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Fundamentals of Ecology (GT

by: Kirstin Kuhic

Fundamentals of Ecology (GT SOCR 220

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Soil Science > SOCR 220 > Fundamentals of Ecology GT
Kirstin Kuhic
GPA 4.0


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This 261 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kirstin Kuhic on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCR 220 at Colorado State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/210116/socr-220-colorado-state-university in Soil Science at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 09/21/15
CLIMATE Part II LANDSOCR 220 Vegetation gradient in north America as a function of MAP Desert Prams Mesophync Oakluckory loresl Oak Dry a fares woodland grass ands cm nnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnn uh nnnnnnnnnnnnn as nnnnnnnnnnnnnnn g Vegetation gradient in North America as function of MAT Tropicai Subtropical Temperate Temperate Boreal Tundra t fo est mixed forest forest commune Purim Education in mixing swim Cummings What Are the Major Influences on I emperature 0 Solar Energy 0 Re ection 0 Elevation 0 Water 0 Cloud Cover 0 Degree of Air Movement Latitudinal Impacts on Temperature Different Latitudes Different Temperatures Elevational Impacts on Temperature Air pressure Lapse Rate 35 Degrees for every 1000 Feet Air psroessure and e gt Ititude A Ulude km 3 Air 39 r noiecules Air density Arr pressure High cawnghmznu Mm Educanon m Dubhilvmg n Bummm Cummwgs Characteristics of Air 0 1 cubic inch weighs 147 pounds at W level Weighs less as you go higher so pressure is higher at sea level A n m m S A 101111 lt Highest recorded see Ieve1 pressure mm mb 5201 in 7 107 Agata Siberia December1968 1050 lt Highssl recorded sea Ieve1 prassum in Unired States 71051 1054 mb 3142 m Miles City Montana Decambsr1953 71040 lt Strong high pressure system smicyclons 71030 1020 51010 4 Average sea level pressure 101325 mb129921n 4010 990 950 lt Strong row pressure syslem cyclone 930 920 lt Hurricane Andrew August 1992 922 mb12723inb 50 4 Hurricane Gilbe Semsmbensea Bee mb 2520 in a 0 870 lt Lowest recorded sea 1eve1 pressure 370 mb 2570 in e 550 Typhoon 11p Omober1979 350 How Do We Measure Pressure Barometer Normal Pressure2992 inches of mercury Drop in pressureair is heating Riseair is cooling What Happens When Pressure Differences Exist Pressure Gradient Wind from High to Low Pressure Zones Short Distance High Velocity Long Distance Equalization Process Clouds Block Out Sun Cloud Cover Clouds Keep in Heat Why do we have precipitation 0 Relative Humidity and saturation 0 Why is Humidity Relative o What is the Dew Point Temperature and Moisture Content definitions Latent heat energy releasedabsorbed during change of state eg liquid to vapor Evaporation transformation of liquid to gas Condensation transformation of gas to liquid Vapor Pressure VP water vapor acts as gas exerts pressure Sat vapor pressure water vapor content at saturation Relative Humidity amount of water vapor in air as expressed as a percentage of the saturated VP Dew point temp for a given parcel of air the temp at which sat VP is achieved Temperature and moisture content Relative current VP X100 humidity 7 saturation VP Saturation vapor pressure at current air temperature Saturation vapor pressure Current vapor H20 vapor pressure MPa pressure Dew point Current air temperature temperature Temperature C ccwighlaznns Poznan Education in Dubiishingzs Ennpiniii Cummings Precipitation and Latitude Atmospheric Rising air mass cools circulation cells resulting in precipitation Peak in 1 WF W rainfall w l H H rising air so 200 masses ITCZ V Troughs In A 70 Descgndlng A descending 5 dry 393quot mass E air masses E z 9 Q 5 a 1 5 Q 1 lt lt E 60 30 0 30 6O 90 South Latitude North caplight a ma Psalmquot 24mm lnc puhlishma a Eanmm Himmlng What sets off Precipitation 0 Convectional Precipitation 0 Orographic Precipitation 0 Cyclonic or Frontal Precipitation Wetwindward versus dryleeward MauipHawaiimnlsl andSumnq nu mm Cummhvus What is this thing called ENSO Its Global event and is short for El NinoSouthem Oscillation Large scale interaction between oceans and atmosphere El Nino is when waters of the eastern Paci c are unusually warm the result is a weakening of the low latitude easterlies Southern Oscillation is the change in the surface pressure between southeastern tropical Paci c regions and the AustralianIndoneasian area Occurs of the western coast of S America Normal Conditions 1 Strong trades winds move h as ve km Water westward p 2A5 Water W moves west it warms Winds Movement of water 3 As water v It brings lots of rain To region a Normal conditions Copyright c mus pmun maxim ln publixhing a Bunmm Cumming El Nino Conditions Trade wind die and La Nina is when cold rain follows warm waters cause eastern lncre ass water east F d nvec1ion Paolflc to cool I Winds W Equator 1 Movement lndanesi of water Winds b El Ni o conditions Copyright a 2m Frauen 91mm ln pumme u Bummm Cummani Six Important Factors 0 Airtemperatures Surface water temperatures 0 Sea level pressure Cloudiness 0 Wind speed 0 Wind direction Warm cvcnl Index Cold event El Nino E Nina Events l l 1 1955 195a 1965 1970 1975 1950 was 1590 1995 Yea onwngmeznb Pwsun 9mm m pubHsmngas swam cummmg INSO index based on six factors 2mm El Nl u Ln Ni a Prairie do A 0A ulations linked to Climatic variabilitv proportion extinct l num ber extinct 10 40 tquot 2 C gt2 398 3 a U39 a CD 39I 3 08 8 g 57 CD 8 i E 04 4 g 0 z D 0 e 5 a 02 2 I I I I I o 1980 1982 1984 1988 1988 1990 1992 1994 1998 1998 2000 2002 Year Vertical lines indicate E1 Ni o years Stapp Antolin and Ball 2004 What is Climate 0 Average Conditions 0 Data from Several Years Can Classify Climates What data can we use Temperature Precipitation Koppen System 1918 Wladimir Koppen Mean Monthly Temperature Annual Temperature 0 Annual Precipitation TR C C CONTINENTAL M m Mama Am Humm Warm Summev Dla rm E Savanna Aw Humvd Cool Summer1D z ow Subpmar DID DHYLANDS Pom mum Sh We Minors Lal39 e1ESk mde Law Lamude wn El D55 Middle Lamu nav m E 3 NE sumacle Highland 1 Manna West cam cm ClimateEcosystem Types Savanna Wet Summers Dry VWnters Grasslands Monsoon Climates Hot