Fashion Industries AM 101
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tyree Rutherford on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AM 101 at Colorado State University taught by Carol Engel-Enright in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/210134/am-101-colorado-state-university in Business at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
1 11 7 Use of materials in ABC Delong ch 6 Criteria for evaluating quality of design 0 Good design should be congruent with or express the material from which it was created 0 It should have aesthetically pleasing form Sources of visual structuring 0 Surface layout light and shadow Layout structuring o Involves 3 dimensional variation in the way surfaces appear 0 Determined by the actual physical design of the garment o EX Garment pattern pieces and how they are assembled Surface structuring o The variation of the 2 dimensional fabric surface 0 EX Print design weave knit embellishment Light and shadow o The differing types of illumination of the environment as it interacts with the Draping o A method of pattern drafting which involves the process of manipulating materials on a dress form to derive the garment pattern Sewing 0 To create gathers bending to create folds and creasing to create edges like tucks or pleats Pressing 0 Using heat to establish creases folds bulges and other shapes in the garment Cutting and joining of at shapes 0 A seam resulting from the jointing of two cut pieces can create a 3D shape and affect the structure by in uencing line in the ABC Layout Structure 0 When a woven fabric is used in layout structuring the silhouette is affected by the placement of the grain of the fabric on the body A fabric has 3 possible grains or directions 0 Walp vertical or lengthwise 0 Fill horizontal or cross grain o Bias diagonal grain o Bias is the diagonal grain Fabric has the most stretch on this grain so items cut on the bias will appear to hug the body closely o Bias cut dresses were very popular in the 1920 s and 30 s Fabric Affects Layout Structure 0 Hand 7 refers to how the fabric actually feels 0 Weight and drape 7 refer to how the fabric will hang and fall from the body 0 The hand weight and drape of the fabric in uences the use within the ABC Surface Structuring Small protrusions on a fabric an create a micro surface Size or scale of a surface shape is in uential in the ABC as it relates to the size of the human body The viewer is directed depending on the nature of the shapes to view horizontally vertically or on the diagonal A onecolor surface can interact with the ABC Combinations of color in patterns can direct our viewing When 2 or 3 different colored fabrics are combined to create a spatial arrangement it is called colorblocking The characteristics fabrics have as 2 dimensional surfaces of the ABC There are many different types of fabrics Prints can have visual depth The motifs can create figureground separation or figure ground integration Light and Shadow Structuring The re ective character of a fabric surface helps to define it Fabric surfaces can range from dullmatte to shinyluminous The ability of fabric surfaces to carry light and shadow can be in uenced by the lightness or darkness value of their color Organizing Factors in Apparel Design The Visual Organizing Process Steps in the Organizing Process 1 Visually scan the whole 2 Determine how many centers of focus there are 3 Examine the following Viewing path The space ofthe ABC The point of entry visually Function of parts Organizing Factors Gestalt Principles of Organization Similarity Proximity Closure Continuation Process of Viewing the ABC 0 Simultaneous viewing when the immediate whole is simplest to view 0 Successive viewing looking at the entire ABC the viewer may feel some aspects or parts are dominate and some are subordinate o Separated viewing parts are more independent and give parttowhole impression Viewing the ABC 0 Viewing Priority what you notice first 0 Focus If an area or part is different from what surrounds it focus is created Part Modi ers 0 Number The importance of a part changes with increase in number 0 The maximum number of units we can see at one time is 7 Size Parts may vary in size in relation to each other and in comparison to the body Similarity in size is a factor in grouping Direction how is the eye directed Horizontal vertical or diagonal Visual Weight symmetrical or asymmetrical balance Spatial Positioning parts can group on one or several levels One level means all parts seem to be equidistant from the observer 1129 Characteristics of materials Plasticity o The capacity to be molded o The ability to hold a shape once its been molded usually through hardening 0 Metal soft if heated Pliability o The capacity to be easily bent folded twist stretch manipulated Malleability o Refers to manipulation through the use of tools Tensile strength 0 The amount of pulling or bending that is required to break a material Flexibility o The capacity of a material to be bent twisted or turned without breaking Rigidity o Objects that are rigid can be made exible by soaking or oiling 0 Ex Bent wood Solidity o Combines rigidity and mass Wood Inlay 0 Small pieces of wood or different grains laid onto a wooden backing to form a patterned oor or furniture surface Hard woods 0 Come from deciduous trees trees that drop Maple oak walnut mahogany cherry pear Difficult to carve but takes fine detail without splintering