Whitewashmg race explain the college graduation disparity between blacks and whites The authors articulate that the best predictors of college graduation are whether or not the student s parents graduated college and the net worth of the student s household White students receive far more economic support from their families at every American University than do black students Blacks also have substantially less wealth than white households which affects the graduation rates because home equity is the most important asset used to finance college and it is the best predictor for college graduation Also historically white colleges do not create a very accepting environment for black students 11 How do the authors explain the high imprisonment rate among black Americans It begins with discrimination in the police force which accounts for higher arrests of African Americans Discrimination happens in the juvenile system a lot more than in the adult court system so by the time blacks are adults they have already been impacted by the racism Small disparities in the criminal justice system over time account for a large disparities over the long run Adding to this the factors that are prevalent in black communities such as higher unemployment few effective public social programs and the resulting pressure on black families all add to the disadvantage of black youth in the system Another factor that causes the high imprisonment rate is that authorities perceive blacks to have a smaller chance to achieve a crime free life after arrest because of lack of recourses so they opt for custody instead of release of criminals into the community The courts also have a tendency to put African Americans juveniles into programs like mental health intervention or drug treatment which leaves a record of prior incarceration which will then be used against them to create a greater chance of future incarceration 12 Conservative Racial Realists explain the high imprisonment rate among blacks by saying that blacks are disproportionately represented in the criminal justice system because they disproportionately commit crime They attribute this disparity to the fact that blacks commit more crime They say that the blacks crime rate is higher than the national average which is a fallacy all on its own They believe that their behavior is in uenced by their social context which can be explained by structural advantage 13 The authors argue that mass imprisonment among blacks is actually a contributing factor of high crime in black communities How can this be so According to the authors this happens because the children and adolescents in the mainly black communities loose the important gures in their lives to the criminal justice system so they loose their ability to control themselves in society The rise in imprisonment rates of African Americans has led to a decreased ability for black men to attain steady work which then leads to a greater reliance on crime 14 Can you sensibly explain the link between socioeconomic inequality and crime The authors explain the link between socioeconomic inequality and crime very simply Inequality and J oblessness lead to family disruption loss of mother father brother uncle Etc to criminal justice system Family disruption then leads to increased crime Inequality also leads to neighborhood disorder which then leads to higher surveillance which then creates higher a1rest rates of the people living in those neighborhoods 15 Can you summarize the colorblind argument about af rmative action In other words what is principled opposition In order to have a colorblind society attention cannot be brought to any one race and af rmative action adds to color consciousness The authors claim that the policy shifts form outlawing racial classi cations to legalizing race conscious policies Principled opposition is treating Everyone equally Everyone regardless of race should be have equal opportunity from birth 16 Do you know the difference between disparate treatment and disparate impact What did the Supreme Court say in its 1971 decision Griggs v Duke Power Co Disparate Treatment is intentional discrimination in the workplace whereas disparate impact is using tests or policies that unintentionally impact a certain group The SC stated that if aptitude tests or HS diploma requirements disparately impact a speci c group the company has to prove that the test is a reasonable measure of job performance 17 According to the authors what is the primary goal or aim of af rmative action policies To outlaw intentional discrimination and to replace public racial classi cations with colorblind laws 18 Do racially polarized elections happen inthe US What are majorityminority districts Does racial bloc voting happen in the US Yes it s when whites overwhelmingly prefer a different candidate than racial minorities Majorityminority districts where majority of residence are part of a racial or ethnic minority 19 Can you summarize the US Supreme Court s stance toward representational injury Representational injury only occurs when it affects whites according to the Supreme Court 20 In terms of voting rights and political redistricting how can colorblindness more accurately be described as colorconsciousness Political redistricting and gerrymandering originally put in place to group minority races to help representation are colorconscious because they occur along racial lines Representational injury supreme court came up with concept Happens when a person is denied the right to be politically represented in an equal way Shaw vs reno supreme court established stance on this concept When race is used as a deciding factor in drawing boundaries Only when whites are Racialization the extention of racial meaning to an institution that had previously not had a color Country music Rap music Churchs Baptist catholic the consolidation of racial slavery 1500s transatlantic slavery trade The development of slavery as an institution that has a color to it The Ahistorical fallacy the assumption that events that happened in the past matter less in recent history in terms of shaping social history Recent events are more important Pessy vs fergusson less important for contemporary conditions
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