Deserts Hot temperatures esp in summer Very little precipitation lt5OO mmyr Little vegetation clr trestla v Iwuzuiwsnwmas a mo mamaan Mediterranean Climate Warm Winters Winter Rains Plants Grow Yearround Marine West Coast More Rain in Winter Cooler Temperatures than Mediterranean Small of the Earth I Humid Tropical Convectional Summer Precipitation Warm Summers Warm Winters Year round rainfall Humid Temperate Continental Usually hot Summers Cold V nters Convectional Summer Precipitation Frontal V nter Precipitation 7 7 Subarctic and Arctic Climates Long Cold Winters Short Cool Summers Little Precipitation Tundra Permafrost What Changes the Natural Climates Nature Volcanoes Ice Ages shifts in the Earth s orbit rotation o Humans Industrial Automotive Competition LAND506R 220 Key ideas Compe ri rion use or defense of a resource by one individual Tha r reduces The availabili ry o Tha r resource To o rher individuals In rraspecific compe ri rion among The same species In rerspecific compeTiTion be rween differen r species Superior compe ri rors survive of lower resource levels Read Tansley s rudy on pp 364365 Resource level Resource availability Species A Species B Population density Names to Know David Tilman The Book Resource Compefifon and Commgm fy Structure organizes modern ideas of competition Tilman defines resource something that can be consumed and have its amount be reduced consumers use resources for maintenance 6 growth when its availability is reduced biological processes are affected reducing population growth Types of Resources Non renewable noT regeneraTed eg space Renewable consTanle regeneraTed or replenished From exTernal sources eg sunlighT DirecT InTernal regeneraTion eg prey IndirecT InTernal regeneraTion eg nuTrienTs ThaT are released during decom osiTion buT noT direchl Taken up by The organism leasT imporTanT for lab compeTiTion sTudies likely very imporTanT in naTure LimiTing Resource Liebig39s Law of The Minimum The resource ThaT resTricTs growTh SomeTimes There is colimiTaTion by muITipIe resources Competitive Exclusion Competitive Exclusion Principle two species cannot coexist indefinitely on the some limiting resource The idea works when two Species compete in the some space for the some resources Population density Figure 19 Grown separately KEY P aurelia P caudatum Exler39i en r b Gause 1934 with Two Types of Paramecium Separately hey reach similar Grownin car39r39ymg capacny mixedculture Together curela 39 ou rcompe res caudafum 0 2 4 6 81012141618 Days Model for compeTiTion LogisTic gr39owTh equaTionidN N rN1 Ej dt This model includes inTr39a specific compeTiTion WhaT if anoTher39 species were pr39esenT consuming resources and reducing The effecTive carrying capaciTy for39 The oTher39 species CoexisTence is possible if compeTiTion is weak meaning ThaT inTr39aspecific wiThin species compeTiTion is sTr39onger39 Than inTer39specific beTween species compeTiTion Competition described by Volterra39s model Competitor A o The coefficient rANA dNA dt a and a Kquot N aABNB deseribe the A effect of competition on the carrying Competitor B capacity dNB KB NBaBANA rBNB d1 K3 Coexistence occurs when alt1 What alt1 means Coexistence is possible when interspecific competition is weaker than intrciSpecific competition NaTur39al observations of compeTiTion CompeTiTion may be difficulT To see because The loser39s ofTen disappear39 Invasive s ecies I r39ovide a window inTo The dynamics of a compeTiTive inTer39acTion Successive inTr39oducTions of The par39asiToid wasps from The genus Aphy s in 5 California illusTr39aTe This exclusion Lab sTudies show ThaT The second inTr39oduced species had a higher39 neT r39epr39oducTive r39aTe f i ure 139 10 39 194839 Barbaia KEY A chrysomphali A lingnanensis A melinus The paradox of competition and nutrient availability Tllman Grimes high nutrient availability low water 6 nutrients means less nutrient leads to greater limitation and less space between plants interspecific and less interspecific competitionquot competition Assumes belowground Assumes aboveground resources nutrients resources li ht dominate competitive dominate interactions competitive Interactions The answer is likely that competition varies depending on the system Types of Competition 39 Exploitation competition direct competition through mutual effects on shared resources Interference competition consumers profitably defend resources through antagonistic behaviors defense or a territory by animals chemical competition quot Allelopa39l39hy I3939iih V v 5 1 4 Release 0 che icols i To offec r The 4 ou rcome of compe ri rion Example Sagebrush releases compounds Tho r r39educe plon r gr39ow rh and seed germination httpwwwprstatemtusinsideprprlibrarysagebrushbuIletinasp Classic study in competition Connell 1961 studied two Species of barnacles that lived in the rocky intertidal zone of Scotland Balanus dominated in the deeper lower and middle intertidal Produces a heavier shell and grows more rapidly Chthamalus dominates only in the upper intertidal Better survives desiccation at low tides The two compete for space Figure 1916 Balanus balanoides Chthamalus stellatus Highest 7 7 77 I a tides Upper intertidal Balanus dessicates in this zone zone allowing Chthamalus to thrive Middle intertidal Where it can survive Balanus ne outcompetes Chthamalus for space Lower intertidal i flagms sawed to pieaationin zone the lower tidal zon e Lowest 7 69 Connell removes Balanus from the lower and middle zones finds that Chthamalus can grow there too Balanus outcompetes Chthamalus in the middle amp lower but Balanus cannot tolerate dessication PredaTor39s can deTer39mine The ouTcome of compeTiTion STr39onJ co I eTiTor39s can exclude oTher39 species buT someTimes Those compeTiTor39s ar39e TasTy Bob Paine 1974 sTudied inTer39TIaaI zone species composiTion wiTh The pr39edaTor39 sTar39fish and w en The pr39edaTor39 had been experimenTally r39emoved Paine found ThaT Mussels dominaTed The compeTiTion for39 space when The sTar39Tish were removed Figure 19 9 c b Competition in ecology 39 Even if an organism CAN live in a habitat sometimes it is absent or rare due to competition Ecological experiments Who is the competitor What is the resource Removal 0139 competitors Addition of extra resources