Social Work with Selected Populations
Social Work with Selected Populations SOWK 371B
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Axel Anderson on Monday September 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOWK 371B at Colorado State University taught by Leslie Rudner in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/210143/sowk-371b-colorado-state-university in School Of Social Work at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/21/15
Probation What Works What are the links between what we do and best practices or evidence based practice 4 Common Factors to Change and Degree Of Influence Lambert 1992 Client Factors 40 Assessment actuarial and informal Risk to reoffend Criminigenic Need Responsivity Strengths Risk Principle Supervision and treatment focused on higher risk positively impacts recidivism Smaller caseloads Well developed case plans Cognitivebehavioral interventions Supervision and treatment resources focused on lower risk don t increase positive outcomesmay make worse Need Address needs most closely related to criminal behavior criminogenic Values attitudes beliefs impulsivity peers substance abuse personality family Humane just ethical and efficient delivery Multiple needs targeted Consider Maslow s Hierarchy Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Safety and Security Social Affiliation Esteem SelfActualization Responsivity Culture gender motivation development level learning styles Match treatment type to offender Match style goals and methods of communication with level of motivation Strengths Internal Factors hope optimism skills interests prosocial values aspirations past success External Factors helpful individuals family teachers neighbors friends etc employment community memberships Chance Factors Abusive person leaves observes experience of others unexpected invitation to participate Relationship Factors 30 Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Explore overcome ambivalence Give and build respect Dialogue clarification question Enhance perceived empathy Probationer s perception of relationship Foster trust and selfexpression Congruent with perceptions of self problem change Probationer s goals methods tasks to repair harm Officer selfawareness Past experiences and personal issues which remain unresolved Personal biases attitudes values and beliefs that you hold Personal limitations likes and dislikes in working with probationers Hope and Expectancy 15 Convey an attitude of hope without minimizing the harm caused Focus on the present and future instead of the past Increase positive reinforcement Engage ongoing support in natural communities Strength rather than deficit focused Skill building action oriented Model and Technique 15 Model Community based interventions Shortjailprison sentences have no impact on recidivism Jail sentences over 2 years increase recidivism by 7 Overall punishment produced a 3 increase in recidivism Community programs produce 2 to 3 times greater reduction in recidivism than prison programs Direct intensive programming to high risk cases Load services at the beginning of sentence Intensive services of shorter duration Integrate treatment into full sentencesanction process Measure relevant processespractices and provide feedback Technique Structured behavioral social learning and cognitive behavioral approaches Anticriminal modeling positive reinforcement Concrete problem solving Identifying triggers and associated safety planning Refusal skills Craving management Decision making skills Impulse control Where to go what to do who to see References Clark Michael 2004 Lambert 1992 Nissen and Clark 2002 Miller and Rollnick 1991 Horvath 1995 Orlinsky et a 1994 Travis Jeremy 2004 Andrews Don 2004 Crookall and Ingstrup 2004 Miller amp Sanchez 1994 Conoley et a 1998 Scheel et a 1998 Assay and Lambert 1999 Miller and Rollnick 1991 Smith Goggin Gendreau 2002 Van Dieten Marilyn 1997 Friedlander amp Ward 1984 Bandura 1995 National Institute of Corr Stenquist Marguerite Juveniles with Sexual Behavior Problems Evaluation and Treatment by Kris Ullstrup Evaluation When how and what are the implication When a juvenile age 10 Age 10 SOMB Juvenile standards DPS DCJ The evaluation of juveniles who have committed sexual offenses has the following purposes To assess overall risk to the community To provide protection for victims and potential victims To provide written clinical assessment of a juvenile s strengths risks and de cits To identify and document treatment and developmental needs To determine amenability for treatment To identify individual differences potential barriers to treatment and static and dynamic risk factors To make recommendations for the management and supervision of the juvenile To provide information which can help identify the type and intensity of community based treatment or the need for a more restrictive setting Each stage of the evaluation process includes an assessment StrengthsRisksdeficits in Cognitive functioning Personality mental disorders mental health Social developmental history Developmental competence Current individual functioning current family functioning Sexual evaluation Delinquency and conductbehavioral issues Assessment of risk Community risks and protective factors Awareness of victim impact External relapse prevention system including informed supervision Amenability to treatment TreatmentRisk Reduction Traditional Psychotherapy is not sufficient for sex offender specific treatment The content of sex offense specific treatment focuses on decreasing deviance and