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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christop Jacobs on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 320 at Colorado State University taught by Ruth Hufbauer in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see /class/210125/life-320-colorado-state-university in Life Science at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Termsconcepts Ecologythe science by which we study how organisms interact in and with the natural worlds Hypothesis a conjecture about or explanation proposed for a pattern or relationship in nature embracing a mechanism for its occurrence fact 7 an observation theory a well supported concept induction reasoning based on observations and making a hypothesis deduction AB and CB therefore AC basic laws and theories the scienti c processmethod the world is green hypothesisHSS the world is still green because terrestrial herbivores are kept in check by disease preadators and parasites correlation vs causation just because two variables are correlated does not imply they are the cause Exclosure keeping something out to study what would happen without that varibale microcosmmesocosm microcosm are small representations of an ecosystem Mesocosm are bigger UV radiationshort wavelength high frequency lt400nm damages cells and tissues PAR or photosynthetically active radiation or visible light400700 nm infrared radiationwavlenthg gt700 nm helps warm atmosphere greenhouse effect an increase in average global temperatures resulting from an increase in the concentration of C02 and other heat absorbing gases in the atmosphere see diagram biosphere allthe ecosystems on earth lithosphereearth s crust and uppermost mantle 39 J r39 t 39 39 J I J of all the water on earth like in the water cycle cryosphere the area on earth that has solid water ice solar equator the latitude immediately underneath the sun equator 0 degrees latitude intertropical convergence zone areas around the equator where winds from the north and south converge together adiabatic coolingdecrease in air temperature as is rises 10 degrees Celsius for every 1000 m trade windsprevailing winds that circle up or down from the equator historically allowing ship trading Hadley cell the circulation pattern of rising and falling air within the tropics Epilimnion the top most layer of a thermally stratified lake thermoclinean invisible blanket which separates the upper mixed layer from the calm deep water below of a body of water hypolimnion lowest layer of a lake coldest in summer and warmest in winter upwelling zone wind drives warm ocean waters away from continents and it is replaced with cold and nutrient rich water good for fisheries El Ni o sea surface does not upwell as much causing warmer temperatures higher water tempsmore rain caused by reversal of pressures ENSO el nino southern oscillation through the power of the snnl energy eonvergent evoluuonr slmllar appearanees but dlfferent hneages ean be eauseol by geographlcal pressures b de nes Lham7 eplphyte Barro Colorado IslmdrPanamalslandrlots ofecologlcal tests 50 ha forest dynaml plot Nrwot Rldge LTER hort Gra s Steppe LTER httoral zouerthe shallow zone on the eolge of alake where aquatae plants ean root anlmals phoncr azone where there ls sumerent llght for photosynthesrs aphotre mot enough hgnt for photosynethsrs n t t t t autochthonousr organre rnatenal that ongrnates from wrthrn the nverl e algae nenncrthe zone on the eontanental shelf hlgh m nutnents due to Wave rnnnng net eeosystern c enehangee gamlng earbon its 105mg earbon eeosystern resprratron RE NEPGPPrRe gross nmary produetaon GPP plant resprratron Ry net pnmary proolu tron NPP kn n GPP and Re know the relataonshrp between NEP net eeosystern c exchange and RE nrtrogen flxatlonr speerahzeolbaetena x lnorganl N to organlc forms txophlc levelsrdlfferent levels of the food cham olenrm eata onrbreaklng olown organre mtxogen from No3arnrnonra to NO Keehng euwe modem relatronshrp between atrnosphene co and tarne Atmosphene Carbun Dluxlde Mesrnrea st Mews lee Hews emquot amt rmmm he 14c m the atmosphere 14C in fossil fuels helps measure the amounts of fossil fuels in the air greenhouse effect global circulation model shows that global warming cannot be natural caused positive feedbackincreased timber harvestincreased crop yields in some areas reduced heating demand negative feedbackall hellreduced crop yield for most the world decreased water more vector borne diseases socioeconomic scenarios used by the IPCC A2 A1 B1 A2high pop growth and focus on personal wealth Al low pop rapid tech growth Bllove your neighbor Additional questions to think about What is the scientific method What steps are generally involved What are the three categories of radiation from the sun What happens to infrared radiation when it enters the atmosphere Visible light UV radiation What drives seasonality in the N and S hemispheres the tilt on the earths axis Photosynthesis what three things are needed for plants to make sugars Light C02 Water What are the products of that reactionsugars and oxygen Respiration energy yielding reaction that gives off of C02 Do plants respire Where do plants get their C02 Climate diagrams what can they tell you Be able to draw a cold deserttemperate grassland biome 7 the biome we have here just NE of town 7 and one other of your choice but not tropical rain forest Be able to draw a climate diagram with the correct axes units labeled Months on X axis always start with winter What drives variation in primary production Given the data on pools and uxes be able to draw a basic N or C cycle as a box and arrow diagram Given a C or N diagram be able to interpret what is happening 7 be able to calculate net ecosystem production turnover time for pools in steady state Be able to calculate net ecosystem production given data on C exchange in light and dark Be able to interpret what the numbers mean particularly what positive or negative mean What is steady state What is turnover time Know how to calculate it What is the global average C02 concentration in the atmosphere in 2011 What was it prior to major human activites How do we know that humans have caused the increase in C02 in the atmosphere since the 1850s Why is there such strong variation in atmospheric C02 through the year ie why does the Keeling curve not just a smooth curve but a zig zag Why is it significant that the 14C content of the atmosphere is declining What does that mean Why is it happening About how much 14C do fossil fuels have Human activities emit about 6 GT of C02 into the atmosphere Where does it go in roughly what proportions How does the greenhouse effect work What is the difference between climate and weather What is a global circulation model Which explain the data better ithose incorporating natural forcings only or those using both natural and anthrophogenic forcings What are the projected positive and negative impacts of climate change If you were to vote on adoption of some of the approaches that could reduce C03e emissions what two would you support and why