Community Ecology II LAND506R 220 Community ecology context Interactions of populations types of interactions ado totions for this bioloicaquot environment Dynamics of interactions Predation LotkaVolterro equation functional responses Comgtition resources Volterra equation coexistence allelopathy oevolgtion d Mutglism antagonisms types 6 exam les of coevolutionar 6 mutualistic s stems Community ecology con39l39eX l39 39 Whole community structure natural unit of ecological organization food webs rrophic cascades Ioaay community Development Succession patterns amp mechanisms Sauerkraut Recipe 10 lbs shredded Jr39een cabbaJe 6 Tablespoons canning or39 pickling sal r Mix in r39edien rs in a 5 gallon s rone cr39ock Sal r will re ease juices amp cover39 cabbage leaves Keep Top leaves submerged benea rh a weigh red dinner39 pla re or39 waferfilled bag To pr39o rec r from air39 Keep a r 70 F for39 56 weeks Op rional r39emove scum Twice weekly Stages in Sauerkraut developmen39l Sal r addi rion genera res osmo ric imbalance Tha r drives wa rer OUT of leaves Expelled fluids are food for microbes spores were on The cabbage in The firs r place All dissolved oxygen is consumed rapidly so only Termen ra rive microbes survive Cabbage sugars 9 lac ric acid CO2 Ecological succession in sauerkraut P Time Leuconostoc mesenterOIdes I I my to i as Lactobacillus cucumeris a o x m 1 c a n lt Mechanism underlying succession in microbes Leuconosfoc produces lac ric acid as a by produc r of fermen ra rion pH goes down un ril if is Too low for Leuconosfoc Lac fobaCIYus cucumers becomes dominan r and con rinues To produce lac ric acid Combina rion of physiological Tolerance amp com e ri rion 39 ield These a r rerns How does growth rate respond A Growth Rate How does growth rate respond A Growth Rate Succession Defined Succession is The dir39ec rionol and confinuous pa r rer39n of colonizo rion and ex rinc rion on a si re by species New nobIToTs or39e oTTen cr39eoTed by dis rur39bonce dis rur39bance r39es rar rs The successionol clockquot Succession mosT conspicuous Si commonly s rudied in plon r communi ries Time per39iods described as early or39 Io re successionol Successional Patterns ul39m1 u gut 83 3E Eg 58 ganmrw Courtesy of httpIJWgeng uchccalphysgeogl cuntentsmihtml and the people who created it thanks Annual Perennial Shrubs Sn woagl Hardwood Plants Plants and Trees Pines Trees Grasses Time h Colonization of sand dunes Successional stages Exam Ie ores Examgle sand dune Grass Marram grass Scrub pine seedlings Under39J39Wnd Young pine fores r rhiz m es Shrubs on 3533 in pine accumulated li r39rer amp 0 es nutrients Mixed pine amp oak 39 Trees Oak 6 other hardwoods Pond 1390 bog guccession Types of succession Degrada rive succession serial replacemen rs on dead organic ma r rer by microbes amp de rri rivores Primary succession occurs on habi ra rs previously lacking plan rs sand dunes lava flows amp o rher bare surfaces generally lacking a seed bankquot Secondar succession is following dis rurbance af rer blowdown or logging These Types are general ca regories Tha r can be blurred eg depending on severi ry of dis rurbance Gaps in secondary succession 39 Small disturbances can eliminate one or a few individuals from a late successional community These gaps are pockets where successional stage is pushed back 39 Gaps are a persistent part of the landscape because death is inevitable The quotclimaxquot concepT CIemenTs 1916 believed ThaT one of 14 disTincT cli ax co uniTies was an ineviTabIe r39esulT of panT developmenT aT The end of SUCC SSIOH He Thou hT var39iaTions in The composiTion were due To IsTur39bances InTer39r39upTIng succession WhiTTaker39 1953 recognized ThaT IaTe successional species composiTions can vary widely depending on local condiTions amp gap dynamics climax idea replaced by dynamic sTeadysTaTequot Example climax for39esTs var39y conTinuously in Wisconsin beech hemlocn aspen depending on Temper39aTur39e moisTur39e amp oTher39 condiTions Succession Mechanisms Why does succession happen Two factors determine when a species becomes established in a successional sequence How readily does it invade How does it respond to the changes that OCCLlf39 during SUCCESSIOH Connell amp Slayter 1977 organized the important processes for Species be avior in succession facilitation inhibition 6 TOlerunec Facilitation Colonizers enable the invasion of other species by providing needed nutrients or conditinos Alder trees fix N2 allowing Nlimited spruces to invade on developing soils Marram grass on sand dunes stabilizes the dunes produces litter that accumulates and provides nutrients Inhibition One species inhibits another through predation or competition As long as individuals of earlier colonists persist they exclude or suppress colonists of all species Early colonizing shrubs may slow the growth of tree seedlings Colonizing marine organisms living on hard substrates prevent later colonization 39 Species composition at latesuccessional stages may depend on who arrived first chance Tolerance Term refers To Tolerance of la rer successional species arl occu an rs ake habi ra r less sui rable To early successional species bu r have no effec r on recrui rmen r of la rer successional species Juveniles of la resuccessional species grow despi re confinued presence of heal rhy individuals of earlysuccession species In Time earlier species are elimina red Succession con39l39inues Succession conTinues unTil no species can invade and grow in The presence of The r39esidenT Fur39Ther39 invasion can only occur39 Then when a r39esidenT individual is damaged or39 killed releasing a space In lanT succession lihT becomes limiTing sequence is from small To lar39ge gr39owTh for39m What determines success for trees late in succession Heigh r Ability To grow as a seedling under low light conditions Shade survival is driven by seed weight 50 0 Birch 40 O Sumac g Birch Pine 3 30 Tulip tree 3quot Maple g 20 E Locust 0 Oak 10 o 0 Chestnut 01 1 10 100 1000 Seed weight mg Fig 2215 Table 222 Table 222 General characteristics of early and late successional plants Characteristic Early Late Number of seeds Many Few Seed size Small Large Dispersal Wind stuck to animals Gravity eaten by animals Seed viability Long latent in