Widely used for furniture and ooring Soft wood 0 Come from coniferous evergreen tress o Redwood pine cedar spruce douglass r 0 Less expensive 0 Used for outdoor decks don t break down in the winter furniture exterior siding Plywood o Laminated wood for the purpose of strength and rigidity o Composed of 3 to 5 layers in which grain alternates at right angles 0 Get more strength 0 Provides greater strength that could be found in a single board of the same thickness 0 Less expensive that regular solid boards Metal 0 Can be hammered stretched shaped and cast 0 Wealth is associated with owning precious metals 0 Gold silver 0 Cast 0 Melted and poured into molds o 0 Alloy o A metal is mixed with other stronger metals 0 Plating o Fusing a layer of metal onto another stronger metal using heat 0 Look like gold Copper 0 One of the first metals to be used 0 Only nonprecious metal to be found in its pure state as a mineral o Corrosion resistant water resistant C Conducts heat electricity well 0 Used for coins 0 Very malleable to heal Tin 0 Another ancient metal 0 Used to be used to make tin cans which are now made of aluminum Iron 0 Tools 0 Wrought iron 0 Cast iron 0 Before mechanization the town blacksmith made all the items the community would need of iron Aluminum 0 Not discovered until 1825 0 Now known as the most abundant metal in the earths crust 0 Good strength O 0 Alloys Light weight High conductivity of heat electricity Pewter 0 Made primarily of tin and lead 0 Soft gray color made it a substitute for the more expensive silver 0 Pewter items were commonly used as household containers in medieval Europe and ancient Rome Bronze 0 Alloy of copper and tin 0 During the Bronze age this metal was used for cutting tools and weapons 0 Used by ancient civilizations for coins and artwork 0 Chinese revered bronze and used it for sacri cial offerings 0 Used for Japanese temple bells due to its ability for a rich tone 0 Used for cast sculpture Brass 0 Lighter and less durable than bronze 0 Used a lot in Orient and Middle East 0 Alloy of copper and zinc o More yellowish than copper 0 Will take on high polish very shiny Steel 0 Most widely known alloy of modern day 0 Made of iron and carbon 0 Used for buildings transportation systems homes furniture Stone 0 From earth 0 Very durable 0 Ex Granite J marble J jade 39 39 J carnelian quartz agate and onyx o Precious stones diamond ruby emerald sapphire Concrete 0 Started as a replacement for stone 0 Is a mixture of cement sand stone and water 0 Most widely used construction material in the US today 0 Used for highways dams bridges buildings Bone and ivory 0 Material from animals 0 Can come from whale bone or elephant tusks 0 Not widely used today due to its concerns for exploitation of the animals Clay ceramics 0 Residual Remains in the place in which it is formed 0 Sedimentary Carried by wind and water to be deposited somewhere else Earthenware 0 Fires at lowest temperature range of 2000 degrees 0 Coarse and porous 0 Never completely water proof Stoneware 0 Fires at a middle range of temperature 2500 degrees Fahrenheit 0 Clay is light gray or tan color 0 Durable 0 Cannot go in dishwasher microwave o Porcelain 0 Fires at highest temperature range 3000 degrees 0 Made from very pure white clay 0 Extremely hard and glossy when red Glass 0 Main ingredient is silica pure sand 0 Most glass is manufactured 0 Lead glass 0 Known as crystal 0 Borosilicate glass 0 Highly resistant to heat and temperature changes 0 Fused silica Fiber 0 One of the most ancient material of design 0 De ned as a thread or something capable of being spun into thread and is associated with woven fabrics 0 Cotton 0 Most valuable and widely used 0 Each strand has natural twist that makes cotton strong and resilient o Linen 0 Made from ax plant 0 Conducts heat better than cotton 0 Wool o Comes from various types of sheep 0 Made of keratin like human hair 0 Has a twisted cell structure which causes the fiber to interlock during spinning or weaving Synthetic fibers 0 Rayon o 1910 by Dupont 0 developed to replace silk 0 called artificial silk 0 Nylon 0 1935 by Dupont 0 First synthetic widely used in textile manufacturing 0 Polyester 0 Widely used with cotton to reduce wrinkles Plastic 0 Thermoplastic 0 Can be softened and re softened inde nitely by the the application of heat and pressure 0 Thermosetting o The plastic goes through a chemical change during processing and cannot be modi ed again when exposed to heat or pressure 1 206 Bevlin ch 1 l Delong 68 Surrealism 0 Dictionary Pure psychic automatism by which one proposes to express either verbally or writing or by any other manner the real functioning of thought Automatism 0 Dictionary suspension of the conscious mind to release unconscious images Surrealism 0 Based on the belief in the importance of dreams and in the disinterested play of thought day dreaming Believed that the horrors of WWI were the logical conclusion of the industrial revolution and the rational mind Dream states were the natural remedy or solution Through the practice of dream analysis the surrealists believed that the origins of imagination and creativity could be accessed The radical aim of surrealism was to revolutionize human experience including its personal cultural social and political aspects Surrealism refers to a range of creative acts of revolt and efforts to liberate the imagination Salvador Dali 0 19041989 0 Born in Spain 0 Considered one of he most important