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Writing Arguments

by: Bonnie Hoppe

Writing Arguments CO 300

Bonnie Hoppe
GPA 3.69

Jeremy Proctor

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Jeremy Proctor
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bonnie Hoppe on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CO 300 at Colorado State University taught by Jeremy Proctor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/210105/co-300-colorado-state-university in Composition at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
Reading Quiz Notes quotMerck s Open Lettersquot pg 189199 1 Rhetorical Challenges A perception of its causal relationship to the events crisis accidental or intentional bc company sold product they knew hurt consumers B Merck s attempt to demonstrate the accidental nature of the crisis who should ve been the designated spokesperson for the corporation C stories appeared in the media questioning Merck s marketing ofVIOXX and its handling of the date from various trials Merck crafted responses for various audiences media scientists public 2 Principles of Ethos A rhetoric provide insight into the means by which a speaker cultivates the ethos that will give him credibility with an audience speaker must demonstrate good sense good moral character and goodwill Aristotle says ppl may form false opinions bc of lack of good sense or linking good sense with good moral character quotfail to recommend what they know to be the best course 9 true opinion B Good moral character the result ofvirtues such as justice courage temperance magnanimity and quotall such qualities as being excellences of the soul others wealth honor and reputation bc they are quotproductive of many other good things C speaker must convince listeners that he wishes good things for them at no benefit for the speaker D Precepts for ethos honest commitment to knowledge formation of true opinions amp willingness to express them commitment to safety 3 Open Letters A Secondary narrative a company facing a crisis counters the primary narrative of events described 11 the media w its own retelling of those events in a more favorable interpretation B exordium writer attempts to create rapport w the readers by insisting that he is answering questions amp correcting inaccurate info C confirmation the proof offered includes personal pronouns eg quotwequot D straightforward syntaX of active voice verbs amp declarative independent clauses 9 synecdoche 4 Con icts A public s feeling of helplessness from medical bills speech included matters of and personal safety B secondary narratives argues not the events but their interpretation C writers must rely on audience analysis clarity of purpose amp applied principles ofpersuasive credibility also active voice confident tone direct syntax amp emphasis on sentences to support persuasive principles quotRogerian Argumentquot pg 447460 dyadic involve 2 ppl or 2 groups of ppl 1 Makes it possible for readers to consider another position on the issue a reduces audience s feelings of threat b quotwinningquot making it possible for the opponent to consider alternatives c all parties must share a common interest in solving the problem or dispute by a mutually satisfactory solution aspects intent purpose amp product Roger s Rule the other s position must be restated satisfactorily before you may state your own 2 quotthe stronger our feelings the more likely it is that there will be no mutual element in the communication a movement towards understanding can be initiated by a neutral 3ml person facilitator quotConstitutive Rhetoric in MLK s 39LB pg 243260 1 Text Rhetoric a Interpretive frame the agency of the rhetor refers not just to the use of character appeals but also to the way that rhetors place themselves win a network of communicative relationships Demands attention to therhetor s construction of self construction of the audience the enactment win the teXt of the relationship bw rhetoramp audience b uses direct address introduces all of his refutations w the use of 2 1 person pronoun you and gives a response in first person this localizes personalizes and dramatizes the issues in the civil rights debate clergymen function rhetorically as a synecdoche representation of the larger audience King wanted to reach repetitive form allows King to disagree w his audience while still remaining consub stantial w it Appeals to Authority heroic figures quotations c quotdual pattern balanced judgment King responds to the allegations against him 1St on an immediate practical level amp then on the level ofprinciple first refutation provides a clear illustration of that strategy eXtremism technique achieves its most powerful articulation intensity of conviction combines restrained practical judgment w a passionate determination to overcome injustice 9 faith love ampjustice channel the passion s energy d longest sentence is 331 words syntaX arrangement suspends the completion of the sentence reader must wait until final 11 words for closure 2 Persona ampAudience a actual confinement in the jail is a necessary condition for the metaphor to work b King displayed as an agent who can elevate the audience by forcing it to acknowledge its sins of omission and by demanding consistency bw its actions amp highest values c audience quoteavesdroppersquot constructed as an effort to induce ppl in power to effect change d aimed at white people but power behind protest won t happen wo black involvement his immediate situation his imprisonment critical of his white audience but not alienated by it ethos fears amp social protest quotThe Maker s Eye 1 First Drafts a Prolific business writer calls it the quotzero draft b Writers must learn to accept criticism of others amp be suspicious ofit c Most problems are bc writers are too proud of what they have written d Good writing is essentially rewriting 2 Things writers should look for when revising information meaning in the information audience form genre vehicle that carries meaning to the reader structure the order of what has been written development dimension pleasing amp effective proportion among all the parts of the piece h voice expresses the authors authority amp concern writer must then read aloud to themselves maker s eye sees need for variety amp balance should never be satisfied a piece ofwriting is never finished just done bc ofa deadline warming quotThinking About Multimodality pg 411429 Multimodal texts exceed the alphabetic and may include still and moving images animations color words music and sound writers have more control over the text than ever before b c of computer technologies 1 Students need to be experienced amp skilled in creating multiple modalities 2 The definitions of quotcompositionquot amp quottextsquot need to grow amp change to re ect ppls literacy practices in new digital communication environments a effective technologies function invisibly in our lives sometimes 3 the authoring of compositions that include still images animations video and audio is ENGAGING a multimodal texts may bring the 3ml appealpathos back into comp classes 4 Audio amp visual composing requires attention to rhetorical principles of communication 5 teaching multimodality is one pathway to accomplishing longvalued pedagogical goals a opportunities to think and compose multimodality can help us develop an increasingly compleX amp accurate understanding of writing composition instruction and teXt 5 Key Questions When I teach multimodal composing am I really teaching composition writing provides an additional means of persuasive communication productionamp reception to produce amp interpret Why should English composition faculty teach multimodal composing create meaning in teth amp interpret meanings from teth When you add a focus on multimodality to a composition class what do you give up IfI teach multimodal composition will the focus on technology detract in significant ways from a focus on rhetorically based composition instruction teachers should start slowly and small Does my school have the digital equipment that a composition class might need for multimodal assignments quotThe Vocabulary of Comics pg 263299 1 Icon any image used to represent a person place thing or idea a Symbol one category oficon these are the images we use to represent concepts ideas and philosophies b Language science and communication c Nonpictorial icons meanings are fixed amp absolute meanings are uid and variable in pictures words are abstract icons 2 simplifying characters and images toward a purpose can be an effective tool for storytelling in any medium a cartoon imagery is universal humans assign identities and emotions where none eXist sense of shape sense of general arrangement b our identities belong permanently to the conceptual world They can t be seen hear smelled touched or tastedthey re just ideas masking effect c pictorial vocabulary


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