soil Short Root I shoot ratio Growth rate Mature size Shade tolerance Low Rapid Small Low High Slow Large High How are the Early vs Late categories like rand K selected species Two important succession Tidbits seed viability mechanisms of dispersal Implications of seed viability 39 Early successional plan r Species produce seeds that can remain viable for many years These seeds are a seed bankquot of individuals That can germinate in bare soil condi rions No lag Time for diSpersal if they are already in place Physical forces dispersed The first colonizers To Krakm au O 120 Animaldispersed U1 9 100 0 amp 1 n 6 o Wmddlspersed 5 o E Seadispersed 3 40 E 2 20 o 1860 1880 T1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 1886 Year Figure 222 Community Ecology LAND506R 220 What is a community Ecology is divided hierarchically into levels like population community ecosystem global Thus community ecology is the study of a unit that arises from the interaction of populations Community assemblage of Species that live in the same place Views of Communities Clements Vegetation grows in community groups that are cohesive and distinct Holistic conceptquot a community is a superorganism whose functioning can only be appreciated when it is considered as an entire entity The functions of various species are connected like 39 arts of the bad and have evolved to enhance interdependent functioning Closed communityquot where coevolution among members is prominent Views of Communities Gleason Communi ry is a for rui rous associa rion of species whose adap ra rions and requiremen rs enable Them To live Toge rher under The physical and biological condi rions Tha r charac rerize a par ricular place Individualis ric concep r Tha r organiza rion is absen r above The species level Open communi ryquot where coevolu rion s uncommon amp diffuse Open vs Closed communities a Closed communities Ecotone Figure 214 Abundance lt lt b Open communities Abundance Environmental gradient An 010 he Figure 21 5 Whittaker puts Clements views to rest Examined plant species distributions as a function of environmental gradients a ound that s ecies are inde endentl distributed not in groups as predicted by Clements Ecotones are rare We still name communities by their dominant vegetation but recognize that plants and animals are widely independently distributed Whittaker results Figure 218 Siskyou Mountains Oregon 400 N O O Santa Catalina Mountains Arizona Stems per hectare A O O i 200x 7 0 Wetter lt Moisture gradient gt Drier Whittaker results Figure 219 Red oak Beech White oak E 1 5 2 0 chestnut 3 y quot g 1210 c O 1 5 910 Silejtnut Pme g chestnut 2 quot391 600 Wetter Moisture gradient gt Drier KEY I Percentage Beed l Whlte oak of trees 39 lt1 777777 7 I 1 10 I 10 50 Food webs NoT all consumers eaT The same Thing The sTr39ucTur39e of The food web is impor39TanT for39 under39sTanding energy and nuTr39ienT flows Individual species may exer39T sTr39ong conTr39ol or39 diver39se sysTems may show funcTional redundancy KeysTone species exer39T ver39y sTr39ong conTr39ol on communiT com osiTion Si funcTion httpwwwpittedumedartimageglossaryKEYSTONEJPG Keystone predator39s Figure 2110 Highest Pisaster Heliaster predators Intermediate Trophic levels Lowest herbivores Elimination of goldenr39od herbivore IIIUSTr39aTeS KeySTone reda ror39 Figure 2111 Trophic Cascades Hairston Smith amp Slobodkin 1960 H55 hypothesisquot that the earth is green because carnivores depress the populations of herbivores that would otherwise eat all the plants Idea of indirect effects of consumer resource interactions Top vs Bottom predators exert control on levels below Bottomup control that the amount of primary production controls the abundance of higher trophic levels 39 Ideas are prominently applied in studies oflakes er Tertiary consumer Secondary consumer 0 Primary 0 consumer Producer 0 Trophic pyramid Evidence for bottomup control a 1000 o 10 O O Zooplankton biomass pg per L o C C O C O Evidence of Topdown control b O gt Without fish With fish 1 E 1000 lt M an 3 0 3 o o a 0204 2 O 0 o o 100 N D E i 3 10 8 O N 1 01 1 10 100 1000 Chlorophyll pg per L Ideas of species abundance Ecology d ion amp abundance of species Dominan r species wi rhin a particular communi r a few dominan r species a r rain hig abundances while o rher39s are less frequen rly found There are man wa39 5 To summarize species abundance bu r no way is bes r for39 all cases Species abundance and importance 100 39 quotx o 0 10 N A o quotE 9 o o 1 o gt 0 5 a g K a 3950 01 5 0 quot9 0 001 a 0 0001 0 10 20 30 40 Least abundant Species Most abundant Note error in axis label 0MOST abundant SpeciesArea curves The number of s ecies 5 increases with the area AJ surveyed according to C39AZ where and lore constants 639 is the intercept Z is often higher in islands and lower in continental areas because disPersal is easier within continents 2 can also be larger due to greater habitat heterogeneity encountered over larger A Application of speciesarea curves Amphibians and reptiles West Indies 100 0 10 0 E 4 8 1 3 Birds Sunda Islands Malaysia 0 E 1000 1 E 2quot 3 4 Z 100 a O O 0 10 o 1 10 102 103 104 105 Island area miz Diversify indices 39 Species Richness ro ral number of species in an area Species Evenness having equal abundance of all Species That are present 39 Diversify indices weight species richness by relative abundance p allowing comparison of areas or Times Diversify indices Sim son39s Index 0 1 P D X p Simpson39s is simple and sensitive to the relative abundance of species i e depends heavily on the dominance vs evenness Diversify indices ShannonWiener Index H is fhe most H 2 217 lnpi COMquot0 7 Index is based on informa on theory how certain are you of The iden rity of The individual you selected Shannon Wiener Index is more sensitive To the occurrence of rare species ie i1 is based heavily on species richness 39 SW index is mos r commonly used Table 212 compares diversify indices Table 212 Comparison of diversity indices D H and e for hypothetical communities of ve species having differenl relative abundances Propor tion of sample represented by species Diversity index A B C D E D H e 020 020 020 020 020 500 1609 500 History and Biogeography LANDISOCR 220 The origin and