dysfunction and improving overall health with the goal of decreased risk Treatment What are the Goals Consent vs lack of consent Sex history disclosure Sexual Abuse negative behavior Cycle Covert Sensitization Cognitive Restructuring Assertiveness anger reduction Selfawarenessself esteem Victim impact Relapse prevention Monitoring and Containment Polygraphs instant offense Monitoring and sexual history Plethysmographs erection response Not used with women Abel Assessments objective Questions used for women When should the MultiDisciplinary Team MDT refer for a polygraph Per standard 7100 the following is the criteria set forth for the use of polygraph examination 1 chronological age of 14 or older 2 minimum functional ageequivalency of 12 years and 3 the juvenile must also have the following abilities 0 Capacity for abstract thinking Capacity for insight Capacity to understand right from wrong Ability to tell the truth from lies Ability to anticipate rewards and consequences for behavior Consistent orientation to date time and place OOOOO stages stage 1 feeling down stage 2 needing power stage 3 planning and abuse stage 4 feeling guilty Thoughts Feelings Behaviors Cognitive emotive behavioral problems Lack of empathy not seeing someone as a personobjectification when someone is victimized this objectification might become internalized Grooming how do I get to them Grooming the DUPE Factor Grooming is establishing trust with and ulterior motive to get what the offender wants Grooming has serious consequences for the person who was duped Causation Theory Sociological Theories Differential Association Sutherland 1924 A social leaming Theory with 9 Principles Criminal Behavior is learned not innate It is leaned in interaction with other persons in process of communicating The learning process is active and open ended Crime is learned principally within intimate person groups When learned not only techniques but also motives drives rationalizations and attitudes People learn motives and attitudes towards the law that are either positive or negative They learn these primary and intimate social groups When cultural con ict between a behavior and legal codes crime will occur when more de nitions favorable to law breaking than law abiding behavior Differential association varies in frequency duration priority and intensity 0 Frequency refers to how often learning takes place and duration refers to how long the learning episodes are The term priority is used to specify the importance of age in which criminal learning began Presumably if person is exposed to criminal behavior at an early age then the greater the impact it will have on their longterm behavior Sutherland uses the term intensity to refer to the importance or the prestige of the learning source Learning criminal behavior involves the same mechanisms as other types of learning Criminal behavior is not necessarily an expression of needs and values Not all homeless people for example steal in order to eat Gang theory or Group Delinquency thrasher 1927 Thrasher systematically analyzed gang activity and behavior He did not propose gangs as a cause of delinquency but as a signi cant contributing factor Organization and protection of the group can facilitate crime Ganges originates during adolescent years from spontaneous playgroups Transformation into gangs results from con ict with other groups Gangs protect individual rights and satisfy needs which the environmentfamily cannot Gang s progress in an environment that is permissive lacks controls and facilitates gang activity Another contributor is an environment where adult crime has individuals with high status SelfRole Theory Mead 1932 Expands on Sutherland s differential association because Mead helps explain why some people develop certain behavior roles while others don t from same environment He agrees with concept that we learn criminal behavior from exposure to it but becoming criminal require more than association The associating have to be meaningful to the individual and supportive of a role and self concept the person wants to be committed to Contributed to symbolic Interactions Theory 1992 that views the social act defined as interaction with 2 or more people as unit of analysis Delinquency is a social interaction where players take on roles based on selfperception Definition of self based on process involving a other actual appraisal ofus b person s perception of how other see us and c how we see ourselves Labeling Theory Lemert 1951 Labeling perspective emphasizes explaining why certain laws are passed and enforced and why police and court personnel officially process some people not others As part of his focus on the reactions to people who break the law Lemert proposed that the reactions are in themselves causes of delinquency Individuals commit acts of Primary Deviance fro reasons defined by other theories When caught and labeled delinquent by police and court personnel it changes the offender s selfconcept Once labeling occurs and others react to the offender as delinquent the offender begins to define self as delinquent The leads to acts of Secondary deviance This concept maintains that people act in accord with their selfconcepts When one defines self as delinquent that person will act as such Labeling perspective implicates police and court efforts to control delinquency as a negative in uence Criticism it ignores offender s ability to reject labels and exercise free will Contradictory research some show no affect of court process as in uencing youths while others say those not yet