painters of the 20Lh century 0 Also was a sculptor film maker and photographer 0 Friends with Picasso and miro Rene Magritte 0 18981967 0 Born in Belgium worked as poster and advertisement designer 0 Most in uential painters of the 201h century 0 Excellent technician and typically he juxtaposed ordinary objects in an unusual context this gives new meanings to familiar things Realistic use of objects for purposes other than their original intent Not matter how closely a painter comes to depicting an item accurately it is always just an image of the item never the real thing 0 My painting is visible images which conceal nothing the evoke mystery 0 Makes the viewer ask what does this mean Max Ernst 189 1 1976 Born in Germany Associated with surrealism dadaism and abstract expressionism Married 5 times 1918 Luise Straus 1927 Marie Berthe Aurenche 1941 Leonora Carrington 1942 Peggy Guggenheim 1946 Dorothea OOOOO Jean Miro 1 893 1983 Painter ceramist and sculptor to the surrealist style Organic forms and attened picture planes drawn with a sharp line Marc Chagall 1887 1985 Russian Jewish painter born in Belarus Associated with surrealism dadaism and abstract expressionism I work in any medium that likes me at the moment Painted large scale projects involving public spaces 0 Palais Garnier Opera House in Paris Chase Tower Plaza in Chicago Metropolitan Opera House in NYC Hadassah Hospital in Jerusalem 000 12 08 Abstract expression 1946 1960s Was an American post WW2 art movement First speci cally American Movement to achieve worldwide in uence It put in NYC at the center of the art world a position formally lled by Paris This movement has an image of being rebellious anarchic and emotionally intense Paintings in this movement were usually very large and required careful planning Maj or centers of style were NYC and San Francisco Attracted the attention of the CIA in the early 1950s 0 Saw it as means of promoting the USA as a haven of free thought and free markets To challenge the socialism and communism in Europe during the Cold War 0 CIA nanced the promotion with money Reaction and rebellion against this expressionism helped form the pop art movement which includes artists such as Andy Warhol Roy Lichtenstein and Jasper Johns 0 Mark Rothko 0 Jane Fr 0 Born in Russia into a Jewish family Was a pharmacist and an intellectual Father died leaving the family to work odd jobs to survive Attended public high school then went to Yale for one year on a scholarship Moved to NYC in 1923 20 years old Began painting then taught at the Center Academy in painting and sculpture Changed his name to from Rothkovich to Rothko In 1938 he and a group of artists formed the Federation of Modern Painters and sculptures 0 Their agenda was to keep art free from political propaganda Intention as a painter was to relieve modern mans fundamental spiritual emptiness Considered himself as a replenishing resource for an era of spiritual decay His paintings are best viewed as a transition between surrealism and abstraction Believed in multiform paintings to possess their own life force ank 1918 1986 Born in Baltimore Maryland Original training was in commercial art and fashion illustration Integrated her life as a wife and mother with life as a painter Mixed media artist and sculptor Began painting seriously when she was 22 in 1940 Work is stylistically abstract expressionist with primary inspiration drawn from natural landscape practically aerial views of landscape Worked with a mixture ofpebbles sand Most famous for her aperature paintings feature various hole shapes with painted canvas layers below giving the impression of a view into an unfamiliar interior space Jason Pollock 1912 1956 Born in Wyoming and grew up in California then moved to NYC First solo art show held in 1943 in NYC at Peggy Guggenheims Art of this Century Gallery Began his drip paintings in 1945 Do not have positive or negative space 0 Managed to free line from its function of describing or bounding shapes and figure Painting No 5 1948 became the worlds most expensive painting for 140000000 Changed painting to a progressive purification in form and climination of historical content Willem de Kooning 1904 1997 Born in the Netherlands 1926 he came to US eventually settled in New Jersey supporting himself as a house painter 0 Early work re ects in uence from Picasso and Miro both of them of whom used bio morphic forms for powerful effect 0 1950s taught at Black Mountain College in North Carolina and at Yale School of Art Helen Frankenthaler o 1928 Is thought of as an American post painterly abstraction artist Born in NYC into a wealthy family Career launched in 1952 with the exhibition of the painting Mountains and Sea Pioneered the soak stain technique of painting directly on unprepared canvas with oil paint 0 Allowing the paint to sink into the canvas instead of sitting on top Robert Rauschenburg o 1925 0 Born in Texas educated at Kansas City Art Institute Has said that Albers rigid discipline and sense of method inspired him to do exactly the reverse of what Albers taught him Stated that he wanted to work in the gap between art and life Paintings incorporate found objects and found images as well He used silkscreen method to transfer photographic images to the canvas His unpainterly objects such as a bed quilt and a stuffed goat 0 Breaking down the boundaries between painting and sculpture
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