maintenance of biodiversity Numbers of species increase at the regional level through speciation and immigration Chance Immigration extinction i T Species Regional Habitat Local Competitive PmduCthn diversity selection diversity eXCIUSIOH Mass Predatory extinction exclusion Because species tend to be habitat Ecological interactions specialists habitat selection connects in uence diversity at regional and local diversity local levels What drives regionalscale biodiversity Everything is not everywhere everything can not live everywhere niche everything can not get to everywhere dispersal Historic constrains on what lives where Time the number and types of species has unfolded over time evolutionary history Space the location of the earth39s land masses has changed geologic history History is not just the past it is part of the reason for the present Evolutionary hiS39l39ory How old is The ear rh Focus here on Three recen r eras in The his rory of life on ear rh Paleozoic 590 To 248 Mya mos r animal phyla ap eared coalforming fern fores rs ended w en 90 of species wen r exTincT Mesozoic 248 To 65 Mya recognized as age of dinosaurs and conifers Cenozoic 65 Mya To now age of mammals flowering plan rs insec rs birds Number of marine animal families Species Richness through the Ages 900 100 Fossil invertebrate z trilobite 551116 80 600 Ma 3 3 extinction 60 to 3 o H quoti 3 0 D 4o 9 9 300 Marine animals 5 Terrestrial plants 20 mnmmmmm Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic 600 400 200 0 Geologic time Mya The organization of The land masses has changed Changes in evoluTion coincide wiTh geologic changes ConTinenTs are lighT chunks of rock ThaT have floaTed To The Top and are drifTing around The surface of a boi ling earTh The locaTion of The conTinenTs has varied over Time in a way ThaT is imporTanT for The disTribuTion of Today39s organisms quot Antarctica Permian Period Cretaceous Period Early Tertiary Period 250 Mya 100 Mya 60 Mya Plate movement drives evolutionary divergence Vicariance is the splitting of populations by a physical barrier eg tectonic plates moving apart This allows divergence in populations 39 Historically these isolations have been important for increasing the global diversity of species South Africa Australia Er Australia New Zealand menca Ne 1MP Rhea Ostrih Cassowary Emu Kiwi Moa Iiil N Common ancestor Species invasions are not new When continental drift or climate change allows migration between two land masses species invasions follow Examples 6 MM North and South America were joined by the isthmus of Panama 7O Mya North America and Asia drew very close separated only by the Bering Sea 18000 ya and other times Glacial conditions lowered sea level and connected N America to Asia Number of ungulate genera in South America 2 1 Invaders from South America to north North America to south i o l Invaders from 0 O 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Mya Wha r mechanisms mighi39 explain The greater success of N American species vs 5 American species Vicariance allows examination of chance in evolution If evolution were allowed to proceed in Earallel in two places would the outcome e the same Do similar ecological pressures drive similar outcomes in evolution Convergence unrelated Species living under similar ecological conditions come to resemble one another more than their ancestors did Convergence Africa South America Royal antelope Agouti Pangolin Giant armadillo Surviving species have shown changes in their range Climate change is an important source of selection pressure Glacialinterglacial cycles have occurred on 50 100 ky cycles for the last 2 My 39 Surviving species of trees have had dramatic shifts in their range as the glaciers grow and recede What happens if the species range does not move as fast as climate changes Figure 2490 Thousands of years before present 12 10 1 9 Pine 1 32 is My xg if E Numbers of species increase at the regional level through speciation and immigration Immigration l Regional diversity l Mass extinction Species production Habitat selection Chance extinction T Local diversity l Predatory exclusion Competitive exclusion Because species tend to be habitat specialists habitat selection connects regional and local diversity Ecological interactions in uence diversity at local levels We expect similar communities to house similar numbers of species Assumes that local processes rather than regional processes are more important for biodiversity 39 Or if regional processes influence local communities then local diversity should be higher where regional diversity is higher Generally local diversity has been found to be a function of regional diversity Species diversity Figure 2413 0 Region 2 Regional effect OReglon 1 Habitat effect Habitat French Guiana v 0 82 a Iquot G 8 8 ul o 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Regional number of species Ecological range increases with d iver39si39ry AtlanticCaribbean High H o o o MH 0 O o M 0 LM L o Positionin D D1 I U U intertidal zone IndoWest Pacific Hon MHOOOO M O o 0 LM 0 o o 0 Low L O O 0 O D DI I U U lt Position in estuary Downstream Upstream Plant adaptations to their physical environment LAND SOCR 220 Plant adaptations to nutrients A Plants with high nutrient demand will do poorly in nutrient depleted soils B Plants with lower demand will grow more slowly and survive in nutrient poor systems Nitrogen is very important to C xa on Key element in proteins enzymes DNA chlorophyll il pH 7 a I l I F icrabial Microbial ina 39 39 mam Nitroge n r 7 WV Aluminum Calcium and imquot Phosphoric1 5 j Potassnur Leaching Leaching 39 Caiciur a nd Magnesium Sulfl Ir In n and Zinc Oxidea Oxidea and Siliaatea Mangane Le 8 Aluminur 1 C op pe r Leaching Dmidea Insolubilit39y 39 M39olybclenurn 9 Insoluble l39 alybdatea The big guys v vs a quot3 N obtained from atmosphere e M3 intensive 12 plant needs met by xation P mainly insoluble low Supply K primary minerals micas leached easily S fairly insoluble requires special microbes reduces pH Ca Mg easily leached More Plant adaptations to nutrients A Longer lived leaves in nutrient poor systems B Greater production of roots but C is allocated to roots at expense of leavesquot Importance of the Phenotype Phenotype genes environment