seriously involved in delinquent behavior with label develop a delinquent self concept This perspective has forced system to examine society s reactions to people who break the law Containment Theory Reckless 1961 He proposed that offending behavior is interplay between 2 forms of control intemal and external containments This theory proposes that society produces pulls and pushes towards offending and law abiding behavior Inner containments self components inner strength of one s personality Good self concept strong ego well developed conscience high sense of responsibility high frustration tolerance Other containments social environment Belonging identification with group effective supervision cohesion among group members togetherness opportunity to achieve limits discipline reinforcement of goals Internal pushesrestlessness discontent rebellion anxiety hostility External pulls deviant peers gang membership pornography External pressures adverse living conditions poverty unemployment insecurity and inequality Drift Theory Matza 1964 He rejects overly deterministic approach of environmental theories because they fail to consider free will He acknowledges that emotional and environmental factors contribute to crime but states that people aren t totally free classical or totally constrained positive Matza maintains that everyone is somewhere between being controlled and being free that everyone drifts between these two states Law abiding youth under certain circumstances can drift into delinquency normal convention controls become neutralized but it is not irreversible He states that free will is a factor that can prevent crime as well as continue its occurrence Techniques of neutralizationSykes and Matza they reject the notion that delinquents maintain a different set of values that dominant culture They maintain that delinquents develop a special set of justifications for their actions when such behavior violates social norms These techniques of neutralization allow offenders to neutralize and suspend their commitment to societal value providing them with the freedom to commit crimes They propose 5 techniques 0 Denial of responsibility not my fault victim of circumstances they made me do it o Denial of injury no one was hurt they can afford it o Denial of the victim I didn t hurt anyone they deserved it o Condemnation of the condemner they are hypocrites they did worse things victim reacting out of spite 0 Appeal to higher loyalties my friends depended on me had no choice Social Control Theory Hirschil969 Examined why some people don t break the law His social control theory argues that everyone has the potential to be law violating however fear deters most people because they do not want to jeopardize the social bonds that they have with others Drifters for example have the greatest likelihood of committing crime for they have few social bonds at stake Hirschi posited that there are four aspects of social bonds attachment commitment belief and involvement Example an adolescent will be less likely to engage in criminal behavior if attached to his parents if he commits time and effort to conventional lines of behavior and if he believes in community values In addition he will probably be involved in school activities thereby leaving little time to engage in criminal behavior There are some findings that support this hypothesis Adolescents that are strongly attached to their parents have been found to be less likely to engage in criminal behavior In addition it has been found that children are less likely to be delinquent if they spend a great amount of time doing homework Rational choice perspective Clarke and Comish 1993 one of rational causation theories routineActivity approach Different set of assumptions than positive theories Recognizes the mundane opportunistic and rational nature of offending as opposed to driven by abnormal motivations Focuses on similarities of criminals and noncriminals and rational adaptive aspects of offending Focuses less on offender s values and attributes and more on situational factors that in uence commission of criminal event Also emphasize fundamental distinction between criminal involvement and criminal events Criminal events usually shorter process and involves immediate limited amount of information Usually restricted to speci c circumstance and situation Criminal involvementdecisionsprocesses by which person initially decides to offend as well as to continue or stop Usually diverse information and longer multistep processes This perspective requires different explanatory models for specific types of crime Sociological Theories commonalities Rudner Criminality is a learned behavior It is learned within one s social environment The perceived benefits to the individual outweigh the consequences One s degree of attachment to social norms bonding can impede offending behavior Opportunities for success is a significant factor one s neighborhood regarding stability economics social structure can facilitate or prevent crime These theories often overlap and no one correct theory For any offender there are often aspects from a lot of different theories that causeexplain offending behavior Sociological causation theory implication for practice 9 So what are the practice implication of these theories Socio 39 change 39 39 education job skills employment social opportunities Create opportunities for success in community society Establishment of prosocial bondsfamily relatives religious affiliations pro social friends
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