geneenvironment interaction Natural selection has favored organisms that can modify their phenotype to be appropriate for different conditions Within the species range This modi cation is known as phenotypic plasticity Figure 911 Shadegrown Sungrown Needles Photosynthetic rate mg C02 per h per g 139 V I Low Medium High Light intensity Water adheres to soil particles Coarse sand Silt 0 70 33039 039 39 3390393 o o 003 o u 83033330 Oo39 0 Soil water Smaller soil grains greater surface area Matrix potential strength of forces holding water to the soil particles Units of pressure atmospheres more negative values attract water Transpiration amp water uptake Water potential of dry air 4332 atm 20 C 0 Vascular plants move water IOIIg mtemau distances Tensioncohesion theory Tensioncohesion theory The force required to move water within xylem elements is generated when water moves from the vascular vessels to leaf cells replacing transpiration losses water is literally pulled from me lUUlS to the stomates Adaptations to arid environments Stomate modi cations open amp close in response to plant water potential internal structures slow air movement Leaf modi cations increased surface area for heat dissipation pubescence teat hairs tthKen morst boundary layer formation of a waxy cuticle Plant nutrient uptake 0 Nutrients typically more dilute in environment than in the plant Active transport across raur rrrerrrurarre Symbiosis with fungi Often limited by root surface area so alter rootzshoot ratio Terrestrial organisms deal with salt problems Transpiration loss of water leads to salt accumulation in all leaves a Five things that everyone should know about global climate change LAND SOCR 220 At 13an those who wants to get an A in LAND800R 220 Outline Atmospheric C02 0 Greenhouse effect 0 Evidence for present 85 future change 0 Effects of change 0 What might be done 1 Atmospheric C02 There is no doubt that human activities are changing the concentrations of atmospheric C02 HAUNA LDA OBSERVATORY HAWAII MONTHLY AVERAGE CARBON DIOXIDE CONCENTRATION MUD145 4IlllllIlll 39 D 585 380 375 57quot0 565 360 355 550 545 340 335 330 525 320 315 C02 CON CE NTRATIOH PP M IIIIllIIIIIIIHIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIII39lIIIIIIIlllHIlIIIIIII IIIIIIIIlllIlIIlIIllIlIIIIIlllIIIIIIIIIIIIIlIl IIIIIIlIlIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlIlIIIIIIIIIIII 1958 60 62 64 66 68 7O 72 74 75 7393 60 82 84 86 88 9G 92 94 95 98 DO 02 04 YEAR 19May05 CUE MIXING HATIICI ppm 0 OJ C m L D M El CD LAW DOME ANTARCTICA ICE CORES Source Etheridge at al CSIHDJ 333 3 BEDS I h I I DEBS 2 I g 3 355 g 3 5 a A g Q 4 w um 1250 1500 1mm 2000 AI FI AGE YEAR AD The Global Carbon Cycle Atmospheric Pool 750 Rivers 04 DOC 0 4 DIC Soils 1500 Net destruction of vegetation 38000 Burial 0 Figure 111 The present day global carbon cycle All pools are expressed in units of 1039 g C and all annual uxes in units of 10 g Cyr averaged for the 19803 Most of the values are from Schimel et a1 1995 others are derived in the text 2 How does the greenhouse effect work Some gases absorb heat that would otherwise be lost to space re ected Visible amp emitted infrared light 0st to space infrared light absorbed by h greenhouse gases Visible ligh Atmosphere O O kJI O Earthlight C I N g o B 1 8 E 39C m Pd 3 There is strong evidence for present 85 future change t Departures in temperature quot6 trem the 1961 te 1990 average Variations of the Earth39s surface temperature fer 18 53 in a the past 140 years 71900 G LOBAL 1 920 Year t 940 I II n I ill tr39 l I llll I39I Date from thermemeters 1950 WED EDGE E Q Departures in temperature am I D in item the iiQBil to i990 average b the past 1000 years quot39lquot39lquot39lquot39lquot39l NORTHERN HEMiSPHEHE Data from thermometers red and from tree rings corals ice cores and historical records blue I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l I I I i 000 TI 200 i 400 ii 60 0 ii 800 2000 Year Global Circulation Models O Keep track of energy and its movement in land oceans and atmosphere 0 Coupled with socioeconomic predictions about how nations will use fossil fuels in coming century Predict the response of climate Temperature Change 13 d Temperature change I I I E 1 I I quotIquot M H Saleem rutjets A13 Iquot SHES 395 5 I 31 Made annealI1be 5 I all an E8 E E ISEEa rm mallled Esm39empe E 4 r quot u 39 All I I51 T I 3 39 l G39s l 1 39 1 r I I 2 39 i I lquot i 5 4rquot f I I Z I I 39l 39 I l I Bare ehzml the range in 2123 E E prcdueed by D I I 39 39 I I I 39 alewere ntdelg 273GB 2520 334D 2953 200 21GB fear Projected changes to human 85 natural systems Projected positive impacts 0 Increased timber harvest in well managed forests Increased crop yields in some areas for warming less than 2 C 0 Increased water supply for some areas eg parts of SE Asia 0 Reduced winter mortality at mid and high latitudes Reduced demand for heating energy Projected negative impacts 0 Reduced crop yields in tropical 8 sub tropical systems 0 Reduced crop yield with some variation in most temperate regions 0 Decreased water availability for water poor regions especially subtropics More negative impacts 0 Increased number of people exposed to waterborne eg cholera and vector borne eg malaria diseases 0 Increased deaths from heat stress 0 Widespread increase in ooding due to increased rainfall and sea level rise 0 Increased energy demand for cooling 10118 t I 39 whistle 0 ster Stadtm ll lquot Landscape Model l O O O I I LII O I Temperature Relative humidity gt 90 14 00 20quot Humidity 1 J O 1860 2350 2710 3000 Elevation m 1500 A O 0 Degrees centigrade C A O Windward The Trade Wind Inversion Landscape Model Windward slopes Ecotone Landscape Model Ecotone Landscape Model Ecotone Landscape Model quot 521 g L7 Landscape Model Ecotone What might be done Action vs Inaction Either way climate change will be costly The economic costs and bene ts will be distributed unevenly within and among nations regions and economic sectors Such decisions about costs and bene ts are decided politically 0 l h l I I quot lln Ma a hot at C ate change is all a banez ofdtea39cg Technologies exist that could make the difference Phase in technologies by 2050 to prevent the most severe c imate change impacts Us answer to global warming smoke and giant space mirrors Washington urges scientists to develop ways to re ect sunlight as insurance The Guardian Jan 27 2007 Do some of the following 15 O Increased automotive fuel ef ciency O Reduce automobile use O Make buildings more ef cient O Increase efficiency of coal red power plants O Replace coal usage with natural gas Do some of the following 68 0 Capture C02 at coal red power plants 0 Capture COZ at plants that make H2 from natural gas 0 Capture C02 at plants that make synthetic fuels from coal Store all captured C02 in geologic formations belowground Do some of the following 913 O Replace coal with nuclear power O Replace coal with wind power O Replace coal with solar photovoltaic power O Use wind to generate H2 for cars O Replace fossil fuel with biomass fuel Do 7 of the following 1415 0 Reduce deforestation 8 plant new forests Increase no till agriculture Biodiversity LANDSOCR 220 Biodiversity How many species and life forms axis in a given place Why Focus of diversity is Typically on species richness Diversify varies wi39l39h la39l39i39l39ude a Bivalve species diversity b Ant species diversity 39 39r r I Western Hemisphere I Europe Latitude 9 60 S 1 0 50 100 150 200 250 Number of species Biodiversity pa39r39rerns amp mechanisms There are generally more species of a given group or Taxa around The Tropics fewer near The poles in complex habi ra rs fewer in simpler habi ra rs where po ren rial evapo rranspira rion is higher Mechanisms hypo rheses higher energyTropics allow larger popula rions longer Trophic chains he rer ogenei ry in complex habi ra rs crea res more oppor runi ries for new species Productivity is related To diversify a b Habitat structure can outweigh importance of energy 25 Forest Complex habitat 3 20 structure 395 a o 3 15 Shrubland H g 399 Desert H o a 10 E 3 Grassland Marsh 2 5 o 0 Simple habitat structure 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Primary productivity g per m2 per yr MacArthur forest complexity amp bird biodiversity 3 i2 0 o o 39 o D 2 U a 0 1 391 3 o m 0 05 10 Foliage height diversity Diversity ideas amp Greek letters Local diversity alpha diversity a number of species in a small area of homogeneous habitat Beta diversity 3 Species turnover between habitats across the landscape 39 Regional diversity gamma diversity y total number of species in all habitats within a geographic area eg contains no significant barriers to dispersal Beta diversity expanded Regional diversity average local diversity beta 1 B a higher value of beta diversity means that there is greater turnover of Species from one habitat to another A completely homogeneous region would have beta 1 All species from the region were represented in all habitats Regions hold The species pool Species pool all species occurring in a region No r all species can Tolera re all condi rions Membership in a local communi ry is de rermined by organisms Tolerance ro local condi rions in rerac rions wi rh o rher organisms in rha r communi ry The loss of species from The region To local communi ry Species sor ringquot Species sor39Ting The niche Niche is The ecological role of a species in iTs communiTy The ranges of many condiTions and resource qualiTies wiThin which The organism or39 species persisTs ofTen conceived as a mulTidimensional space FundamenTal niche condiTions resources where a species can per39sisT Realized niche The r39esTr39icTed r39ange ThaT a species acTually exploiTs Smaller39 because of inTer39acTions wiTh compeTiTor39s exploiTer39s eTc Performance The Niche visualized Now imagine this pattern with many Xaxes e 9 temperature rainfall prey items nutrients V Condition or resource Ecological Release 39 Expansion of habitat and resource use by populations resulting from low interspecific competition in regions of low species diversity Imagine as realized niche space expanding to fill more of fundamental niche Diversify from The niche perspective Communities wi rh differen r numbers of species may differ because of one or39 all of These fac ror39s To ral communi ry niche space niche over39lap niche br39ead rh of individual species specialis rs vs generalis rs A Original condition 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 62323232 B Increased resource diversity C Increased ecological overlap 5 6 7 8 1234 WA K D Increased specialization Specializa39l39ion Specialization has received considerable a r ren rion from ecologis rs as a mechanism of increased biodiversi ry Specializa rion decreases in rerspecific compe ri rion includes developmen r of unusual mechanisms To escape preda rion should be favored leading To specia rion quotM 1 Myotis evotis Ratio of ear to forearm 08 06 04 02 Fifth digit Third digit KEY I Ontario Canada Cameroon West Africa 0 g O 10 15 20 Ratio of third digit to fifth digit Greater niche diversify downS39I39r39eam Headwater springs gt River mouths KEY Diet Fish Arthropods Algae and vascular plants Detritus Xiphophorus variatus Poecilia mexicana Gambusia regani Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum Astyanax fasciatus Dionda rasconis Ictalurus australis Cichlasoma steindachneri Notropis Iutrensis Flexipenis vittata Gobiomorus dormitor Ts U U M1 wmmmm Equilibrium theories for of species The number of Species in a place can be thought of as a balance between Species added and species lost On islands species are added most commonly by Immigration and lost most commonly by extinction At some point we would ex eat an equilibrium number of speCies though he identity of those speCIes may change On continents Species are added by both specmtion and Immigration Rate of immigration or extinction I Immigration E Extinction A 5 Number of species on island Species per year 1 E Small islands Large islands A l 5551 Number of species on island Species per year Near islands Far islands A Sf Sn Number of species on island Simberlaff rests Theory by fumigating islands Nearest island 20 Number of species present Defaunation 0123456789101112 Months Tree diversity 4 possible mechanisms for regulating tree diversity Environmental heterogeneity allows specialization amp coexistence Gaps created by disturbance provide an opportunity for specialization Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesisquot Herbivores amp pathogens have greater affect on common species than rare ones Competitive exclusion of trees takes a long time so added species remain longer Goldilocks in Ecology High disturbance environments are kept per tually at earlysuccessional stage with ear ysuccessional species Low disturbance environments stay in late successional stage with latesuccessional species just rightquot disturbance environments many gaps are a patchwork of early and late successiona species Intemediate disturbance hypothesis Herbivory amp pathogen pressure Consumers locate abundant resources easily Evidence from the frequent failure of monocultures due to pathogen infections Predict that seedlings should be less likely to establish themselves close to adults of the same species than far from them Evidence suggesting pathogen pressure Survival 00 N w A O O O H O Distance 111 Hot spotsquot of Biodiversity 4 of all species of vascular plants and 35 of all species in four vertebrate groups are con ned to 25 hotspots comprising only 14 21 mil km of the land surface of the Earth amp daptation na theme in biology connects all levels of biological organization lllvu 039 u 8 w enVIronment proteins v ms o uaz ion 39 L community physiology development ons U G Early History Ancient philosophers explained nature in terms 0 What they imagined to be true Not based on observation I In 15005 Eurooean philosoohers began to exhibit discontent al Climate Geologists were beginning to make estimates that the earth was considerably older than explained by biblical reation A concept called uniformitarianism Charles Lyell the hypothesis that present conditions and processes are the key to the past Discoveries of fossils were accumulating during the 18th and 19th centuries explanation for the physical similarity among groups of organisms and proposed a mechanism for adaptive change based on the inheritance of acquired characteristics eg giraffe necks Darwin s Finches from volcanoes Finch ancestors came from South America Different islands different environments Today each island has own species Darwin s Obsewations rupumuuns nave inherent potential increase ex onen aquot Darwin s Obsewations Populations are fairly constant in size over long periods of times Darwin s Obsewations watu ra I reso LI TCES are limited Competition important in limiting survival Darwin s Obsewations I nere IS varlatlon already present nonulation amp variations are inknriInrl Darwin s Deductions I SOIIIc Ulganlallla survive There i quot 39UU39 39 existence among IIuas in population Darwin s Deductions Individuals with favorable variations more likely to survive and rr 39 quot Darwin s Deductions AccumL over many generations is evolution When great enough a new species A gradual process Natural Selection Requires For natural selection to occur two requirements are essential There must be heritable variation for some trait Examples beak size color pattern thickness of skin fleetness associated with the possession of that trait Unless both these requirements are met adaptation by natural selection cannot occur Some examples If some plants grow taller produce more ottspring but not because they have the genes to grow tall No evolution will occur If some individuals are faster than others because of differences in their genes but the predator is so much faster that it does not matter then no evolution will occur eg if cheetahs ate snails In addition choose among existing varieties In a population Variants do not arise beca arise by random processes governed by the laws of genedcs The central point is the chan some of which is adaptive and the weeding out by natural selection or the best adapted varieties What Exactly are Species All have differences within them Traits in population Mme Eventually new species arise h39 IHUIIUU VI h39VIuIIVII Transitional forms are evidence of evolutionary change 2 Controversies over the interpretation of fossil data a uatlng or IOSSiIS b Do fossils really show transitional forms a b 0 h39luullub VI U39VIuIIVII mm Humems cm ulna used Mime Comparative anatomy All mammals evolved from common ancestor Humems um FhaVangas Hummus Dxm ghxunnJahM lHyssun u Auwum 511qu ID VI H39VIHLIVII Comparative anatomy Analoqous structures function but are stru uv quotN h39luulluu VI U39VIHIIVII convergent evolution Unrelated organisms evolve similar adaptive characteristics Dolphin Shark wnmmmvalNam ma h39IUUIIUU VI U39VIUIIIIVII Com arative anatom vestigial Structu res s lamander These vestigial bones are similar in structure to those of the salamander but serve no function All three animals inherited the nones rrom a common ancestor h I lhll u a VI brunt1le Comparative embryology gnu C39I UV 1 IIml 39139 l w I l u I I I 1quot one another in early development with the development of a tail and gill arches Fish Snake Chicken Mouse Human h39 IUBI IUB VI Comparative biochemistry and molecular biology All cells have DNA RNA ribosomes the same 20 amino acids and use ATP as an energy carrier h39VIHLIVII Organism Number of Amino Acid Differences from Humans v lynx I um Jf 39 39v IVII I rrvllllla Ivuvl39 I 1 Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Pesticide resistance in insects Patterns in Different from original Darwin model Darwin described evolution as a slow 8 gradual process Evolution may occur more rapid than earlier thouaht Punctuated equilibrium Evolution does not always occur Patterns in Evolution daquot I v VlutIVI I Key concepts 1 The variations upon wnlcn natural selection works are produced by chance mutations that are well uclapted to a particularenvironment y Definitions organism s ability to surviw Adaptation trait that increases fitness and has evolved bv natural selection Adapt adaptation process of evolvim traits through natural selection that increaSe fitness trait ti at increases fitness through a particular function but has not evolved for that function an existing trait that is used for a new function 39 ents evolution of an optimal trait daquot I v VlutIVI I The processes of evolution select to a oarticular environment quotsuwival of the fittestquot These processes occur constantlv in all the species of life on Earth Ecoloav of Landscapes


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